Abstract: The world is in a new era of rapid development of science and technology revolution and industrial change. Agricultural science and technology innovation is changing rapidly, which poses unprecedented challenges to agricultural science and technology in China. Based on the strategic demand of accelerating the self-reliance of agricultural science and technology in the new stage, this paper analyzed the connotation and characteristics of agricultural modernization, discussed the major challenges, and provided some scientific and technological engineering construction suggestions for the agricultural science and technology independence and self-reliance deployment. Results show that agricultural science and technology modernization is in the strategic core position of agricultural modernization and rural modernization. Facing the major challenge of ensuring food security in the post-pandemic era, China needs to invest more on the basic research of agriculture, to improve the original innovation ability of agriculture, to break through the core technology of biological breeding, to forge a great power in modern seed industry science and technology, to break through the key technologies of intelligent agriculture, to build a powerful country of digital agricultural science and technology, to break through the key technologies of green agriculture, and to construct the ecological safety agricultural technology system, and to break through the food industry technology and building the nutritious and health agricultural technology system. Thus, the suggestions include: improving the policy guarantee system of agricultural science and technology innovation, encouraging the input intensity of agricultural science and technology innovation, cultivating and supporting agricultural innovation enterprises, strengthening the talent construction in agricultural science and technology, accelerating the application of agricultural scientific and technological achievements, increasing the deployment and construction of strategic scientific and technological forces of national agricultural industry, and restructuring the national modern agricultural science and technology innovation system.
Abstract: The coupling and coordination of agricultural modernization and urban-rural integration can promote the two-way flows of urban and rural elements and build a new urban-rural relationship. Based on the indicator system of agricultural modernization and urban-rural integration and the combined weighting method, this paper calculated agricultural modernization and urban-rural integration indexes of 31 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) from 2004 to 2018 in China, and quantitatively analyzed the coupling relationship of the two systems by the coupling coordination degree model. In addition, this paper further explored the dominant and interaction factors driving the coupling and coordination of two systems by Geodetector. Results show that the spatial layout of provincial agricultural modernization presents the characteristics of “declining echelon, east-west differentiation, and central polarization”, and the spatial layout of provincial urban-rural integration presents the characteristics of “three-pole driving, discontinuously differentiation, and overall low”. The degree of the coupling and coordination between the two systems has been improved from a mild imbalance to a barely coordination, showing a declining characteristic of “high in the east and low in the southwest” in space. Leading factors like the dual contrast coefficient, urbanization rate, urban-rural compulsory education investment ratio, urban-rural unemployment insurance rate, urban-rural income ratio, non-agricultural and agricultural employment ratio, and agricultural electrification are driving the coupling and coordination of agricultural modernization and urban-rural integration. The interaction between industrial structure optimization and other sub-systems will enhance the coupling and coordination as well as the construction of modern agricultural economic system, but the leading factors that promote the coupling and coordination of agricultural modernization and urban-rural integration in the eastern, central, western and northeastern regions show heterogeneous and periodic changes. Therefore, to enhance the coupling and coordination of regional agricultural modernization and urban-rural integration, this paper provides the following suggestions: optimizing the industrial structure, building a modern agricultural economic system, and promoting the equalization of urban and rural public services.
Abstract: Studying the vulnerability of rural industrial development from the perspective of farmers is different from traditional studies. Based on relevant vulnerability theories and combining farmers’ subjective feelings towards industrial development with various influencing factors of their livelihood, this paper developed a vulnerability assessment index system incorporating three aspects of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptability to assess the vulnerability of five villages in Qingyuan County of Liaoning Province and discussed its influencing factors. Results show that the overall vulnerability of rural industrial development in Qingyuan County is at the moderately vulnerable level (0.479). Different villages show different levels of vulnerability. The vulnerability in Chuanzigou is the lowest (0.397) because of its strong adaptability and low exposure. In terms of factor analysis, the difference of income security factor among villages is the most obvious: Chuanzigou village has the lowest income security among all the villages. Per capita income of rural households has the greatest impact on the vulnerability. Environmental risk and aging rate also have great impacts on vulnerability. Among different industries, cash crop planting has the most obvious pulling effect on farmers per capita income, which can reduce vulnerability of rural industrial development in Qingyuan County. To reduce the vulnerability, this paper suggests: expanding Chinese herbal medicine industry to promote farmers’ income, focusing on environmental protection practices to retain the “lucid waters and lush mountains”, and addressing human capital shortage problems to promote human capital.
Abstract: Objectively evaluating the advantages of agricultural development and taking relevant measures are crucial to promoting high-quality and efficient development of agriculture, as well as to all-round revitalization of rural areas. This paper constructs a comprehensive index system of agricultural development advantage degree from six dimensions, including natural endowment, agricultural production environment, agricultural quality benefit, management and organization benefit, ecological coordination ability, and industrial development potential, to evaluate and reveal the county agricultural development dominance and its spatial characteristics in Guangdong Province in 2019 by the entropy weight method and machine learning neural network algorithm. Results show that: the spatial difference of the comprehensive advantage of agricultural development is obvious, which is the most prominent in the Pearl River Delta plain. Among the six dimensions of agricultural development advantages, the natural endowment, agricultural production environment, and ecological coordination ability are the main contributing factors. As far as the spatial distribution direction of six dimensions, the natural endowment and management organization benefit are the best in southwest Guangdong, the deviation trend of southwest is intensified, the agricultural production environment is the best in northeast Guangdong, and the industrial development potential is the best in southeast Guangdong. The overall spatial distribution of agricultural quality benefit and ecological coordination ability is similar as agricultural development comprehensive advantage, but the effect of quality benefit on the comprehensive development of agriculture no longer plays a key role. As to the advantage of ecological coordination ability, it is relatively prominent in the south central and northeast of Guangdong Province. According to the results above, this paper suggests that modern urban agricultural area, efficient agricultural area, characteristic agricultural area, and ecological agricultural area should be formed respectively in the Pearl River Delta plain, southwest, southeast and northeast of Guangdong, respectively, to promote the high-quality development of agriculture.
Abstract: High-quality development of agriculture is an important goal of agricultural supply-side reform. Based on a provincial panel data from 2000 to 2018, this paper constructed an evaluation index system of the high-quality development of agriculture from four dimensions of economic benefit, ecological environment, agricultural modernization level, and rural development level to analyze the high-quality development of agriculture. In addition, this paper also examined the relationship between rural infrastructure and the high-quality development of agriculture by a system generalized method of moments. Results show that the level of high-quality development of agriculture in various provinces and cities from 2000 to 2018 has been steadily improved. And the effects of different rural infrastructure on the high-quality development of agriculture were obviously different. Among them, water conservancy and communication infrastructure had some significant positive effects on the high-quality development of agriculture and rural power and medical infrastructure significantly inhibited the high-quality development of agriculture. While transportation infrastructure had no impacts on it. Therefore, this paper provides the following suggestions to ensure the high-quality development of agriculture in China: strengthening the construction of water conservancy and communication infrastructure, enhancing the maintenance of electric power and medical infrastructure, and increasing investment in transportation infrastructure, especially in the central and western regions.
