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    2024,45(2):177-187, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0025
    Abstract:
    Water rights trading is a new way to increase farmers’ incomes and to narrow the gap between urban and rural areas, and it is also a long-term mechanism to achieve continuous increase in farmers’ incomes. This paper systematically reviewed the historical evolution of water rights trading, summarized the current situation and characteristics of water rights trading, analyzed the mechanism of water rights trading to increase farmers’ income, examined the practical difficulties in the process of empowerment, and proposed corresponding promotion paths. Results show that the evolution of the water rights trading system in China has gone through three stages: germination, stagnation, and exploration. As important participants in water rights trading, farmers can achieve profit growth in the process of participating in water rights trading by affecting operating income, transferring income, and reducing agricultural water costs. However, there are also some problems in the empowerment of farmers to increase the income of water rights trading, which are mainly manifested in the lack of coordinated efforts of the “two hands”, the full implementation of the reward and subsidy policy, the overall extensive water fee measurement model, and the lack of application and promotion of water rights trading. To further promote water rights trading to empower farmers to increase their incomes, it is necessary to promote the reform of water rights, stimulate the vitality of the water rights markets, clarify the standards of rewards and subsidies for water rights trading and the sources of funds, improve the measurement and monitoring facilities of agricultural water resources, and promote and innovate the form of water rights trading according to local conditions.
    2024,45(2):188-196, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0024
    Abstract:
    Agricultural heritage sites are rich in germplasm resources and strengthening legislative protection is of great significance for maintaining biodiversity and ensuring grain security. This paper examined the current problems in the protection of germplasm resources of agricultural heritage sites in China and explored the improvement of protection system on the basis of the innovation of protection mode through the empirical and literature analysis. Results show that the norms for the protection of germplasm resources in China’s agricultural heritage sites are mainly based on relevant laws and regulations on resources and environment, and the protection of germplasm resources mainly adopts the “damage response mode of protecting a single object”. However, there are problems in the management of germplasm resources in agricultural heritage sites, such as the essentialization of protection objects, the unilateralization of protection responsibilities, the fragmentation of protection permissions, and the homogenization of protection policies. Based on the holistic ecological view and the contemporary experience of ecological environment management, this paper suggests applying a systematic protection method to incorporate the protection of germplasm resources into the whole process of agricultural system ecological protection, establishing a risk management model for the protection of the whole system, formulating the Agricultural Heritage Protection Law, and creating more participation incentives, joint protection methods, list protections, third party agreement protections, and other systems. Finally, improving the legal system can also provide a normative basis for the protection of agricultural heritage germplasm resources.
    2024,45(2):197-209, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0019
    Abstract:
    The influences of policy-based agricultural insurance on farmers’ food production behaviors and national food security have been widely concerned. Based on a rural household survey data of “double hundred and double thousand” in Rural Vitalization of Jiangxi Province, this paper applied the two-step clustering method to optimize farmers’ differentiation types, analyzed the influences and internal mechanism of policy-based agricultural insurance on rice yield by the Least Square method, and discussed the Moderating effect and the boundary conditions of policy-based agricultural insurance. Results show that the proportion of farmers responding to purchasing policy-based agricultural insurance is only 47.4%, while the proportion of traditional farmers and specialized farmers purchasing policy-based agricultural insurance is low. The rice yield of farmers who purchase policy-based agricultural insurance reaches 7.087 t/hm2, surpassing that of farmers who do not avail themselves of such insurance. The purchase of policy-based agricultural insurance by farmers has significantly enhanced the rice yield, which had been validated through endogenous and robustness tests. The mechanism analysis reveals that the purchase of policy-based agricultural insurance can enhance rice yield through expanding the planting area and proportion of rice to achieve intensive production, adopting agricultural green production technology to improve soil quality and introducing new varieties to enhance rice disease resistance. Further analysis shows that farmers of new agricultural business entities, main grain producing counties and double-cropping rice planting significantly strengthen the rice production effect of policy-based agricultural insurance. Therefore, under the dual goals of grain security and increasing farmers’ income, this paper suggests: accelerating the development of policy-based agricultural insurance, reducing agricultural land circulation, agricultural green production technology and new rice varieties acquisition cost, and increasing the intensity of policy-based agricultural insurance subsidies for new agricultural business entities in grain production, major grain producing counties, and double-cropping rice cultivations.
    2024,45(2):210-220, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0015
    Abstract:
    A systematic investigation of the impacts of the functional transformation of farmland utilization in northeast China on grain production is helpful to hold the relationship between farmland and grains from the national level to provide scientific reference for the realization of agricultural modernization, grain security, and high-quality development in China. Based on a provincial panel data from 2011 to 2020, this paper analyzed the functional transformation characteristics of farmland utilization in northeast China and its function mechanism affecting national grain security by the entropy weight method and the double fixed model. Results show that: China""s grain security level was on the rise from 2011 to 2020, and the transformation of farmland utilization function in northeast China effectively enabled the national grain security. In the regional heterogeneity study, the grain security guarantee effects of farmland utilization functional transformation in Liaoning and Heilongjiang Provinces were more obvious, but the function channel of Jilin Province needed to be unblocked. In the dimensional heterogeneity study, the farmland utilization functional transformation in northeast China mainly guaranteed China""s grain security by promoting grain quantity security and grain economic security, but the effect of grain ecological quality assurance was not obvious. Therefore, to make the northeast region farmland utilization functional transformation to better promote national grain security, this paper suggests: providing economic subsidies for farmland utilization and grain production in northeast China, formulating the strategy of farmland utilization functional transformation in northeast China according to local conditions, and building a "high-quality food project" oriented by ecological quality.
