Abstract: Carbon peaking and carbon neutrality (double-carbon) is one of China’s important strategies to promote high-quality development. Agriculture is an important and indispensable field in the implementation of the double-carbon strategy. Planting industry is the main body of agriculture in China. It is of great significance to study and explore the path to achieve carbon neutrality of planting industry in China. Based on the theoretical understanding of the key issues on carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions of planting industry, this paper reviewed the research progress in the research field at home and abroad, discussed the technical path and put forward suggestions to improve the technological innovation ability of carbon neutrality of planting industry in China. Results shows that different understandings existed presently about whether planting industry is a carbon “source” or “sink”, and a standardized system of farmland carbon accounting methods was urgently necessary to resolve the issue. Meanwhile, the planting industry in China needs to achieve carbon neutrality based on a system perspective, considering the whole life cycle of crop production including agricultural material input, on-field cultivation and waste disposal as well as the whole production processes including crop varieties, planting modes, soil water and fertilizer management, and agricultural machinery tillage. Four technological pathways were proposed based on the considerations above, including the reasonable reduction of agricultural materials inputted in production system, improving the use efficiency of nutrients, recycling the different types of agricultural wastes, and crop technology innovation. In order to achieve carbon neutrality in planting industry in China, it is urgent to strengthen the scientific and technological innovation capability of carbon neutrality in the field from four aspects, including strengthening the scientific and technological innovation on carbon neutrality in farmland ecosystems, consolidating the construction of a national agricultural dual carbon platform base, establishing a national research alliance for resolving the agricultural double-carbon problem, promoting the international scientific research cooperation projects on agricultural carbon neutrality.
Abstract: Reducing food waste is important to ensure national grain security and to promote environmental protection. Accurately assessing food waste levels and analyzing food waste characteristics are pre-requisites for the government to formulate food waste reduction-related measures. Based on a survey data of 1 479 rural households in 28 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in China, this paper assesses the level of food waste in China’s rural households, analyzes the characteristics of food waste in terms of the general situation and regional differences, and evaluates the impacts of food waste on resources and environment. Results show that the proportion of food waste in China’s rural households is 2.70% and shows a trend of gradual increase from morning to night. Among the food categories, staple food is wasted relatively more and meat is wasted relatively less. Each household wastes 2.54 percent of flour products, 3.60 percent of rice products, 1.47 percent of pork, and only 0.75 percent of beef and lamb. There are significant differences in food waste in rural households by region. Food waste in the southeast coastal area is relatively serious with a waste ratio of 3.21%. Geographic environment and eating habits have significant regional differences in rural household food waste with high waste of flour products in the north and high waste of rice and fishery products in the south. The study also shows that rural food waste greatly influences resources and the environment. The total waste and cash loss due to rural household food waste are 3.12 million tons and 18.04 billion yuan per year, respectively, generating 9.75 million tons of carbon dioxide and 6.11 billion cubic meters of water resources. Therefore, this paper suggests that the government should strengthen the awareness of food saving, improve storage conditions, promote healthy eating culture, and establish a comprehensive kitchen waste disposal system.
Abstract: Farm animal welfare is a global issue closely related to ecological protection, social civilization, and economic development, and it is one of the effective ways to promote the sustainable development of animal husbandry. Based on the existing domestic and international research, this paper analyzed the historical evolution stages and characteristics of farm animal welfare in developed countries, integrated the “five freedom principles” of farm animal welfare and the “three connotations” of sustainable development, explained the internal logic and practical value of farm animal welfare in promoting the sustainable development of China’s livestock industry, and discussed the ideas for promoting the development of farm animal welfare in China. Results show that farm animal welfare has become a widely recognized concept of sustainable and healthy breeding in developed countries. It has ecological effects of protecting the environment and saving feed resources, economic effects of improving breeding benefits and promoting consumption upgrading, and social effects of ensuring public safety and promoting social civilization. However, China’s livestock industry is at a stage of development, in which the dual constraints of environmental governance and feed resources shortage continue to strengthen, the quality benefits and competitiveness of livestock products still need to be continuously improved, and the construction of a healthy China and moral and legal systems continue to advance. Farm animal welfare can effectively promote the sustainable development of China’s livestock industry by releasing ecological, economic and social effects. Therefore, to promote the sustainable development of China’s livestock industry, this paper suggests to formulate and improve the system of farm animal welfare, to encourage and guide business entities to improve farm animal welfare, to popularize and deepen animal welfare education for the public, and to promote and strengthen the exchange and cooperation of animal welfare.