Abstract: With the increasing pressure on water resources, grain security under the constraint of water resources is getting more and more attention. To have a better understanding of the contradiction between grain production and water resources, this article analyzes the spatio-temporal distribution of national grain output and total water resources and utilizes the barycenter model to explore the evolution trend and the spatio-temporal coupling degree of grain production barycenter and water resources barycenter from 1998 to 2018 at the national and regional levels. Results show that 1) China’s grain production barycenter has moved 238.78 km to the northeast from 1999 to 2018 and has displayed a trend of northward movement in both national and regional levels. The barycenter of water resources is always located in the southwest of grain production barycenter, without a large range of movement; 2) at the national level, the spatial distance between the barycenter of grain production and water resources has increased, meaning the spatial overlap degree of the two elements has decreased, but the increasing trend of the spatial distance has been subtle in recent years. The average value of the changing consistency index of the two barycenters is -0.03, indicating a relatively low matching level, however the mean value is 0.14 from 2014 to 2018, indicating the coupling degree is slightly enhanced; and 3) at the regional level, combined with the spatial distance and the changing consistency index of the two barycenters, the spatiotemporal coupling degree is the strongest in the northeast and the southwest regions, while it is weaker in the northwest region. This paper implies that optimizing planning of water resources utilization pattern and improving the utilization efficiency of water resources in grain production would help alleviate the tense relationship between grain production and water resources.
Abstract: Yield gap reflects the increasing room for grain production and reducing the gap is an important way to increase grain yield. Analyzing the constraint factors of the yield gap can provide guidance for reducing yield gap and increasing grain output. Based on the statistical data of cities in Jiangsu Province from 2000 to 2018 and applying the boundary line analysis method, this paper analyzed the contribution rates and the optimal values of constraint factors. Results show that: 1) the average yield gap of grain production accounts for 23.47% and 64.05% of the sample’s highest yield and the average yield, respectively, indicating that there is a large room for improvement in grain yield in Jiangsu Province; 2) the key constraint factors for the yield gap include the multiple crop index, labor, and grain yields in southern, central, and northern Jiangsu; 3) the grain output is the highest when the multiple crop index is 1.6, the total mechanical power is 5.3 kW/hm2, and the fertilization intensity is 487.64 kg/hm2, which are the optimal value of factors of grain production. In addition, the fertilization intensity exceeds the warning line of fertilization, indicating that the agricultural fertilization efficiency is low in Jiangsu Province; and 4) it can increase grain yield by 30.3%, 17.73%, and 21.45%, while reducing the demand for farmland by 8.8%, 13.38% and 9.02% by converting yield gap in southern, central and northern Jiangsu, respectively. Therefore, to reduce the gap in grain output, to promote sustainable grain production, and to ensure grain security in Jiangsu Province, this paper provides the following policy suggestions: increasing the scale of multiple cropping of farmland, improving agricultural production conditions, strengthening the guidance of proper fertilizer application, and improving the level of mechanization.
Abstract: Water resources are the material necessity for human survival and development. The implementation of reasonable water resource ecological compensation mechanism plays an important role in promoting ecological protection and coordinating regional economy as well as the social development. Based on a data of 11 provinces and cities along the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2004 to 2018, this paper examined the ecological compensation efficiency of water resources in the Yangtze River Economic Belt based on the comprehensive performance, water footprint and gray water footprint of each province or city and analyzed the ecological compensation efficiency and the influencing factors by the sequential DEA-SBM method with dual-objective decision-making model. Results show that the Malmquist-Luenberger index, which reflects the changes of water resource ecological compensation efficiency in 11 provinces and cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, shows a “W” pattern with some fluctuations during 2005-2018. The overall pattern indicates that high level of the Malmquist-Luenberger index appears in the eastern region and low level in the central and western regions. Factors, including urban-rural consumption equity and water resource ecological protection, have significant positive impacts on the improvement of water resource ecological compensation efficiency in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Under the regulation of the green synergy level index, the improvement of productive investment and the equity index of urban-rural distribution can promote the improvement of water resource ecological compensation efficiency. Therefore, to improve the ecological compensation efficiency of water resources, this paper suggests three policy measures, including paying attention to the coordinated urban-rural development, strengthening the ecological civilization construction, and improving capital input structure.
Abstract: Socialized service is an important way to promote the organic connection between farmers and modern agriculture. Based on the data of the Survey on the development index of the New Type of Agricultural Business Entity in China, the paper examines the level of socialized service acquisition by farmers and the level of product quality-safety certification and analyzes the influence of socialized services on farmers’ behavior of quality-safety certification by the IVProbit model. Results show that the average number of social services that farmers obtain is 1.424, and the proportion of farmers who have passed at least one quality-safety certification is 8.5%. Farmers’ behaviors of certification are significantly promoted by socialized services with heterogeneity. Among different parts of socialized services, post-production services have the greatest impact, followed by the pre-production services and in-production services. For different types of farmers, the promotion of small-scale farms is greater than large-scale farms. Research also shows that it is an effective route for farmers’ certification behaviors promoted by socialized services to release constraints on household resource endowment with expand product markets. Therefore, this paper suggests: to promote the supply-side structural reform of socialized services, to implement the incentive policies for small-scale farms to obtain socialized services, and to perfect the influencing path of socialized services on farmers’ certification behaviors.
Abstract: As a typical ecological planting and breeding technology, integrated rice-crayfish farming technology can relieve the pressure on resources and environment and effectively increase farm income. Its popularization and sustainable development are important means to promote the transformation of green agricultural development in China. Based on a micro survey data of farmers in Hubei, Hunan and Anhui provinces, this paper analyzed the influences of government intervention and neighborhood effect on farmers’ willingness to continuously adopt integrated rice-crayfish farming technology and explored the interaction effect between the two by the Heckman two-stage model. Results show that farmers’ adoption rate of the integrated rice-crayfish farming technology is high, 86.67% of farmers with clear intention of continuous adoption. Research also finds that technology subsidies have significant positive impacts on farmers’ adoption behaviors, while propaganda policy and punishment measures have significant positive impacts on farmers’ willingness to continuous adoption of the technology. For the neighborhood effect, result shows that neighborhood communication has a significantly positive impact on farmers’ continuous adoption willingness and neighborhood demonstration has a significantly positive impact on farmers’ adoption behaviors. In terms of the impact on farmers’ sustainable adoption intention, the propaganda policy and neighborhood communication have a substitution effect between each other, and the punishment measures and neighborhood communication have a complementary effect. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the government intervention mechanism, to strengthen the communication and interaction between farmers, and to promote the continuous spread of the integrated rice-crayfish farming technology.