    2024,45(2):221-231, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0029
    Abstract:
    Under the conflict between economic returns from grain cultivation and strategic grain functions, it is essential to analyze the impacts of the comparative returns from grain cultivation and the financial support to agriculture on the “non-grain” of farmland in order to put forward strategies for the management of “non-grain” and stabilize the security of domestic grain supply. Based on the national panel data from 2009 to 2021, this paper adopts the dynamic spatial Durbin model and the panel threshold regression model to analyze the situation. Results show that: 1) from 2009 to 2021, China’s “non-grain” farmland has prominent spatial differentiation characteristics, showing a “high-high, low-low” aggregation area bipolar distribution; 2) the comparative income from grain cultivation can inhibit “non-grain” farmland , and has a spatial spillover effect; 3) the inhibition of financial support for agriculture on the “non-grain” farmland has a double threshold characteristics, showing a trend of “first increase and then decrease”. Therefore, to promote the construction of compensation mechanism for the interests of grain, this paper recommends to establish an inter-provincial horizontal interest compensation mechanism in the production and marketing areas, to protect the interests of the main body of grain in the “production end”; to integrate the regional grain comparative income and the reasonable adjustment of the agricultural planting structure; and to improve the supervision system of financial support for agriculture.
    2024,45(2):232-243, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0011
    Abstract:
    Cultivated land is crucial for ensuring national food security. It is essential to investigate the spatial spillover effect of digital inclusive finance on the ecological efficiency of cultivated land utilization to promote the development of rural finance, farmers’ income, and the efficient use of cultivated land. This study uses panel data from 27 prefecture-level cities in the Northeastern Black Soil Area from 2011 to 2021, employing the ultra-efficiency EBM model to measure the ecological efficiency of cultivated land utilization. The research reveals the impact of digital inclusive finance on cultivated land utilization and the spatial spillover effect using the spatial Durbin model and partial differential decomposition method. The results show that digital inclusive finance has been steadily improving in the Northeastern Black Soil Area, and the ecological efficiency of cultivated land utilization has increased in a “W” type fluctuation with significant regional differences. Digital inclusive finance directly affects the improvement of local cultivated land utilization, displaying an “inverted U” non-linear relationship. It also has a spatial spillover effect on adjacent land, presenting a “U” non-linear relationship. The relationship between digital inclusive finance and ecological efficiency of cultivated land utilization in the Sanjiang Plain and Changbai Mountain-Liaodong hilly areas is consistent with the effect of the Northeastern Black Soil Area. Based on these findings, policy suggestions are proposed to strengthen the foundation for digital inclusive finance development, narrow the gap in regional digital inclusive finance, and avoid the syphon effect of digital inclusive finance. This will ensure the coordinated promotion of high-quality development of digital inclusive finance and effective protection of black land.
    2024,45(2):244-256, DOI: 10.13872/j. 1000-0275-2024.0016
    Abstract:
    Fully utilizing farmers’ human capital investment to enhance their income growth holds significant practical implications for improving the quality of farmers’ income, strengthening their capacity for sustainable income increase, and achieving common prosperity. Based on a data from 110 prefecture-level cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2010 to 2021, this paper adopts a two-way fixed-effect model to analyze the impacts of farmers’ human capital investment on their incomes, to explore its group heterogeneity and regional heterogeneity in depth, and to examine the moderating effect and the mechanism of urbanization. In addition, this paper also uses the threshold effect model to analyze the nonlinear impacts of farmers’ human capital investment on their incomes. Results show that farmers’ human capital investment has a significant positive impact on their income, but its impact effect is characterized by a typical double thresholds. Heterogeneity analysis suggests that the income-enhancing effect of farmers’ human capital investment is more obvious for middle- and high-income farmer groups and has the most significant boost for farmers in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Farmers’ health investment can lead to increased incomes for various groups of farmers. Urbanization plays a positive moderating role in the impacts of farmers’ human capital investment on their income. Therefore, this paper provides the following suggestions: shifting more efforts to increase investment in rural public education, improving the health literacy of the entire population and the health level of the population, supporting the construction of rural transportation networks, promoting the integrated development of urban and rural areas, advancing the urbanization process of counties in a categorized and orderly manner, with a focus on upgrading the ability to invest in the human capital of underdeveloped regions and low-income farmer groups, and building a mechanism for stable and sustainable income growth for farmers.
    2024,45(2):257-269, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0018
    Abstract:
    Coordinating the integrated development of urban and rural areas is a crucial strategy for advancing rural revitalization. This study examines the impact of the agricultural tourism integration policy on the urban-rural income gap, utilizing the quasi-natural experiment of the creation of national leisure agriculture and rural tourism demonstration counties. Employing panel data from 253 prefectural-level cities nationwide, spanning from 2006 to 2021, the asymptotic double-difference model is used to empirically analyze the effects. Additionally, the study explores the underlying mechanism and regional heterogeneity of the policy’s impact using mediating and moderating effect models. Findings demonstrate that the agricultural and tourism integration policy significantly reduces the urban-rural income gap in prefecture-level cities. Moreover, the conclusions remain robust after testing the model’s validity with the synthetic control double-difference method (SDID) and instrumental variables method to address endogeneity concerns. Mechanism analysis reveals that agritourism integration policy alleviates the urban-rural income gap by enhancing transportation infrastructure and facilitating urban-rural personnel mobility. Furthermore, the moderating effect model identifies regional heterogeneity in the reduction of the urban-rural income gap due to differing levels of economic development across regions. To effectively narrow this gap, recommendations include continued utilization of the leading role of demonstration counties, clarification of the overall positioning and core competitiveness of “agriculture + tourism” in non-demonstration counties, increased financial investment in transportation infrastructure construction to facilitate people flow between urban and rural areas, and implementation of precise and differentiated measures to fully harness the heterogeneous effects of agritourism integration on the urban-rural income gap. These efforts provide new perspectives for agricultural modernization and rural revitalization.