Abstract: The development of digital inclusive finance in rural areas is a key to increasing the income of rural households and improving income distribution, which is vital to achieving common prosperity for farmers in rural areas. Based on a field survey data from 11 counties in six provinces in the Yellow River basin, this paper analyzed the impacts of digital inclusive finance on income generation, poverty alleviation and income distribution of rural households by the OLS model, the Probit model and the quantile regression method. In addition, this paper also explored the impact mechanism of digital inclusive finance on income growth by the mediating effect model, followed by endogenous and robustness tests. Results show that the development level of digital inclusive finance in the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River basin is below the medium level of all counties in China, with obvious regional differences. 43.9% of rural households are in relative poverty, and household income needs to be further improved. The development of digital inclusive finance can increase rural households’ income, reduce the possibility of relative poverty, and lower the incidence of relative poverty in villages. Digital inclusive finance has more effects on the low-income groups and can improve rural households’ income distribution. The three indicators of digital inclusive finance have different impacts on poverty alleviation and income distribution. The effect of digital inclusive finance on increasing farmers’ income in the middle reaches of the Yellow River basin is even more obvious. In addition, county industrial structure upgrading plays a partial intermediary role in the revenue-raising effect of digital inclusion. Therefore, this paper suggests to continuously promote the development of digital inclusive finance in the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River basin and accelerate the transformation and upgrading of county industries. In addition, it is necessary to strengthen the efforts to carry out digital financial education so that digital dividends can benefit disadvantaged groups more fairly and promote the realization of common prosperity for all people.
Abstract: Promoting the steady increase of farmers’ income is one of the priorities of the rural revitalization strategy and the innovative development of the digital economy provides new possibilities for this purpose. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of digital inclusive finance on farmers’ income. From the perspectives of digital infrastructure and urbanization, based on a data of cities from 2011 to 2020 in Guangdong Province, this paper analyzed the effects of digital inclusive finance on farmers’ income by the OLS model, quantile regression and adjustment effect model. Results show that digital inclusive finance had a rapid growth trend, the coefficient of variation was gradually decreasing, the development of inter-regional disparities was relatively balanced, the income of rural residents showed a stable growth, the coefficient of variation was at around 0.3, and there was a significant gap between Pearl River Delta and other less economically regions. Digital inclusive finance has effectively promoted farmers’ income and had non-linear characteristics with its sub-dimensions. The breadth of coverage, depth of use, and degree of digitalization contributed positively to farmers’ income with a gradual diminishing trend. The heterogeneity test showed that the effect was more significant among high-income farmers and in Pearl River Delta region. In addition, the improvement of the digital infrastructure and urbanization level has strengthened the role of digital inclusive finance in promoting farmers’ income. Therefore, according to the consideration of helping low-income farmers to achieve common prosperity, this paper provides the following suggestions: actively promoting the development of digital inclusive finance in rural areas, developing digital inclusive finance according to local conditions, improving digital inclusive finance infrastructure in less developed areas, promoting urban-rural integration, and optimally allocating financial resources.