Abstract: The development of rural non-agricultural entrepreneurship not only improves rural household income and living standards, but also promotes the allocation and utilization of land resources, which has an impact on farmland transfer. Based on the data of China Household Finance Survey (CHFS) in 2015, this paper analyzed the impact of household’s non-agricultural entrepreneurship on farmland transfer-out by the Probit model and the Tobit model and further discussed the intermediary role of family insurance programs by constructing an intermediary effect model. Research results show that the proportion of non-agricultural entrepreneurship is 14.6%, not very high, and the participation rates of farmland transfer-out behavior and the average proportion of transfer-out scale are 17.4% and 14.4% respectively, at relatively low levels. Non-agricultural entrepreneurship has a significant role in promoting farmers’ farmland transfer-out behavior and scale. In addition, the analysis of heterogeneity shows that the impact intensity of non-agricultural entrepreneurship of young farmers is significantly higher than that of elderly farmers. Furthermore, non-agricultural entrepreneurship further promotes farmers’ farmland transfer-out behavior and scale by promoting their family participation in insurance programs. Family insurance participation plays a partial mediating role in the process of the impact of non-agricultural entrepreneurship on farmland transfer-out. Therefore, this paper suggests: to promote the transfer of agricultural labor force to non-agricultural work, to implement differentiated policy support and employment guidance based on the development characteristics of farmers and to improve farmers’ insurance participation rate by optimizing the rural security system.
Abstract: Returning rural migrants are a vital force to solve the problem of “who will produce grains in China” and to improve the organizational degree of China’s agriculture. The government is also vigorously publicizing and guiding migrant workers to return to their hometowns to engage in agriculture and to lead new agricultural cooperatives. Based on a large sample of national professional grain farmers in 2017 and applying the theory of new migration economics, this paper examined the impacts of non-farm work experience of rural migrants on their returning and becoming leaders of agricultural cooperatives by the binary models, the double robust modes, the multi-ordered models, the matching models, and other econometric models. Descriptive analysis shows that among all professional grain farmers, return migrants account for 23.66%, and leaders of agricultural cooperatives account for 24.59%. Among those returning migrant workers, 34.65% of those with non-farm work experiences serve as the leaders of agricultural cooperatives, while only 21.47% of those without non-farm work experiences serve as the leaders of agricultural cooperatives. Empirical estimation results show that compared with farmers without non-farming employment experiences, the probability of those with non-farming employment experiences being leaders of agricultural cooperatives is significantly higher by 6%. Returning migrant workers are nearly 1/4 more likely to be leaders of agricultural cooperative than their counterparts. The paper finds evidence of positive effect of non-farming work experience on being leaders of agricultural cooperatives. The mechanism analysis shows the improvement in human capital, agricultural production input, and government policy support are keys to incentivize returning migrant workers to become leaders of agricultural cooperatives. The government should encourage young farmers with low levels of human capital to go out for non-farming employment and accumulate personal capital through non-farm employment. The government should also attract and help returning migrant workers to better engage in agriculture and rural vitalization by playing their leading roles.
Abstract: With the elimination of absolute poverty, China is facing the challenge of alleviating relative poverty. It is crucial to develop digital inclusive finance to help reduce relative poverty. Based on a field survey data of 426 households in 3 counties and 9 villages in Ningxia and applying the entropy method and the A-F method, this paper analyzed the impacts of digital inclusive finance on multidimensional relative poverty of rural households and its influential mechanism by the Logit model and the mediation effect model. Results show that: Ningxia has basically eliminated the poverty (pin) on economic dimension, but there were serious relative poverty problems (kun), including health, education, drinking water safety, and toilets. Rural households have been partly involved in the settlement, savings, and credit services of digital inclusive finance, but their participation in deep financial services, such as Internet investment and Internet insurance, was still relatively low. Digital inclusive finance had a significant alleviating effect on relative poverty under different weights, and its poverty reduction effect was increasing with the improvement of deprivation dimension. Digital inclusive finance can alleviate relative poverty by improving farmers’ e-commerce willingness and behaviors, enhancing health awareness and promoting consumption. Therefore, to alleviate the relative poverty of rural households in Ningxia, this paper suggests: to pay attention to the improvement of farmers’ self-development ability and rural living standards, to deepen the depth of digital inclusive finance, and to give a full play to the role of digital inclusive finance in poverty reduction and agricultural assistance.
Abstract: The Qinghai Tibet Plateau is an important ecological protection area in China, and the study of the spatial evolution and driving factors of rural settlements in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is of great significance to the maintenance of ecosystem in China. Applying the GIS spatial analysis method and the landscape pattern index, this paper explored the spatial evolution characteristics and driving factors of rural settlements in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 1980 to 2015. Results show that: 1) the rural settlement land in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau shows an expanding trend, and the new rural settlement land mainly comes from the occupation of cultivated land, grassland and unused land; 2) during the study period, the patch shape of rural settlement land gradually tends to be irregular, the patch fragmentation decreases, and the continuity increases; 3) the characteristics of rural settlement agglomeration are obvious, and high-value agglomeration centers have been formed in the east and south of Qinghai Province and the south of Tibet respectively; and 4) the layout of rural settlements is mainly constrained by elevation and slope and affected by socio-economic factors. Transportation and urban development are important factors affecting the layout of rural settlements in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Therefore, duing the process of rural development on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, this paper suggests paying more attention to rationally planning rural residential land use, strictly controlling the ecological red line, relying on policy support to continuously optimize rural functions, and improving infrastructure construction to promote high-quality rural development in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
Abstract: The Agro-product Geographical Indication Brands(AGIB) plays a critical role in promoting the structural reform of the agricultural industry and implementing the strategy of rural revitalization. A large body of literature has focused on protecting intellectual property rights of the AGIB, extracting its economic value, and improving its competitiveness. However, inadequate attention has been paid to the spatial attributes of the AGIB. Therefore, this paper seeks to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the AGIB and its influencing factors by a mixture of spatial analysis, geographic detector, and qualitative analysis methods based on the Agro-product Geographical Indicator (AGI), Geographical Indicator (GI), and the Protected Geographical Indicator (PGI). Results show that 86.28% of the AGIB are distributed in the east of the Hu line and concentrated in the coastal areas and the Yangtze River Basin, which tends to overlap the T-shaped economic belt. The density of the AGIB shows significant spatial autocorrelation. The central and downstream areas of the Yangtze River are hot spots, such as Hubei, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, and Shanghai, whereas areas in Western China are cold spots (Xinjiang, Qinghai, and Tibet). In addition, the spatial distribution of the AGIB, such as vegetables, oils, and fruits, demonstrates a pattern which are adapt to the environment. Moreover, the heterogeneity of AGIB is affected by the social environment, natural environment, and local governance. The possible reason for this might be the interaction between the secondary industry and the railway density. Therefore, based on the analysis results, this paper provides some policy suggestions for regional cooperation of agricultural brand construction, spatial allocation of resource elements, and brand protection techniques to promote the progress of the Rural Revitalization and agricultural brand strategy.