    2024,45(2):270-281, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0022
    Abstract:
    Stimulating the intrinsic drive of cooperative green entrepreneurship is crucial for advancing the green transformation of agriculture on a large scale in China. This study constructs a theoretical analytical framework regarding the influence of green entrepreneurship orientation on cooperative performance. Employing a multiple Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) model and an intermediary effect model, we empirically analyze the effects and mechanisms of green entrepreneurship orientation on cooperative performance. The findings indicate that implementing a green entrepreneurship-oriented strategy significantly impacts cooperative performance. Notably, green initiative and innovation contribute more to enhancing cooperative performance. Mechanistic analysis reveals that the impact of green entrepreneurship orientation on cooperative performance is mediated through its influence on green resource actions. Heterogeneity analysis demonstrates that green entrepreneurship orientation exerts a stronger influence on cooperatives with higher levels of incentive mechanisms and demonstration. Consequently, the government should prioritize the role of cooperatives as platforms in agricultural green transformation, fostering an environment that encourages cooperatives to actively pursue green entrepreneurship-oriented strategies. Targeted initiatives should include specialized training on agricultural green venture capital for cooperative members, particularly focusing on enhancing the green venture capital awareness among cooperative leaders. Establishing an evaluation system for cooperative green resource actions is essential to stimulate cooperative green initiatives. Encouraging the implementation of incentive mechanisms within cooperatives, with a focus on guiding exemplary cooperatives to explore diverse incentive measures, is also recommended.
    2024,45(2):282-295, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0021
    Abstract:
    Rural tourism serves as a crucial pathway to realizing rural revitalization and fostering high-quality rural development. To enhance the quality of rural tourism development, this study focuses on 124 key rural tourism villages in Central China. Employing Geodetector, it quantifies the impact of various influencing factors on the spatial distribution of these villages. Additionally, a comprehensive advantage model is constructed to evaluate the overall advantage of rural tourism in Central China. Furthermore, a coupled coordination model is devised, integrating the distribution of key villages and comprehensive advantages to assess the coordinated development effects of these villages. The findings reveal that: 1) Key villages for rural tourism in Central China exhibit a clustered distribution with multiple cores, influenced significantly by various factors, with notable synergistic effects among them. 2) Analysis of comprehensive advantage degree indicates that the overall performance of rural tourism development advantages in Central China ranks as follows: Henan Province > Hubei Province > Hunan Province. This trend correlates closely with the spatial distribution of key villages, with the coupling coordination type positively correlated with the comprehensive advantage degree. 3) The development advantages of key rural tourism villages in Central China are constrained by the coordination effects among various factors. Resource endowment emerges as the primary consideration for village selection, while transportation conditions are vital for sustainable development. This study furnishes theoretical underpinnings and practical insights for enhancing rural tourism innovation, quality, and industrial upgrading.
    2024,45(2):296-305, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0000
    Abstract:
    Investigating the ecological security changes in Qinghai Province, quantitatively evaluating its ecological security, and diagnosing obstacles affecting ecological security can provide a theoretical basis for ecological protection and high-quality development in Qinghai Province and even the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region. This study focuses on Qinghai Province, constructing an ecological security evaluation index system based on the DPSIR model. It utilizes the entropy weight TOPSIS method to analyze the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of ecological security from 2010 to 2020 and applies the obstacle degree model to diagnose the main factors affecting ecological security. The research findings indicate that during the study period, the ecological security index of Qinghai Province increased from 0.31 in 2000 to 0.71 in 2020, with the ecological security level transitioning from relatively unsafe to relatively safe. Overall, the ecological security situation is steadily improving. At the prefecture level, Hainan Prefecture experienced the largest increase in ecological security index, while Yushu Prefecture had the smallest increase, reflecting a spatial evolutionary pattern from “leading in the east” to “surpassing in the southeast”. Through obstacle factor diagnosis, it was found that the main factors affecting ecological security in Qinghai Province shifted from insufficient intellectual capital and pollution emissions to the development of animal husbandry and population growth. Recommendations to enhance ecological security in Qinghai Province include strengthening the implementation of grazing prohibition, rotational grazing, and rest grazing systems, attracting high-level talents, optimizing land use, intensifying environmental protection publicity and education, and enhancing public awareness of environmental protection.