Abstract: The supply of agricultural productive services is an important means to improve productivity of rural households and to modernize agriculture. It is of great significance to evaluate the effects of agricultural productive services on rural households’ income to provide empirical evidence for agricultural modernization decisions. Based on the theory of specialized division and a survey data from 1 037 rural households in Chifeng City, this paper analyzed the effects of agricultural productive services on rural households’ productive and operating income, the income effect difference in agricultural and pastoral areas, and its mechanism. Results show that the supply rate of agricultural productive services in Chifeng City is relatively low. The supply rates of agricultural materials services, water conservancy services, and processing services are 38.09%, 56.99%, and 46.96%, respectively. In agricultural areas, the median incomes of rural households with agricultural material service and water conservancy service increased by 5 760 yuan and 3 060 yuan, respectively. In pastoral areas, the median income of rural households who was provided with water conservancy services and processing services increased by 15 880 yuan and 26 360 yuan, respectively. The provision of agricultural materials, water conservancy and processing services has a significant role in promoting the productive and operating income of rural households. The more complete the service links, the more significant rural households’ income increases. The provision of agricultural materials and water conservancy services has a significant positive impact on the income of rural households in agricultural areas. Processing services have a significant positive impact on rural households in pastoral areas. The service level represented by the service quantity has an income-increasing effect on both of them. The study shows that the supply of water conservancy services in the village provides a preferable external environment for the land transfer, which benefits the land transfer and leads to improvement of the productive and operating income of rural households. However, the effects of agricultural material services and processing services on land transfer are not significant. To meet the needs of rural households of different production types, the construction of agricultural productive service system should be strengthened, and a land transfer policy coordinated with agricultural productive services should be formulated.
Abstract: Farmland management right stability can increase farmers’ motivation to invest in farmland and have varying degrees of an impact on their inputs, which in turn affect farmers’ input structure. Based on the land property theory and a survey data from rural households in Manas County in Xinjiang, this paper examined the influencing relationship between farmland management right stability in three dimensions of law, fact, and perception and farmers’ input structure of labor, machinery, and technology by the structural equation model and explored the influencing effects of farmland management right stability on farmers’ input structure. Results indicate that the overall labor quality is not high, the household labor input is insufficient, and farmland management right is relatively secure. In addition, farmers’ input structure can still be optimized, but the short farmland circulation period restricts them from making long-term investment. Farmland management right stability in the three dimensions of law, fact, and perception significantly affects farmers’ inputs, and then affects farmers’ input structure. Farmland management right stability in the three dimensions of law, fact, and perception also has significant positive impacts on labor input, machinery input, and technology input with some heterogeneity, respectively, in decreasing order as follows: labor input, machinery input, and technology input; technology input, machinery input, and labor input; and machinery input, labor input, and technology input. The perception of farmland management right stability by farmers impacts their expectations for investment, which reflects the fact that this stability has the greatest impact on machinery input in the perception dimension. Therefore, this paper provides the following policy recommendations: strengthening the market system for exchanging farmland management rights, assisting farmers in suitably extending the time of farmland circulation, and raising farmers’ awareness of contract renewal to optimize farmers’ input structure.
Abstract: Counties are important geographical units for China’s economic and social development. Agricultural technological progress is one of focuses for reducing China’s urban-rural income gap and promoting common prosperity. Based on the county level data in Henan Province from 2010 to 2019 and the theory of technology diffusion, this study evaluated the agricultural total factor productivity by the DEA-Malmquist index, analyzed the impacts of the progress on urban-rural income gap by the dynamic spatial Durbin model and partial differential decomposition method, and discussed the degree, sphere, and path of the effects. Results show that the progress of agricultural frontier technology mainly contributes to the progress of agricultural technology in Henan Province and the process accompanies by the losses of agricultural technical efficiency as well. A significant spatial agglomeration of urban-rural income gap exists in Henan Province. Agricultural technological progress is negatively correlated with the income gaps that decreases the gaps by 0.013. From the time dimension, the technology spillover effect coefficient is significantly negative in short-term, but not significant in the long-term. About the regional heterogeneity and regional agricultural technological progress with different per capita GDP levels have different inhibitory effects on the income gaps. For geographical distances, the concentrated area of spatial spillover effects is within 150 km, and the effects become smaller and smaller with the increase of distance. The study proves that agricultural frontier technological progress is an effective way to suppress the spillover path of urban-rural income gap. Therefore, to narrow the income gaps among counties, this study suggests continuing to increase investment in agricultural science and technology and promote their results’ transformation from theory to practice, reducing the transaction cost of technology diffusion, breaking the barriers to agricultural technology spillover in counties, and setting a county-level technology information exchange network.