Abstract: In the context of the rural ecological revitalization strategy, an in-depth investigation of the current spatial difference and its influencing factors of agricultural non-point source pollution is of great significance to the promotion of the modernization of the rural environmental governance system and governance capabilities. Based on the provincial panel data from 2003 to 2017 and applying the unit survey method and the spatial measurement method, this paper explored the spatial difference and its influencing factors of agricultural non-point source pollution in China. Results show that the regional difference in agricultural non-point source pollution is the main source of the overall difference. The areas with serious agricultural non-point source pollution are mainly concentrated in the eastern region, and the areas with light agricultural non-point source pollution are mainly concentrated in the western and northeastern regions. China’s agricultural non-point source pollution has shown a decreasing trend from the eastern and central regions to the northwest and northeast regions. Spatial econometric analysis shows that agricultural non-point source pollution presents an obvious positive spatial correlation. High-pollution agglomeration areas are mainly distributed in the eastern coastal economically developed areas, and low-pollution agglomeration areas are mainly concentrated in the northeast and western economically underdeveloped areas. Agricultural production efficiency, clean energy technology, industrial structure optimization, and environmental governance investment are important factors in reducing agricultural non-point source pollution. Therefore, to improve the quality of rural ecological environment and to promote the modernization of agriculture and rural areas, this paper suggests strengthening investment in environmental governance, increasing investment in agricultural green technology, promoting the adjustment of agricultural industry structure, and establishing and improving joint prevention and control among regions.
Abstract: Soil fungi is an important promoters for material circulation and energy flow in ecosystems. In order to explore the community structure and influencing factors of soil fungi in different forest types in karst hills among depression in Southwest China, soil samples from three typical forests (shrub, secondary forest and primary forest) were selected for fungal ITS high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the soil physical and chemical properties in shrub forest and primary forest were closest, with high nutrient content. A total of 2,013,410 valid sequences and 9677 OTU were obtained from the 33 soil samples, which belonged to 18 phyla, 59 classes and 946 genera. Soil fungi were composed of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, unclassified fungi, Mortierellomycota, and Rozellomycota, in all the three forest types. Among them, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the dominant soil fungi in three forest types, which together accounted for nearly 80% of the total fungal abundance. The primary forest and shrub forest had the higher α diversity with the closest fungal community composition and structure. LEfSe analysis showed that the key dominant fungal groups were different in each forest. Specifically, the biomarkers were Sordariomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Eurotiales, and Nectriaceae in the shrub forest, Agaricomycetes and Archaeorhizomycetes in the secondary forest, while unclassified Agaricales and Inocybaceae in the primary forest. Correlation analysis showed that soil fungi were closely related to soil physical and chemical factors. Redundancy analysis further showed that exchangeable Ca2+, Mg2+, total potassium and temperature had great effects on the soil fungal distribution of soil fungal, which were the dominant factors affecting the soil fungal community structure and distribution in karst forests.
Abstract: It is of great significance to explore farmers’ adoption behaviors of agricultural socialized services, to promote the transformation of farmers’ effective demand into actual behavior, to improve local agricultural socialized service policies, and to promote the organic connection between small farmers and the development of modern agriculture. Based on 630 field survey data in Zhoukou, Henan Province, a major grain producing area, this paper empirically analyzed the impacts of capital endowment on farmers’ adoption behaviors of agricultural socialization services and discussed the impact differences among different family life cycle stages by the MLR model and the group-level regression model. Results show that: 1) farmers’ average adoption degree of agricultural socialization services in sample areas is 0.441, which is at a medium level; 2) the comprehensive capital endowment and all five different types of capital endowments have significant positive impacts on farmers’ adoption behaviors of agricultural socialization services; and 3) the impact of capital endowment is significantly different among different family life cycle stages: in the fostering period, human capital and psychological capital have significant positive impacts, in the burdening period, human capital and social capital have significant positive impacts, in the stable period, natural capital, social capital, economic capital and psychological capital have more significant positive impacts, and in the maintenance period, all five types of capital endowments have significant positive impacts on their adoption behaviors. Therefore, this paper provides some policy suggestions, including comprehensively improving the level of farmers’ capital endowment in multiple channels, fully considering the differences of farmers among different family life cycle stages, and improving farmers’ adoption of agricultural socialization services through various measures.
Abstract: China is a major agricultural producer and seed-consuming country and the successive Governments have attached great importance to the development of the seed industry in China. As a result, most of the crop varieties planted China are independently selected and bred. However, the development of China’s seed industry has benefited from international cooperation and formed some degree of import dependence in some fields due to global value chain status and international division of labor. Therefore, China’s crop seed industry faces the bottleneck issue of germplasm resources. Based on the interpretation of the special attributes of crop seed industry, this paper explored the expression form and connotation of the bottleneck issue of germplasm recourses, established an identification and screening framework of the issue, analyzed the causes behind it, and discussed some solution paths. Results show that China’s crop seed industry has some special attributes, such as the particularity of consumption objects, the difference between supply and demand, the seasonality of production and sales, and the superposition of natural risks and technical risks. The expression form of the bottleneck issue of germplasm recourses includes not only tangible commodities such as seeds and parents, but also intangible technologies such as patents and genes. The connotation of the bottleneck issue can be attributed to international cooperation in global seed industry and the extreme form of the seed industry monopoly, which can be divided into rationality and irrationality. Through the identification and screening of four levels: factor intensity, technology foresight, technology monopoly, and global competitive position, the causes of the bottleneck issue include insufficient competitiveness of seed trade, weak ability of independent innovation, backward protection of intellectual property rights and international layout, the imperfect commercial seed breeding system, and the unreasonable variety management system. Therefore, to tackle the bottleneck problem of germplasm recourses, this paper suggests: reforming the variety management system, improving the environment of seed industry development, and creating an international competitive consortium simultaneously.