    2024,45(2):306-315, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0026
    Abstract:
    Annual net greenhouse gas emissions, which measure the degree of carbon neutrality of a catchment, are the sum of the carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent of net emissions of CO2, methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gases, of which the magnitude of net CO2 emissions indicates the catchment carbon balance. Therefore, in order to achieve China""s ambitious goal of peaking carbon emissions by 2030 and become “carbon neutral” by 2060 (the “double carbon” goal), it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of the carbon balance of each region or catchment. This paper estimates the carbon balance of Jinjing River Catchment in Changsha County, Hunan Province, based on survey data, MODIS datasets and previous studies, and using the reference method provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Greenhouse Gas Inventory Guidelines. The results showed that total annual carbon sequestration (in terms of pure carbon) in the catchment ranged from 12.89 to 19.82 thousand t C/a from 2011 to 2020, with forest, tea paddy and paddy field ecosystems carbon uptake accounting for 83.4%, 2.6%, and 14.0% of the total uptake, respectively. The total carbon emissions in the catchment range from 3.73 to 13.42 thousand t/a, with the main emission contributors being transportation and industrial production, which account for 57.1% and 28.8% of the total carbon emission from 2011 to 2020, respectively. The carbon balance index of the Jinjing River Catchment was less than 1, indicating that the catchment is an atmospheric carbon sink. This study provides a typical case for the inventory of carbon sources and sinks at the catchment scale, and provides a useful reference for the study area in formulating the implementation path of the “dual carbon” target.
    2024,45(2):316-325, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0030
    Abstract:
    Afforestation is an important strategy to promote vegetation restoration of degraded karst ecosystems while enhancing terrestrial carbon sequestration. To date, the effects of afforestation on soil carbon and nitrogen fractions and their biochemical stability in the karst-cluster depression region are poorly understood. In this study, 14 sets of surface (0~15 cm) and sub-surface (30~45 cm) soil samples were collected from the maize field and its neighbouring plantation forests in the karst-cluster depression region of Guangxi, and the soil carbon and nitrogen fractions (labile carbon and nitrogen in pool I, labile carbon and nitrogen in pool II, and carbon and nitrogen in the non-lable pool) were determined using the acid hydrolysis method. The study showed that the contents of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, labile carbon and nitrogen pools, non-labile carbon and nitrogen pools in both surface and subsurface soils were significantly increased after 20 years of afforestation. The soil carbon pool activity (labile carbon pool/ non-lable carbon pool) was significantly lower, but the carbon pool stability (non-labile carbon as a proportion of total soil organic carbon) was significantly higher in the plantation forest than in the maize field. Stepwise regression analyses showed that fine root biomass, calcium carbonate and exchangeable calcium ions were the main factors responsible for the increase of soil organic carbon, nitrogen and their fractions following afforestation.
    2024,45(2):326-335, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0023
    Abstract:
    To investigate the effect of combined application of organic and chemical fertilizers on N2O emissions, a typical peri-urban protected vegetable field with sweet corn planting was chose as the research object, and a field experiment was conducted with four treatments, including no fertilizer (CK), conventional fertilizer (CON), 30% cow dung organic nitrogen fertilizer + 70% inorganic nitrogen fertilizer (CM), and 30% chicken dung organic nitrogen fertilizer + 70% inorganic nitrogen fertilizer (NM). The N2O emission fluxes were measured by the static opaque chamber-gas chromatography method during the growing season, with soil ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and soluble organic carbon (DOC) contents as well as crop yield and nitrogen uptake also measured. Results show that the cumulative N2O emissions were much high during the sweet corn (Zea mays var. rugosa Bonaf.) season, ranging from 24.6~33.6 kg/hm2. The N2O emissions per unit yield were reduced by 35.7% and 19.0% for the CM and NM treatments, respectively, in comparison to the CON treatment. The CM treatment demonstrated a significant reduction in cumulative N2O emissions per unit area by 26.9%, while the NM treatment did not reduce N2O emissions significantly. The soil nitrate nitrogen content was significantly reduced by 40.4% in the NM treatment compared to the CON treatment, and the soil ammonium nitrogen content was reduced by 60.7% and 50.1% in the CM and NM treatments, respectively. The soil DOC contents in the CM and NM treatments did not show significantly change. N2O emissions fluxes were significantly and positively correlated with soil ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and DOC contents. This suggests that replacing chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer could reduce N2O emissions by reducing the amount of available inorganic nitrogen in the soil. Furthermore, the yield of CON, CM, and NM treatments increase 156.5%, 191.8%, and 188.2%, respectively, compared to the CK treatment. The yield of CM and NM treatments increase 13.8% and 12.4%, respectively, compared to the CON treatment. Moreover, the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency of the CM treatment increased by 15.2% compared to the CON treatment. In conclusion, the combined application of 30% organic fertilizer and 70% chemical fertilizer proved effective in reducing N2O emissions and increasing yields in sweet corn fields. Additionally, the use of cattle manure was found to be more effective.
    2024,45(2):336-344, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0028
    Abstract:
    Rhizosphere growth promoting microbes can effectively suppress soil-borne diseases by regulating soil microbial community composition and function. Pepper phytophthora blight caused by Phytophthora capsici is one of the detrimental soil-borne diseases of peppers. However, few studies have been conducted to explore the effects of composite microbial agent inoculation on pepper phytophthora blight suppression and soil bacterial community characteristics. The current study aimed to screen composite microbial agents from healthy soil cultivated with long-term application of organic fertilizers, and to assess their effects on suppressing the occurrence and growth of Phytophthora capsici by plate confrontation and pot experiments, with the latter assessing the efficiency of suppressive pepper phytophthora blight and its linkage with bacterial community characteristics. According to the plate confrontation experiment, the composite microbial agents had higher antagonistic effects on Phytophthora capsica growth. According to the pot experiment, the incidence of pepper phytophthora blight was significantly decreased by 14.3%, and the death rate of pepper was significantly decreased by 23.8% under the treatment of composite microbial agent inoculation compared to the control (inoculation with Phytophthora capsici). The α diversity of bacterial community was significantly decreased, the bacterial community composition was significantly altered and the two-component system function of bacterial community was significantly increased under the treatment of composite microbial agent inoculation. The abundance of Bordetella was negatively correlated with the number of Phytophthora capsici. The results provide a technical support for efficiently suppressing pepper phytophthora blight using composite microbial agents in pepper production.