Abstract: “Storing grain in technology” is an important guarantee of stable and high grain production. Based on a panel data of 26 major grain-producing provinces from 2002 to 2020, this research seeks to measure the bias of agricultural technological progress and grain total factor productivity by the three-factor nested CES production function and the the DEA-Malmquist model and to analyze the influence of agricultural technological progress bias on grain total factor productivity by the spatial lag model. Results show that, China’s agricultural technological progress was non-neutral, and there were differences in the bias of agricultural technological progress at different times, regions, and different food crops. During the research period, China’s overall technological progress was biased towards agricultural machinery elements. Different from the agricultural machinery-biased model of wheat, the characteristics of rice and maize had obvious biochemical bias. From 2002 to 2020, the total factor productivity of grain fluctuated significantly, and the comprehensive production efficiency of the main grain producing areas was significantly better than that of the non-main producing areas. Currently, China’s agricultural machinery-biased model of technological progress is not conducive to the promotion of the total factor productivity of grain and has obvious negative spillover effects. In addition, biochemical-biased technological progress in non-major production areas has a more significant effect on the total factor productivity of grain. Technological innovation that conforms to the biased characteristics of grain technological progress can better promote grain production and income. Therefore, to promote a virtuous cycle of technological progress and food efficiency, this paper suggests to replace scarce resources with technological innovation, to give a full play to the advantages of agricultural mechanization, and to develop and apply new biochemical technologies according to the endowments of grain production.
Abstract: It is of great significance to guide farmers to adopt conservation tillage technology for increasing yield, creating efficiency of farmland, and promoting sustainable agricultural development. Based on a field survey data of 439 farmers in Henan, Heilongjiang, Shandong, and Shanxi provinces, this paper analyzed the influences of subject cognition and situational constraint on farmers’ adoption intensity of conservation tillage technology by the ordered Probit model and the moderation model and examined the moderating effect of the situational constraint as a regulating variable. Results show that: 1) The adoption intensity of conservation tillage technology by farmers was generally low, and the proportion of farmers gradually decreased with the increase of technology adoption; 2) Both subject cognition and situational constraint significantly promoted the adoption of conservation tillage techniques by farmers, and this conclusion passed the robustness test; and 3) Environmental pressure reinforced the influence of ecological cognition on the intensity of conservation tillage technology adoption and policy support had a positive moderation effect of technology cognition on the adoption intensity of conservation tillage technologies by farmers, but weakened the effect of ecological cognition on the adoption intensity of conservation tillage technologies. Based on the above results, this paper suggests to pay more attention to the improvement of farmers’ main cognitive ability, to enhance the awareness of agro-ecological environment protection, to make farmers’ cognition “internalized in the mind” as well as technology adoption “externalized in the practice”, to strengthen policy guidance and financial subsidies, and to improve farmers’ policy satisfaction and policy effect.
Abstract: In the context of promoting the effective linkage of poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, it is of great significance to explore the poverty reduction effect and its mechanism of rural tourism on the poverty vulnerability of rural households, and it is critical to optimizing targeted poverty reduction policy and connecting rural revitalization strategy. Based on the poverty vulnerability theory and a household data of 22 rural tourism alleviation villages in Shaanxi Province, this study investigated the effects and mechanism of rural tourism on poverty vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous areas of China by the extended regression model (ERM). Results show that: 1) poverty vulnerability rate of tourism participants in samples areas was 29.58%, lower than that of non-participants. Participating in rural tourism significantly reduced the poverty vulnerability of rural households, and the reduction rate was 13.7%; 2) for the households near four-star tourism scenic sites and with tourism targeted assistances, participating in rural tourism had a significant effect on poverty vulnerability. In different forms of tourism participation, engaging in tourism operation activities had a greater effect on poverty vulnerability; and 3) rural tourism reduced poverty vulnerability through increasing household’s income, while participating in tourism exacerbated the uncertainty of family’s operating income, which did not help to decrease poverty vulnerability. Wage income per capita failed to play an active role in poverty vulnerability. In addition, livelihood diversification had a certain moderating effect on reducing the probability of trapping into poverty, more importantly, tourism together with agricultural production enhanced the effect of tourism participation on poverty vulnerability. Therefore, to consolidate the effects of tourism on the sustainable poverty alleviation, this paper provides some policy recommendations, including facing up to the vulnerability and income uncertainty of the rural tourism itself, strengthening sustainable tourism industrial development in impoverished areas, giving overall consideration to inclusive tourism poverty alleviation policies and targeted assistance measures, strengthening the integration of agriculture and rural tourism, and promoting an effective interest linkage mechanism.