Abstract: Agricultural production trusteeship, as a main service and management mode of socialized service, is an important path to achieve the organic connection between small farmers and modern agricultural development. It is also critical to ensure national grain security. From the reality background and policy requirement and from the perspective of generative logic, this paper analyzed the internal mechanism, discussed the main problems, and provided some promotion strategies of agricultural production trusteeship to ensure national grain security. Results show that the generative logic of agricultural production trusteeship is composed of logical basis, generative conditions, manifestation, main purpose, and important premises. It plays an important role in ensuring national grain security by stabilizing property rights, improving production efficiency, decreasing input investment, reducing costs and risks, and improving the level of mechanization and informatization. However, agricultural production trusteeship also faces some challenges, including imperfect service system, prominent contradiction between supply and demand, unclear service object positioning, insufficient enthusiasm of service organizations. Therefore, to promote the development of agricultural production trusteeship, this paper provides the following suggestions: establishing a new grain production trusteeship service system, improving the service capacity of grain production trusteeship service organizations, promoting the active participation of small farms, and perfecting the support mode of grain production trusteeship policy.
Abstract: Delimiting the membership rights of rural collective economic organizations is a prerequisite for the implementation of farmland contract rights, homestead qualification rights, and collective income distribution rights. Currently, there are some contradictions and disputes about delimiting the membership rights of rural collective economic organizations, for example, who delimit the membership rights of rural collective economic organizations. Based on the theoretical interpretation of delimiting subjects and taking Nanhai District, Guangdong Province as an example, this paper analyzed the status of delimiting the membership rights of rural collective economic organizations and proposed a system design of delimiting the membership rights of rural collective economic organizations. Results show that delimiting the membership rights of rural collective economic organizations requires in-depth analysis of the reality before the delimitation, the cost during the delimitation, and the effects after the delimitation from four theoretical perspectives, including centralization and decentralization, inner rules and outer rules, national laws and customary laws, and relational property rights. The membership rights of rural collective economic organizations need to be delimitated by both the Government and collective economic organizations together. The Government oversees formulating the general standards to solve the problems of disputes, universality, and strong externality, while collective economic organizations are responsible for formulating specific standards to solve those problems with more difficulties and high costs. This system design was proved to be feasible and effective by the successful practice adopted by the Nanhai District, Guangdong Province.
Abstract: Reducing grain loss and waste is a major concern for grain security and environmental sustainability. Through sorting out the concepts of grain loss, grain waste and environmental footprint, this paper will evaluate grain loss rate and loss quantity at front consumption ends, including harvest, storage, processing, and transportation by the systematic review method. Subsequently, the environmental footprint of grain loss is estimated. Results show that the loss rates of wheat, rice, and corn in harvesting are 3.765%, 3.771%, and 2.920%, respectively, while the loss rates of front consumption ends are 11.665%, 12.871%, and 13.320%, respectively. The total loss of three staple grains in 2020 is 77.65 million tons, including 15.660 million tons of wheat, 27.269 million tons of rice, and 34.721 million tons of corn. The average carbon footprint is 20.89 million t CO2 equivalent (CO2e), the average blue water footprint is 10.095 billion m3, and the average land footprint is 23.295 million hm2. Although the reasons for grain loss are different, there is a common path to reduce loss, which is improving the technological level at front consumption ends. Therefore, this paper suggests updating the level of agricultural machinery and equipment, improving grain storage facilities and conditions, innovating grain processing technologies, and promoting efficient grain transportation equipment.
Abstract: Brand building is an important support for high-quality development of the farmers’ cooperative association, and it is crucial to the rural revitalization. Based on a data of the farmers’ cooperative associations in Weifang and applying the contingency theory, this paper analyzed the factors that affect the brand building of the associations and explored the reasons behind the brand building by the binary Logistic model. Results show that the proportion of established brands in the surveyed associations is 31.8%. Among them, the demand of brand building is the highest among the associations engaged in fruit and vegetable industry and sales, accounting for 56.86% and 58.33%, respectively. The association’s brand building is influenced by its own basic characteristics, connection networks, and organization relations: the longer the history of the brand, the more the number of the association members, and the more value to the brand. The cooperatives promoted or established by the government, leading enterprises, and industry associations, and cooperatives of same region, same products, or same projects prefer to build their own brands. In addition, the cooperatives with homogeneous market power members and with close collaboration members tend to build their own brands. Therefore, this paper provides the following suggestions: strengthening the organization construction of cooperative associations to expand the organization scale, clarifying the organization development orientation to improve the integrated service capacity of associations, giving a full play to the leadership role of the chairman to promote close cooperation among members, and strengthening the promotion of the government to increase the financial support and supervision of the associations.
Abstract: Constructing a spatial zoning system for rural revitalization at county level with appropriate space control measures is an effective way to modernize the spatial governance system, to promote urban-rural integration, and to realize rural revitalization. Considering the contradictions among rural governance ability, rural development, and farmer’s needs under the background of county rural revitalization, this study constructed a spatial zoning system for rural revitalization with multi-levels, multi-perspectives, and multi-types by the normative analysis and case analysis methods. Results showed that the county spatial zoning system can be constructed from three levels, including county function zoning, rural revitalization classification, and rural development type. According to the differences in county functions, county areas are divided into the traction zone, the main body zone, the guaranteed zone, and the coordination zone. Based on resource endowment, social economy, and geographic conditions, the main body zone of the county is classified to industrial, planting and breeding, tourism, forestry, fishery, and other rural development types. Meanwhile, based on rural natural condition, social economy, production and living status, and landscape characteristics, the types of rural development are divided into polar nuclear development type, rural-urban transformation type, characteristic development type, and transfer development type. Ultimately, combined with the county’s zoning, classification, and categorized models, this paper provides the following control measures and development paths: industry driven, ecological protection, regional coordination, diversified development, and classification optimization. In summary, this research applied the zoning system to Yilan County, which better reflects the spatial patterns of rural development for the whole county, to help standardize the order of county spatial development and promote the implementation of rural revitalization strategy.