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    Available online:  April 25, 2024 , DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0033
    Abstract:
    Improving the sense of well-being of rural residents is an important goal to accelerate the modernization of agriculture and rural areas and promote the strategy of rural revitalization. The role of E-commerce and other new information technology in improving the happiness of rural residents has been widely discussed in the academic field. Based on the micro data of China General Social Survey (CGSS) and the theory of happiness economics, this paper analyzed the relationship between E-commerce and rural residents’ happiness and further discussed the mechanism by the Ordered Probit model and the intermediary benefit model. Results show that the average subjective well-being of rural residents is 3.870, which still has some room for improvement, and the happy rural residents who participate in E-commerce are 5.54% higher than those who do not. Rural residents’ participation in E-commerce activities can significantly improve their subjective well-being. E-commerce participation will bring significant welfare effects to youth and rural residents in the central and western China. Mechanism analysis shows that E-commerce participation can improve rural residents’ happiness by improving social trust and income. Therefore, this paper suggests continuing to strengthen policy support, encouraging E-commerce participation in service innovation, increasing farmers’ E-commerce skill training, and promoting the continuous improvement of rural residents’ sense of well-being.
    Available online:  April 19, 2024 , DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2024.0017
    Abstract:
    Abstract: The effect of fine root traits on soil nutrient availability is mediated by microorganisms or by direct interaction between fine roots and soil. However, the former has received a lot of attention, while the latter has rarely been reported. In this study, six mixed tree species (3 resource-acquisitive and 3 resource-conservative) in a subtropical Chinese fir-broadleaf mixed forest were used as the research object. The direct, indirect, and overall effects of fine roots on soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability and the relationship between fine root traits and them were studied by an in-situ net bag test. The results showed that fine root direct contact with soil could improve the availability of soil N and P under both resource utilization strategies. The effect of acquisitive tree species on soil phosphorus was more significant, showing stronger direct, indirect, and overall effects, while the indirect effect of conservative tree species on soil nitrogen was stronger. Moreover, the C/N ratio of fine roots is the primary factor regulating its effect on soil N and P availability. The direct effect of resource utilization strategies on nitrogen availability mainly depends on the strength of nutrient uptake, and the indirect effect is dominated by organic nitrogen mineralization. Fine roots with a low C/N ratio directly promote P availability by producing more phosphatases or indirectly promote P availability by reducing soil pH. This study enriched the regulatory mechanism of fine root traits on soil nutrient availability and provided theoretical support for the selection of associated tree species in mixed forests.
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    数字乡村与数字农业
    种业发展
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    2011,32(2):184-187, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1914) [HTML] (0) [PDF 667.68 K] (16353)
    Abstract:
    The fluctuation of the small-scale agricultural products price has a great impact on the development of agricultural economy and the improvement of people's living standard. The paper summarizes the causes of price fluctuating of the small-scale agricultural products and brings forward the question that we should strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market. Some methods and recommendations are proposed to strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market: promoting purchasing market, standardizing wholesale market, discovering futures market, and promoting information, nurturing broker, establishing co-operatives, increasing reserves, enacting transactions act, and so on.
    2012,33(5):535-538, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1829) [HTML] (0) [PDF 677.91 K] (13588)
    Abstract:
    This article has analyzed the situation of forestry in Guizhou Province from the perspective of forest resources, forestry ecological, forestry industry and forestry safety supply system, and pointed out the problems on the distribution of forest resources, forestry total production value, industrial structure and the forestry funds investment. Then it proposed the countermeasures for developing the modern forestry on scientific planning forestry layout, developing forestry property energetically and to establish a diversified forestry investment system in Guizhou Province
    2012,33(5):544-547, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1762) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.19 M] (12351)
    Abstract:
    Characteristic agriculture is an important part of modern agricultural development, which can maximize regional advantages, enhance the competitiveness of agricultural products and promote regional development of modern agriculture. According to the connotation of characteristic agriculture, the conditions and characteristics of the development of modern agriculture in Fujian Province, it analyzes the path and the effectiveness of modern agricultural development in Fujian Province from the perspective of characteristic agriculture
    2010,31(1):1-4, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1817) [HTML] (0) [PDF 604.79 K] (12112)
    Abstract:
    吉林省是我国重要的粮食主产区和商品粮基地,对于保障国家粮食安全具有重要的战略意义。本文分析了吉林省玉米加工业发展与国家粮食安全的辨证关系。认为玉米加工业发展引起粮食供求关系的新变化,改变粮食生产与流通格局,但是其对农业增效、农民增收和粮食增产具有积极影响。由于玉米加工业自身特点和粮食消费结构的限制,以及通过政府宏观调控、流通体制改革与物流体系建设等,吉林省玉米加工业发展对国家中长期粮食安全不会产生较大的影响。构建合理的玉米加工业体系和加强粮食安全基地建设是保证吉林省玉米加工业持续健康发展与增强粮食安全保障能力的重要途径。
    2014,35(3):308-312, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2135) [HTML] (0) [PDF 18.14 M] (10841)
    Abstract:
    Using ESDA spatial analysis, this paper researches the spatial pattern evolution and characteristics of per capita net income of farmers in the Yangtze River Delta counties since 1989. The results show that: (1) the absolute difference in per capita net income of farmers is gradually widening, while the relative difference is decreasing with periodic fluctuations; (2)the level of per capita net income of farmers has a strong positive spatial correlation, and the regions with similar income levels have a spatial agglomeration; (3)the growth pattern of per capita net income is proved to be more instable, where its growth hot spots and cold spots switch frequently in their geographical locations, showing the existence of transition phenomenon. Apart from subordinate revenue growth cold spots, trend of spatial concentration enhanced while tendency of random distribution weakened in other growth type areas. Finally, this paper reaches some conclusions and conducts some corresponding discussions. Besides, related suggestions are given to narrow regional differences in Yangtze River Delta counties and promote the regional coordinated development.