Abstract: Rural residents are the main participants in household waste classification. Their willingness and behaviors directly affect the efficiency of waste classification management, as well as the success or failure of scenic countryside construction. Based on a survey data of rural residents in the Taihu Lake Basin, this paper analyzed the impacts of social capital on rural residents’ domestic waste classification and its mechanism by the Ordered Probit model and the OLS model. Results show that currently, the social capital scores of rural residents in the Taihu Lake Basin vary across different dimensions. In terms of household waste classification, 88.6% of the residents surveyed are willing to classify. However, there are still some surveyed residents who are willing to classify without actual behaviors. Social capital of different dimensions, such as social network, social trust, and social norms, positively influences the willingness of rural residents to sort household waste and their related behaviors. In terms of mechanism, social capital has effectively promoted rural residents’ willingness and waste sorting behaviors by enhancing their awareness of the classification categories of domestic waste and their corresponding responsibilities. In terms of heterogeneity, the role of social capital in each dimension varies in a group with diverse demographics such as age, educational background, and income. Consequently, to effectively encourage rural residents’ participation in domestic waste classification, this paper suggests: to strengthen network construction of rural grass-roots organizations, to establish a sense of responsibility for the household waste classification and a group supervision mechanism, to promote the accumulation of social capital in a muti-dimensional and well-rounded way, and to form a classified treatment system for household waste according to local conditions.
Abstract: The imbalance among resource, industry, environment, market, and capacity development in the process of raw milk production is becoming increasingly serious, and the sustainable development of China""s dairy industry is severely constrained. To promote the coordinated development of raw milk production, this paper adopts the coupling coordination model, the spatial correlation test and the spatial Durbin model to measure the coupling coordination level of China’s raw milk production system from 2010 to 2019 and explores its spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and the driving factors. Results show that: 1) The coupling and coordination level of China’s raw milk production system has been steadily increasing year by year, and at the geospatial level, it showed the trend of “high in the east and low in the west, high in the north and low in the south”; 2) The coupling and coordination level of China’s raw milk production system had a significant positive spatial autocorrelation, showing the characteristics of high-high agglomeration and low-low agglomeration; 3) At the level of direct effects, the level of openness to the world, the level of rural human capital, the level of marketization, the level of scientific and technological innovation, and the level of industrial agglomeration have significantly contributed to the coupled and coordinated development of regional raw milk production system, while financial support to agriculture did not affect the coupled and coordinated level of raw milk production system. Based on the above results, to promote a high level of coupling and coordination of raw milk production system and achieve sustainable development of China’s dairy industry, this paper provides some policy recommendations to improve the level of coupling and coordination of raw milk production system in China.
Abstract: Accurately measuring the degree of rural hollowing, revealing the spatial distribution pattern and the influencing factors of rural hollowing in counties in the northeast black soil region are of great significance for regulating hollowing villages according to local conditions and promoting rural revitalization. This paper takes the typical county in the northeast black soil region as an example to measure the degree of multidimensional rural hollowing and its coupling coordination. Results show that: 1) the multidimensional hollowing of rural areas is the result of the interaction of multiple elements of rural regional systems such as population, land, and economy; 2) the degree of rural hollowing in Baiquan county is generally high, the difference between village and township is obvious, and the level of economic hollowing is higher than other dimensions. The proportion of outflow population, per capita net income and the proportion of farmland transfer are the dominant factors affecting rural hollowing; and 3) the interaction intensity of rural population, land and economic hollowing is generally high, showing a low-level coordinated evolution. There are obvious differences in the coordination state between the two. Among them, the "population-land" hollowing coordination is the worst. The single industrial structure, the high proportion of planting industry, and the low income of farmers are important reasons for the hollowness and imbalance of human-land-industry in Baiquan County. Therefore, to systematically construct the coupling pattern of various elements in rural areas, this paper provides some policy suggestions, including zoning consolidation and improving rural regulation system.