Abstract: Industrialized agriculture and eco-agriculture are two main paths of international agricultural modernization, and their practical experience is of great significance to the transformation and construction of China’s agricultural modernization. Through literature analysis and historical research, this paper summarizes the connotation, regional practice, and key characteristics of agricultural modernization, and compares the effectiveness and deficiency of the two approaches from four aspects of productivity, environmental impacts, social economy, and nutrition and health to explore the development path of agricultural modernization in China. Results show that industrialized agriculture can significantly improve grain production and labor productivity and it is suitable for large farms and large-scale agricultural operators with sufficient farmland. However, there are some concerns about environmental protection, resource utilization, food safety, and household livelihood security. In contrast, eco-agriculture can ensure stable grain output, provide diversified high-quality agricultural products, and promote biodiversity conservation, resource utilization, and livelihood security of farmers. It is suitable for the regions with scarce farmland resources and small farms. However, eco-agriculture also faces some challenges, too, including small coverage and outdated technical means. According to international experience and the problems existing in China’s agricultural modernization development, this paper suggests: to fully respect farmers’ will, to transform industrialized agriculture ecologically, to upgrade eco-agriculture intelligently, to inherit and utilize the ecological wisdom of Chinese farming culture, and to select the appropriate agricultural modernization paths combined with the regional endowment characteristics.
Abstract: Food safety information label is an important tool to convey food information, and it is of great significance to study the differences between consumers’ demand and producers’ supply for the pork with different information labels. This research constructs a food safety information label profile with different levels of four information attributes. Taking pork as an example, based on the primary data of pig farmers and pork consumers in Zhejiang Province, and applying a Random Parameters Logit Model, this paper analyzed the differences between farmers’ production willingness and consumers’ preferences for pork with different food safety information labels by Choice Experiment and discussed farmers’ adoption behaviors and consumers’ willingness to pay for the information labels. Results show that among the four information attributes, including production origin, agricultural product certificates, traceability, and organic/green certification, besides organic/green certification, consumers prefer to know traceability information, while farmers tend to provide production origin information. Although farmers show a higher willingness to provide organic/green certification, the adoption rate in actual production is only 1.81%. Consumers prefer pork with higher level food safety information labels, but they have a higher preference for the agricultural product certificates that are certificated by third-party. While farmers have a negative willingness to produce them. Consumers are willing to pay only 1.385 yuan/kg for agricultural product certificates that are certificated by farmers and are willing to pay over 20% premium for traceable information labels that can be traced back to the farming process. In actual production, the adoption rate of farmers is less than 10%. Therefore, this paper suggests that farmers should provide food safety information labels with a higher level of information, while the government and market should increase farmers’ motivation to participation in the traceability system with more incentives for issuing certificates and strengthen the education and training of farmers.
Abstract: The prosperity and development of rural E-commerce encourages local governments to constantly construct institutional content of rural E-commerce, providing institutional support for the sustainable development of rural E-commerce. Based on collective action theory and several E-commerce villages as examples, this paper studies the content, operation mechanism, and institutional dilemma of rural E-commerce institutional supply by case analysis method and discussed the innovative path of rural E-commerce institutional supply. Results show that the institutional content of rural E-commerce is constructed in two ways: bottom-up and top-down to realize the purposes of motivating endogenous forces and constructing long-term mechanism and further to operate in two forms: external supply type and sinking public goods type, providing institutional foundation for the operation of rural E-commerce. However, rural E-commerce system supply still faces some challenges, including the informal incentive mechanism, the risk of competition, out-of-control of the capital, and unbalanced E-commerce capital resource with more interest on demand side. Therefore, to provide economic foundation and institutional support for rural vitalization, this paper suggests that local governments need to carry out some path innovations, including standardizing the mechanism of stimulating rural E-commerce development, making public service content accurate and localized, and constructing risk prevention and sheltering mechanism.
Abstract: Digital agriculture is an internal requirement of China’s digital China strategy and digital countryside strategy. And it is also an inevitable trend and the right choice to realize the development of China’s agricultural modernization. Based on the current situation of digital agriculture development in China, this paper explains the unique operational logic of digital agriculture, analyzes the realistic challenges brought by the national agricultural situation, and discusses the promotion strategies of digital agriculture in China. Results find that the operational logic of digital agriculture includes technical logic and application logic. The technical logic is derived from the technical characteristics of digital agriculture, which is an internal mechanism and technical system composed of information perception, algorithm empowerment, and precise execution. However, the development of digital agriculture in China still faces some real challenges brought by fragmented land management, smallholder rejection, effect traps, lagging application development, and data chimney. To achieve better and faster development of digital agriculture in China, this paper suggests: to accelerate the appropriate scale of land management, to enhance the ability of small farmers to participate in digital agriculture, to focus on the control of digital agriculture construction costs, to accelerate the development and promotion of digital agriculture software applications, and to strengthen the overall planning of digital agriculture construction.
Abstract: The fluctuation of the small-scale agricultural products price has a great impact on the development of agricultural economy and the improvement of people's living standard. The paper summarizes the causes of price fluctuating of the small-scale agricultural products and brings forward the question that we should strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market. Some methods and recommendations are proposed to strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market: promoting purchasing market, standardizing wholesale market, discovering futures market, and promoting information, nurturing broker, establishing co-operatives, increasing reserves, enacting transactions act, and so on.
Abstract: Using ESDA spatial analysis, this paper researches the spatial pattern evolution and characteristics of per capita net income of farmers in the Yangtze River Delta counties since 1989. The results show that: (1) the absolute difference in per capita net income of farmers is gradually widening, while the relative difference is decreasing with periodic fluctuations; (2)the level of per capita net income of farmers has a strong positive spatial correlation, and the regions with similar income levels have a spatial agglomeration; (3)the growth pattern of per capita net income is proved to be more instable, where its growth hot spots and cold spots switch frequently in their geographical locations, showing the existence of transition phenomenon. Apart from subordinate revenue growth cold spots, trend of spatial concentration enhanced while tendency of random distribution weakened in other growth type areas. Finally, this paper reaches some conclusions and conducts some corresponding discussions. Besides, related suggestions are given to narrow regional differences in Yangtze River Delta counties and promote the regional coordinated development.
Abstract: The revitalization of rural talents is the foundation of rural revitalization. In order to deal with the shortage of rural talents, and make sure that rural talents can play the supporting role in rural revitalization, this paper, taking Qingdao City as an example, summarized and analyzed two ways to promote rural revitalization through rural talent revitalization, which include attracting urban talents and cultivating local talents. Results show that from the perspectives of the shortage of agricultural and rural talents, relative low quality level of talents, the lack of attraction of talents in rural areas, under-optimized rural talent cultivation mechanism, and some other problems, Qingdao City adopted the following measures: increasing the number of talents and improving the talent structure through bringing in, sinking and retaining urban talents in rural areas, constructing the attraction system of urban talents and trying to retain them. At the same time, Qingdao City has built a complete system of local talent cultivation network from the aspects of discovering local talents and training and supporting local talents. In conclusion, Qingdao City has set up a mechanism of encouraging and attracting urban talents with prominent focus, comprehensive coverage and perfect measures, and has set up a mechanism of the cultivation of local talent with integration, cooperation and incentives called “the Qingdao experience”, which is enlightening and worth spreading.