    2012,33(6):668-672, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1670) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.02 M] (9108)
    Abstract:
    This paper analyzes many of the problems in China's agricultural scientific and technological progress system. It clears the reform direction of agricultural science and technology policy. The measures include that, the agricultural scientific research investment should be between the lower level of developed countries and the higher level of developing countries, the agricultural scientific research should be unified management by department of agriculture, the agricultural research project will be taken target management of facing the farmers, government needs cooperation with the universities to build the agricultural science and technology promotion system. It guids the agricultural scientific research institutions and universities to set up the marketing company to promote agricultural science and technology. On the basis of respect for the wishes of farmers, with administrative villages as the unit set up the public land transfer market.According to farmers' operating conditions, adopt different types of industrialization
    2020,41(2):181-189, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0019
    [Abstract] (2084) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.20 M] (8814)
    Abstract:
    The revitalization of rural talents is the foundation of rural revitalization. In order to deal with the shortage of rural talents, and make sure that rural talents can play the supporting role in rural revitalization, this paper, taking Qingdao City as an example, summarized and analyzed two ways to promote rural revitalization through rural talent revitalization, which include attracting urban talents and cultivating local talents. Results show that from the perspectives of the shortage of agricultural and rural talents, relative low quality level of talents, the lack of attraction of talents in rural areas, under-optimized rural talent cultivation mechanism, and some other problems, Qingdao City adopted the following measures: increasing the number of talents and improving the talent structure through bringing in, sinking and retaining urban talents in rural areas, constructing the attraction system of urban talents and trying to retain them. At the same time, Qingdao City has built a complete system of local talent cultivation network from the aspects of discovering local talents and training and supporting local talents. In conclusion, Qingdao City has set up a mechanism of encouraging and attracting urban talents with prominent focus, comprehensive coverage and perfect measures, and has set up a mechanism of the cultivation of local talent with integration, cooperation and incentives called “the Qingdao experience”, which is enlightening and worth spreading.
    2014,35(2):134-139, DOI:
    [Abstract] (3396) [HTML] (0) [PDF 902.08 K] (8356)
    Abstract:
    From the angle of urban and rural aging population inversion phenomenon in China and the challenges brought by it, this paper analyzes the relationship between urbanization and aging population inversion in urban and rural areas in China. In the long term of traditional process of urbanization, population transfer is mainly labor transfer, and the elderly population transfer has been driven by the transfer is limited, thus improve the degree of aging of the rural population and have an impact on the balanced urban and rural development. This population transfer mode is the main reason for the formation of urban and rural aging population inversion. Meanwhile, urban and rural aging population inversion have an impact on urbanization, it not only affects the level and pace of urbanization, but also affects the quality of urbanization. To alleviate this condition, we must take a new urbanizing road, change the urban and rural population transfer mode, and integrate urban and rural social security system.
    2014,35(4):385-391, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2014.0019
    [Abstract] (2460) [HTML] (0) [PDF 6.04 M] (8249)
    Abstract:
    Using grain production panel data in 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2010, this paper adopts a DEA-based Malmquist productivity index method to measure and decompose grain TFP (Total Factor Productivity) growth index of the nation’s main grain production areas, main grain sales areas, and balancing areas. This paper also analyzes the spatial and temporal disparities and the underlying mechanism of dynamic TFP index. On this basis, it continues to explore TFP and its decomposition value - exogenous influencing factor of technical efficiency index and technical progress index. Our results show that the TFP index of main production areas have realized an average annual increase of 0.28% within 10 years, which has benefited from technical improvement and efficiency enhancement. However, main sales areas have suffered from a duel loss in the technical progress and technical efficiency. As a result, TFP has an average annual decrease of 0.35%. TFP in balancing areas also has an average decrease of 0.69%, influenced by deterioration of technical progress. We also find that the implementation of the central government’s favorable policies to farmers has significant influence on improving grain TFP level in main production areas. However, these policies have a lagging influence on main sales areas and balancing areas. In addition, per capital grain production scale and mechanization level have negative influence on TFP growth in main grain production area, but positive influence on TFP in main grain sales areas. As for the grain production-sales balancing areas, expansion of the per capita production scale can improve the technical efficiency, but has a reverse inhibiting impact on TFP and technical progress. Finally, based on the research results, this paper proposes measures and suggestions to improve grain productivity more effectively.