Abstract: China is a large producer of bamboo shoots and the country with the largest amount of fertilizers applied to bamboo forests. Fertilization not only increases the yield of bamboo shoots, but also has an important impact on the soil environment of bamboo forests. This paper interpreted the effects of fertilization on the yield and quality of bamboo shoots and soil environment, and discussed the nutrient management measures of bamboo forests for green and sustainable development by integrating and analyzing the literature in the last ten years. The results showed that rational and optimized fertilization significantly promoted the growth of bamboo shoots, and the average increase rate of the diameter at breast height was 5.5%~33.3%, while the increase rate of the yield of bamboo shoots was 56.0%~497%. Fertilization increased the selenium content, total amino acid nitrogen content and total sugar content of bamboo shoots, and thus improved the quality of bamboo shoot. Unreasonable fertilization of bamboo forests decreased soil carbon and nitrogen storage, enhanced soil acidification, reduced biodiversity and activities of soil microbes, and caused non-point pollution of nitrogen and phosphorus, heavy metal pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecological and environmental problems. Specific suggestions for optimizing fertilization and improving soil environment of bamboo forests were put forward, e.g., strengthening soil quality monitoring and soil fertility improvement, optimizing nutrient management of bamboo forests, and enhancing farmers’ awareness of scientific fertilization.
Abstract: The reduction of energy dissipation of rainfall by plants is an important mechanism of soil and water conservation. However, the process of leaves kinetic energy dissipation is not clearly understood due to the lack of suitable observation and measurement device. In order to research the movement process of plant leaves after the impact of raindrops and the change of motion energy of leaves, based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric film sensor, a device was developed to effectively detect the motion and energy dissipation of leaves after raindrop impingement. The vibration of Ligustrum lucidum leaves under raindrop impingement was measured and the feasibility of the device was verified. On the basis of careful analysis and research on the process of raindrops impingement, the modular independent design of the monitoring device is carried out. The entire monitoring device is composed of three modules: raindrop generation, monitoring capture of leaves movement, and signal collection and processing. The raindrop generation module can be selected according to the actual situation (or can directly measure the natural rainfall). The voltage signal output of the thin film sensing system contains information on raindrops impingement, the splashing of small water droplets and the diffusion of thin water layers. The voltage output of the system is several times to tens of times of the background. There is an obvious linear relationship between the peak value of the voltage and the kinetic energy of raindrops (R2=0.959). The signal frequency domain analysis shows that the system can also effectively capture the vibration signal characteristics of the continuous raindrops impingement on the leaves. For raindrops with different kinetic energy, the coefficient of variation between repetitions is a weak variation of <10% and a moderate variation of 10%~100%, indicating that the whole device has good system stability. There is an obvious functional relationship between the energy dissipation by the Ligustrum lucidum leaves and the input energy of the raindrop, and the kinetic energy dissipation by the leaves only accounts for about 3%~5% of the initial raindrop kinetic energy, which may be related to the failure to monitor the process of torsion and vibration of the petiole. The device can monitor the movement caused by raindrops impingement on the leaves and the dissipation characteristics of leaves to raindrops, which is beneficial to further understanding of the kinetic energy dissipation mechanism of effect of plants on rainfall.