Abstract: Based on the research review, the wine industry has been around all round the world, not only limited in developed counties and western countries. Nowadays, wine consumption in China presents the trend of rapid growing, China’s wine industry cluster develops in a higher level; nonetheless this industry is facing some challenges in China. As such, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the status and developing trends of China’s wine industry from the various aspects namely regional planting, yield, market consumption, and the investment. Data and information from current literatures are used to investigate the conditions of China’s wine industry. It was found that numerous problems impede the development of China’s wine industry including lack of overall planning of the construction of exist producing region, imbalance development between eastern and western areas, poor and lag behind of product quality management and pre-maturation of the marketing system. The article eventually points out some developing strategies involving reasonable layout and enhance competitiveness in overall producing area; set up the wine industry chain management; strengthen origin protection, and improve the quality certification system; use the new marketing and promoting model, to spread wine culture and to promote the sustainable development of China’s wine industry.
Abstract: From the angle of urban and rural aging population inversion phenomenon in China and the challenges brought by it, this paper analyzes the relationship between urbanization and aging population inversion in urban and rural areas in China. In the long term of traditional process of urbanization, population transfer is mainly labor transfer, and the elderly population transfer has been driven by the transfer is limited, thus improve the degree of aging of the rural population and have an impact on the balanced urban and rural development. This population transfer mode is the main reason for the formation of urban and rural aging population inversion. Meanwhile, urban and rural aging population inversion have an impact on urbanization, it not only affects the level and pace of urbanization, but also affects the quality of urbanization. To alleviate this condition, we must take a new urbanizing road, change the urban and rural population transfer mode, and integrate urban and rural social security system.
Abstract: Using grain production panel data in 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2010, this paper adopts a DEA-based Malmquist productivity index method to measure and decompose grain TFP (Total Factor Productivity) growth index of the nation’s main grain production areas, main grain sales areas, and balancing areas. This paper also analyzes the spatial and temporal disparities and the underlying mechanism of dynamic TFP index. On this basis, it continues to explore TFP and its decomposition value - exogenous influencing factor of technical efficiency index and technical progress index. Our results show that the TFP index of main production areas have realized an average annual increase of 0.28% within 10 years, which has benefited from technical improvement and efficiency enhancement. However, main sales areas have suffered from a duel loss in the technical progress and technical efficiency. As a result, TFP has an average annual decrease of 0.35%. TFP in balancing areas also has an average decrease of 0.69%, influenced by deterioration of technical progress. We also find that the implementation of the central government’s favorable policies to farmers has significant influence on improving grain TFP level in main production areas. However, these policies have a lagging influence on main sales areas and balancing areas. In addition, per capital grain production scale and mechanization level have negative influence on TFP growth in main grain production area, but positive influence on TFP in main grain sales areas. As for the grain production-sales balancing areas, expansion of the per capita production scale can improve the technical efficiency, but has a reverse inhibiting impact on TFP and technical progress. Finally, based on the research results, this paper proposes measures and suggestions to improve grain productivity more effectively.
Abstract: This paper analyses the current status of agricultural pollution resulting from overuse of agricultural chemical inputs since the reform and open-up. It turns out that the formation of agricultural pollution is related to agricultural industrial policies, rural-urban economic structure, pollution controlling fund, environmental general management, “agri-environmental” policies, pollution controlling law and farmer’s environmental awareness. In order to cope with agricultural pollution effectively, some measures that have to be taken are as follows: integration of agricultural and environmental policies, establishment of environmental friendly agricultural technology system, implementation of valley comprehensive management, enhancement of environmental management capabilities of agricultural pollution, strengthening of peasants’ environmental education and establishment of agricultural environmental protection law.
Abstract: From the perspectives of nature, human, and carrying capacity and applying the entropy and linear weighted comprehensive methods, this paper constructed an evaluation system to assess the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province from 2001 to 2016. In addition, this paper also examined the main obstacles affecting the vulnerability. Results show that the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in 9 cities in Henan Province decreased from 2001 to 2016, while it increased in the other 9 cities; and the vulnerability growth rate varied significantly. The evolution trend of vulnerability could be divided into four types: increasing first and then decreasing, decreasing first and then increasing, increasing with some fluctuations, and decreasing with some fluctuations. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province illustrated a concentrating characteristic in its spatial distribution with the decreasing order as follows: Northern Henan, Eastern Henan, Southern Henan, Central Henan, and Western Henan. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in municipalities was mainly affected by human and carrying capacity, and the main obstacle factors were different. In order to achieve the coordinated development of agricultural production and water resource utilization in Henan Province, this paper suggests that human intervention in water resource system should be positively strengthened by increasing investment in agricultural funds, improving the level of farmland water conservancy construction, and promoting agricultural water use efficiency.
Abstract: Large scale is the direction of pig- producing development of China in future, but does not mean breeding
scale the bigger the better. The rationality, scientificalness and suitability of each region pig- producing scale has
determined the effectiveness of pig-producing to a large extent. This paper shows that, from the national average level
to see, the moderate scale has the strongest profitability. Specific to major pig producing provinces, the strongest
profitability of farming was difference in different province. The current pig scale cultivation exist such problems as the
disease prevention and control status not optimum, production cost and the scales price has no advantage and the
standardization level need to improve. Finally, combine the current national and provincial pig scale development
situation and problems, this paper proposed the corresponding countermeasure to promote the healthy development of
Abstract: Clearing up rural poverty, realizing city and country correspond development is long striving aim of Chinese Government. Currently, the quantity of rural poverty population in China has taken on a sharp decline, comparative poverty standing out, returning poverty severity, and overspread to city. This article from economic rising, income distributing, trade freedom, rural labor mobility and finance support agriculture, puts up economics explaining about currently Chinese rural poverty status, Lastly, puts forward relevant policy suggestion of enlarging domestic demand, adjusting income distribution, strengthening education train, adjusting agriculture production structure and method of supporting agriculture.