    2014,35(2):183-187, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2113) [HTML] (0) [PDF 970.61 K] (8201)
    Abstract:
    Based on the research review, the wine industry has been around all round the world, not only limited in developed counties and western countries. Nowadays, wine consumption in China presents the trend of rapid growing, China’s wine industry cluster develops in a higher level; nonetheless this industry is facing some challenges in China. As such, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the status and developing trends of China’s wine industry from the various aspects namely regional planting, yield, market consumption, and the investment. Data and information from current literatures are used to investigate the conditions of China’s wine industry. It was found that numerous problems impede the development of China’s wine industry including lack of overall planning of the construction of exist producing region, imbalance development between eastern and western areas, poor and lag behind of product quality management and pre-maturation of the marketing system. The article eventually points out some developing strategies involving reasonable layout and enhance competitiveness in overall producing area; set up the wine industry chain management; strengthen origin protection, and improve the quality certification system; use the new marketing and promoting model, to spread wine culture and to promote the sustainable development of China’s wine industry.
    2020,41(2):312-320, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0030
    [Abstract] (1132) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.91 M] (7544)
    Abstract:
    From the perspectives of nature, human, and carrying capacity and applying the entropy and linear weighted comprehensive methods, this paper constructed an evaluation system to assess the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province from 2001 to 2016. In addition, this paper also examined the main obstacles affecting the vulnerability. Results show that the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in 9 cities in Henan Province decreased from 2001 to 2016, while it increased in the other 9 cities; and the vulnerability growth rate varied significantly. The evolution trend of vulnerability could be divided into four types: increasing first and then decreasing, decreasing first and then increasing, increasing with some fluctuations, and decreasing with some fluctuations. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province illustrated a concentrating characteristic in its spatial distribution with the decreasing order as follows: Northern Henan, Eastern Henan, Southern Henan, Central Henan, and Western Henan. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in municipalities was mainly affected by human and carrying capacity, and the main obstacle factors were different. In order to achieve the coordinated development of agricultural production and water resource utilization in Henan Province, this paper suggests that human intervention in water resource system should be positively strengthened by increasing investment in agricultural funds, improving the level of farmland water conservancy construction, and promoting agricultural water use efficiency.
    2015,36(4):674-679, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2015.0097
    [Abstract] (1399) [HTML] (0) [PDF 2.29 M] (7536)
    Abstract:
    Urban development is one of the main factors that affect material circulations and energy flows in ecosystems. Studies on how urban development influences net primary productivity (NPP) are necessary for science-based planning of regional land use. Based on data of land uses and NPP in Wuhan Metropolitan Area from 2000 to 2010, the impacts of construction land expansion on NPP in Wuhan Metropolitan Area were assessed. The construction land in Wuhan Metropolitan Area increased by 57.88% (1 459.44 km2) from 2000 to 2010, and the average NPP decreased from 919.55 g C/(m2·a) to 702.95 g C/(m2·a) while total NPP increased from 2 317.66 Gg C/a to 2 797.97 Gg C/a with an increase rate of 20.72%. Among the nine cities in Wuhan Metropolitan Area, Wuhan and its surrounding area expanded fastest in their construction land. During the decade, the construction land in Wuhan increased by 80.73%, while the total NPP raised by 30.53%. Since the average NPP in the construction area was reduced by 27.78%, total NPP in Wuhan Metropolitan Area only increased marginally.
    2011,32(1):91-96, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1727) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.09 M] (7463)
    Abstract:
    Yulin city is an enrichment region of energy resources, and an extremely vulnerable area as well in China. The energy resources' exploitation and eco-reconstruction has seriously restricted by water resources. Based on fuzzy mathematical and AHP method, it has estimated the water resources intimidation from 2000 to 2005 in Yulin city. The results show that water resource intimidation already approaches to or exceeds the heavy stress degree, and presents an increasing trend. In the basis of the analysis of the industrial structure and its characteristics of water use, the results indicates that agriculture has the biggest proportion in water use, along with the industry scale enlarging and eco-reconstruction, both industrial and ecological water use has been increasing. The interaction mechanism between water resources and society-economy development tells us that: the development of economy has restricted by water resources, which propels the industry to move to the direction of low water demand and high efficiency; impelled by the aridification, agrotype has conversed from crops to grazing and forest; the industry changes to the low water demand and high efficiency types, meanwhile, the industry incomes would help development water-saving agriculture and transform water; the increase of water demand in society and economy produces many eco-environment problems, such as, the excess utilization and declining water level of groundwater.