Abstract: Clarifying the long-term evolution characteristics of farmland soil fertility with different cropping systems can provide scientific basis for selecting appropriate cropping systems to improve soil quality of farmland. Based on 12 national and provincial long-term cropland system experiments in Hunan Province, the present study examined the soil fertility indexes and their evolution trend of five double-cropping rice modes (rice-rice-ryegrass (RRR), rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (RRC), rice-rice-wheat (RRB), rice-rice-free (RRW), rice-rice-oil (RRO)), four single-season rice modes (rice-tobacco (RT), rice-Free (RW), rice-oil (RO), rice-green (RG)), and three upland farming modes (cotton-oil (CR), soybean-sweet potato (SS), corn-radish (MR)). The results showed that under long-term conventional fertilization conditions, soil organic matter contents (SOM) of the double cropping rice mode was higher than that of the upland farming mode, and SOM of RRO, RT and RW modes decreased but SOM of the rest cropping systems increased over time. Soil total nitrogen contents (STN) of RRW, RRO, RT and RW was relatively high but decreased over time, whilst STN of the rest cropping systems increased. The contents of soil alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen in RRO and RG decreased significantly, while those in the upland farming mode showed an increasing trend over time. The contents of soil available phosphorus in RRO and RRW decreased significantly, while those in the upland farming modes increased with an annual increase rate of 1.23~4.76 mg/kg. The contents of available potassium in the double-cropping rice model decreased, while those in the one-cropping rice and the upland farming modes showed a decreasing trend or no significant change except for the increase in RT and MR. The soil comprehensive fertility decreased over time for the double cropping rice mode, but increased for the single cropping rice and the upland farming modes. In conclusion, the temporal trend of soil fertility of farmland under different cropping systems are quite different in Hunan province. Nitrogen input should be reduced and potassium input should be increased in the double-cropping rice modes, nitrogen and phosphorus input should be reduced in single cropping rice mode, and soil fertility should be improved and phosphorus input should be reduced in the upland farming modes.
Abstract: The Science and Technology Backyard is not only an innovative organizational mode for the development of modern agriculture, but also an important technological support to promote rural revitalization. This paper explains the practical needs of the Science and Technology Backyard from the macro and micro levels, and systematically analyzes its developmental evolution and functional positioning, discusses its operation guarantee mechanism and effects based on the field research, and puts forward suggestions to guide the high-quality development of it. Results show that the emergence of the Science and Technology Backyard complies with the increasing demand of farmers for advanced agricultural technology at the micro level and the increasing dependence on modern agricultural technological progress at the macro level. In the progress of development, it leads to triple functional orientations, including agricultural scientific and technological innovation from bottom up, agricultural social service with popular science volunteer, and agricultural talent training with integration of industry and education. In addition, the triple functional orientations take science and technology as the link to form an incentive compatibility relationship. The Science and Technology Backyard takes the scientific research institutes of colleges and universities as the core, and different goal-oriented interest connection mechanisms have been formed among various subjects, in which a formal system imposes regulatory constraints and service interaction is integrated into social norms and multi-party support constitutes material guarantee to promote the effective operation. The Science and Technology Backyard has innovated the mode of agricultural technology popularization, promoted the high-quality development of modern agriculture, improved the comprehensive quality level of farmers, and created a new mode of agricultural talent training, with outstanding comprehensive benefits. Therefore, in the future, to promote the sustainable development of Science and Technology Backyard, this paper suggests to clearly define the functional orientation, to strengthen institutional constraints, to enhance organizational innovation, and to promote experience. Gradually, the development of the Science and Technology Backyard will take the development road of dislocation, standardization, integration, and coexistence.