Abstract: With the increase of the importation scale, the quality and safety of imported whey powder has become the
hot issue which arise a lot of attentions and should be solved urgently. This thesis analyzes the necessities of
establishing the quality and safety risk warning mechanism of imported whey powder, based on the current conditions
of whey powder importation, using the method of warning method based on case study ratiocination, sets up the
imported whey powder quality and safety risk warning mechanism from three aspects, including warning information
gathering, warning model building and fast response system, and puts forwards the countermeasures of consummating
the warning system
Abstract: This paper try to comparative multi-function of urban modern agriculture of Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou for example, and use the method of combing static and dynamic and of combing qualitative and quantitative to comparative and analyze the urban modern agriculture functions of economy, ecology and society. It can be seen that the differences on economic mainly in the difference of structure of agricultural land only for the difference of types of terrain of three cities, which affect the structure of agriculture industry. Ratio of agro-structural change decreases gradually. Advantage indexes of animal husbandry and fisheries of Shanghai are higher, farming, fisheries and agricultural services of Nanjing, forestry and animal husbandry of Hangzhou are higher as well. The production capacity of vegetables of Shanghai and the production capacity of grain of Nanjing and the production capacity of fruit of Hangzhou is higher than that of others separately in 2010. Secondly, the value of farmland ecosystem carbon sequestration and oxygen releasing of Nanjing is lowest in 2010. Optimal adjustment of the agricultural space layout maintains the ecological environment. The pesticide and chemical fertilizer excessive remains a serious problem. Lastly, agricultural tourism of three cities is in the leisure stage towards the holiday stage. Meanwhile, the three cities take different leisure agriculture development models, and achieve results in employment and economic benefits.
Abstract: This article has analyzed the situation of forestry in Guizhou Province from the perspective of forest
resources, forestry ecological, forestry industry and forestry safety supply system, and pointed out the problems on the
distribution of forest resources, forestry total production value, industrial structure and the forestry funds investment.
Then it proposed the countermeasures for developing the modern forestry on scientific planning forestry layout,
developing forestry property energetically and to establish a diversified forestry investment system in Guizhou Province
Abstract: Along with the intelligence and automation improving in agricultural machinery, the application of steering-by-wire technology in agricultural vehicles such as tractors has received concerns and researches. In order to guide the study of hydraulic steering-by-wire of tractor and to shorten the development cycle, a co-simulation model was built based on the analysis of hydraulic steering-by-wire system control algorithm and structure. The hydraulic system and full vehicle model were built on AMESim software platform. Meantime, PID, fuzzy PID and fuzzy immune PID control modeling were constructed by using Simulink software. While Visual C++ 6.0 was chosen to realize interface communication, the angle response and angle following co-simulation were completed with angle transmission ratio 1; as well as the co-simulation of yawing angular velocity response and centroid side-slip angle response under the speed of 15 km/h, the steering wheel Angle 180°, angle transmission ratio 9. The experimental results show that step response time achieves 0.272 s with fuzzy immune PID control, following error of 1.182°, 3% overshoot amount of the yawing angular velocity response, and 0.85°/s steady-state value of centroid side-slip angle response, they both prevail over the performance of common PID and fuzzy PID. In conclusion, co-simulation maintains a strong reference value, and an ideal control effect is able to achieve while fuzzy immune PID control are applied into hydraulic steering-by-wire system.
Abstract: The paper applies the model of Stochastic Dominance in analyzing the regional advantages of feeding dairy
cows, studies show that the coast region in north of China and the Yellow River region have the advantages of feeding
dairy cows, including Tianjin and Hebei, the most significant comparative advantage, followed by Shandong, Henan
and Shaanxi. The factors of cost advantages of feeding dairy cows are analyzed from the perspectives of technical level,
elements of cost and natural resource endowment, results showed that: the factors of cost advantages are
comprehensive. Some suggestions put forward, that including accelerating construction and layout of dairy farming
regions to develop the model with regional comparative advantages; through supporting and promoting the development
of dairy cooperatives to improve the degree of organization
Abstract: The industrial base of rice such as enrichment of rice resources, preferable processing industry foundation and high quality and massive market demand in Heilongjiang Province were analyzed. Some advantages such as good ecological environment, less chemical pollution and larger quantity of high quality rice were also analyzed. The problems such as serious degradation of rice, lack of alternative rice, inadequate processing enterprises, severe losses of processing enterprises, inefficient logistics and lack of policy support and financial support from relevant government and financial department were also analyzed. Some countermeasures such as increasing investment in seed research, speeding up the seed base construction, introducing the market access system, gradually dissolving the backward production capacity, developing the food logistics and intensifying policy support etc were put forward for promoting the development of rice industry.
Abstract: Compared with the traditional sieve-pipette method, the laser diffraction method is a new technology for determination of soil particle size distribution, which has obvious advantages in measurement efficiency and operation error reducing. However, the laser diffraction method always underestimates the clay content. In order to set up the conversion models, 70 soil samples selected from karst areas of Northwest Guangxi were measured by Mastersize2000 laser diffraction and the sieve-pipette method. The results showed that based on the classification criteria of USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), the clay volume content (< 0.002 mm) using the laser diffraction method was lower than that using the sieve-pipette method, while the silt volume content (0.002 mm - 0.05 mm) was higher. The relative errors of the clay and silt contents increased with the increase of clay content measured by sieve-pipette. The sand content was sometimes higher and sometimes lower with the lowest relative error. Significant relationships were found between the clay and sand contents determined by the two methods, but not between the silt content. However, the < 0.02 mm content measured by the two methods was significantly correlated. The laser diffraction measured results of soil particle size distribution could be converted by the linear regression equation of the following four particles grades including < 0.002 mm, < 0.02 mm, 0.02 mm- 0.05 mm and > 0.05 mm.
Abstract: Urban modern agriculture in Beijing has entered a critical period of transformation after decades of quick development. From the industry structure perspective, the production scale of traditional agriculture has been declining; meanwhile, the leisure agriculture, the creative agriculture, and the exhibition agriculture have flourished. From the industrialized operation perspective, an urban modern integrated agricultural system of planting, breeding, processing, and circulating has been initially formed, which led by industrialized operation and farmer's specialized cooperative organizations. From the input perspective, the traditional inputs including land, water, labor, fertilizer, and other inputs have declined. But technology, information, and other modern production elements have been playing significant roles. In the strategic context of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei regional collaborative development and the construction of ecological civilization, it is necessary to break through the obstacles such as resource and environmental constraints, institutional mechanism constraints, etc. to vigorously develop water-saving agriculture and ecological agriculture, to complete socialized service system for agriculture, to propose standardization construction of leisure agriculture, and to cultivate new agriculture operating entities. In addition, speeding up the process of structural adjustment for agriculture, optimizing agricultural development way to generate new forms of agricultural industry, encouraging innovation in agriculture are also helpful measures to promote the development of urban modern agriculture in Beijing.
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