    2010,31(5):608-611, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1468) [HTML] (0) [PDF 721.80 K] (7378)
    Abstract:
    本研究采用统计分析与遥感判读相结合的方法,对下辽河平原区典型区域耕地利用变化进行研究。结果表明:耕地是研究区域主要土地利用类型,耕地分布比较集中,总体分布不均衡,其中生态退耕、建设用地占用、灾毁和农业产业结构调整是耕地减少的主要原因,对于林地的开垦、未利用土地开发、居民点及工矿用地和水利设施用地整理是耕地增加的主要来源,但耕地总体是逐年减少的。本文提出要处理好耕地保护与粮食安全、城市发展和生态环境建设之间的关系,具体可以通过提高耕地质量保证粮食安全;通过建立城乡统一的土地市场,协调城市化和耕地减少之间的矛盾;通过合理的生态退耕,协调生态环境建设与耕地保护之间的关系。
    2010,31(5):525-528, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1977) [HTML] (0) [PDF 620.82 K] (7095)
    Abstract:
    本文从水稻生产、市场、贸易等方面,分析了世界水稻产业发展现状,以及世界水稻产业发展面临着人口持续增加,消费量稳定增长;资源约束性增强,水稻生产增速放缓;全球气候变暖,灾害性气候和病虫害多发;比较效益偏低,增产与增收矛盾突出等严峻形势。指出今后世界水稻产业发展的趋势是水稻产量总量增加,增速减缓;稻米人均消费量稳定,总量增加;各国自给率提高,贸易量减少。提出要立足国内稻米生产基本自给、利用国际市场满足国内需求不现实,要大力提高水稻产业化水平。
    2013,34(1):90-94, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2081) [HTML] (0) [PDF 842.49 K] (7068)
    Abstract:
    This paper analyses the current status of agricultural pollution resulting from overuse of agricultural chemical inputs since the reform and open-up. It turns out that the formation of agricultural pollution is related to agricultural industrial policies, rural-urban economic structure, pollution controlling fund, environmental general management, “agri-environmental” policies, pollution controlling law and farmer’s environmental awareness. In order to cope with agricultural pollution effectively, some measures that have to be taken are as follows: integration of agricultural and environmental policies, establishment of environmental friendly agricultural technology system, implementation of valley comprehensive management, enhancement of environmental management capabilities of agricultural pollution, strengthening of peasants’ environmental education and establishment of agricultural environmental protection law.
    2013,34(1):25-29, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2753) [HTML] (0) [PDF 768.89 K] (7026)
    Abstract:
    This paper try to comparative multi-function of urban modern agriculture of Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou for example, and use the method of combing static and dynamic and of combing qualitative and quantitative to comparative and analyze the urban modern agriculture functions of economy, ecology and society. It can be seen that the differences on economic mainly in the difference of structure of agricultural land only for the difference of types of terrain of three cities, which affect the structure of agriculture industry. Ratio of agro-structural change decreases gradually. Advantage indexes of animal husbandry and fisheries of Shanghai are higher, farming, fisheries and agricultural services of Nanjing, forestry and animal husbandry of Hangzhou are higher as well. The production capacity of vegetables of Shanghai and the production capacity of grain of Nanjing and the production capacity of fruit of Hangzhou is higher than that of others separately in 2010. Secondly, the value of farmland ecosystem carbon sequestration and oxygen releasing of Nanjing is lowest in 2010. Optimal adjustment of the agricultural space layout maintains the ecological environment. The pesticide and chemical fertilizer excessive remains a serious problem. Lastly, agricultural tourism of three cities is in the leisure stage towards the holiday stage. Meanwhile, the three cities take different leisure agriculture development models, and achieve results in employment and economic benefits.
    2012,33(1):13-18, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2006) [HTML] (0) [PDF 844.25 K] (6673)
    Abstract:
    Large scale is the direction of pig- producing development of China in future, but does not mean breeding scale the bigger the better. The rationality, scientificalness and suitability of each region pig- producing scale has determined the effectiveness of pig-producing to a large extent. This paper shows that, from the national average level to see, the moderate scale has the strongest profitability. Specific to major pig producing provinces, the strongest profitability of farming was difference in different province. The current pig scale cultivation exist such problems as the disease prevention and control status not optimum, production cost and the scales price has no advantage and the standardization level need to improve. Finally, combine the current national and provincial pig scale development situation and problems, this paper proposed the corresponding countermeasure to promote the healthy development of
    2012,33(1):23-26, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1998) [HTML] (0) [PDF 675.25 K] (6643)
    Abstract:
    With the increase of the importation scale, the quality and safety of imported whey powder has become the hot issue which arise a lot of attentions and should be solved urgently. This thesis analyzes the necessities of establishing the quality and safety risk warning mechanism of imported whey powder, based on the current conditions of whey powder importation, using the method of warning method based on case study ratiocination, sets up the imported whey powder quality and safety risk warning mechanism from three aspects, including warning information gathering, warning model building and fast response system, and puts forwards the countermeasures of consummating the warning system
    2015,36(2):315-320, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2015.0011
    [Abstract] (2024) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.39 M] (6564)
    Abstract:
    Along with the intelligence and automation improving in agricultural machinery, the application of steering-by-wire technology in agricultural vehicles such as tractors has received concerns and researches. In order to guide the study of hydraulic steering-by-wire of tractor and to shorten the development cycle, a co-simulation model was built based on the analysis of hydraulic steering-by-wire system control algorithm and structure. The hydraulic system and full vehicle model were built on AMESim software platform. Meantime, PID, fuzzy PID and fuzzy immune PID control modeling were constructed by using Simulink software. While Visual C++ 6.0 was chosen to realize interface communication, the angle response and angle following co-simulation were completed with angle transmission ratio 1; as well as the co-simulation of yawing angular velocity response and centroid side-slip angle response under the speed of 15 km/h, the steering wheel Angle 180°, angle transmission ratio 9. The experimental results show that step response time achieves 0.272 s with fuzzy immune PID control, following error of 1.182°, 3% overshoot amount of the yawing angular velocity response, and 0.85°/s steady-state value of centroid side-slip angle response, they both prevail over the performance of common PID and fuzzy PID. In conclusion, co-simulation maintains a strong reference value, and an ideal control effect is able to achieve while fuzzy immune PID control are applied into hydraulic steering-by-wire system.

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