Abstract: With the major breakthroughs in genetic improvement of Chinese foxtail millet, the foxtail millet seed industry has been developing rapidly, and the seed industry integration is an important way to further enhance industrial efficiency and industrial competitiveness. This paper summarizes the development history of China’s foxtail millet seed industry, analyses the transformation pattern of foxtail millet varieties, refines the model of foxtail millet seed industry integration, explores the motivations and obstacles to integration, and puts forward a pathselection for China’s foxtail millet seed industry integration. Results show that China’s foxtail millet seed industry has gone through four stages: the gestation period (high-yield breeding), the budding period (high-yield, multi-resistant and high-quality breeding), the start-up period (herbicide-resistant breeding), and the growth period (high-quality, medium-dwarf herbicide-resistant breeding), and the breeding of high-quality, herbicide-resistant, medium-dwarf, and machine-harvestable breakthrough varieties is the driving force behind the rapid development of the foxtail millet seed industry. The number of registered foxtail millet varieties and authorized new plant varieties is generally on the rise and the number of registered foxtail millet varieties by enterprises exceeds that of scientific research units, the adaptability of varieties further expands, and the distribution of seed enterprises basically matches the distribution of foxtail millet production areas.Significant progress has been made, but the status quo of low innovation capacity of seed enterprises and the lack of talents and insufficient breeding resources have not fundamentally changed. There are four main models of foxtail millet variety transformation, including bidding type, custom-made type, integrated type, and independent transformation. The main varieties are still mainly transformed into varieties bred by research institutions. During the initial period of the foxtail millet seed industry, the seed industry was mainly integrated with the planting industry, and during the growth and rapid development of the seed industry, the foxtail millet seed industry was integrated with the planting industry, processing industry and service industry to varying degrees, forming a vertical extension, horizontal cross, high-tech penetration and other integration models with some problems such as low integration, insufficient functional expansion and weak high-tech penetration and integration power. Based on the above results, this paper suggests promoting the deep integration of the foxtail millet seed industry by extending the foxtail millet seed chain,digging deeper into the multifunctional properties of cereals, and strengthening the integration of high-tech penetration and sound intellectual property protection and other four aspects of simultaneous promotion.
Abstract: The fluctuation of the small-scale agricultural products price has a great impact on the development of agricultural economy and the improvement of people's living standard. The paper summarizes the causes of price fluctuating of the small-scale agricultural products and brings forward the question that we should strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market. Some methods and recommendations are proposed to strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market: promoting purchasing market, standardizing wholesale market, discovering futures market, and promoting information, nurturing broker, establishing co-operatives, increasing reserves, enacting transactions act, and so on.
Abstract: This article has analyzed the situation of forestry in Guizhou Province from the perspective of forest
resources, forestry ecological, forestry industry and forestry safety supply system, and pointed out the problems on the
distribution of forest resources, forestry total production value, industrial structure and the forestry funds investment.
Then it proposed the countermeasures for developing the modern forestry on scientific planning forestry layout,
developing forestry property energetically and to establish a diversified forestry investment system in Guizhou Province
Abstract: Characteristic agriculture is an important part of modern agricultural development, which can maximize
regional advantages, enhance the competitiveness of agricultural products and promote regional development of modern
agriculture. According to the connotation of characteristic agriculture, the conditions and characteristics of the
development of modern agriculture in Fujian Province, it analyzes the path and the effectiveness of modern agricultural
development in Fujian Province from the perspective of characteristic agriculture
Abstract: Using ESDA spatial analysis, this paper researches the spatial pattern evolution and characteristics of per capita net income of farmers in the Yangtze River Delta counties since 1989. The results show that: (1) the absolute difference in per capita net income of farmers is gradually widening, while the relative difference is decreasing with periodic fluctuations; (2)the level of per capita net income of farmers has a strong positive spatial correlation, and the regions with similar income levels have a spatial agglomeration; (3)the growth pattern of per capita net income is proved to be more instable, where its growth hot spots and cold spots switch frequently in their geographical locations, showing the existence of transition phenomenon. Apart from subordinate revenue growth cold spots, trend of spatial concentration enhanced while tendency of random distribution weakened in other growth type areas. Finally, this paper reaches some conclusions and conducts some corresponding discussions. Besides, related suggestions are given to narrow regional differences in Yangtze River Delta counties and promote the regional coordinated development.
Abstract: This paper analyzes many of the problems in China's agricultural scientific and technological progress system. It clears the reform direction of agricultural science and technology policy. The measures include that, the agricultural scientific research investment should be between the lower level of developed countries and the higher level of developing countries, the agricultural scientific research should be unified management by department of agriculture, the agricultural research project will be taken target management of facing the farmers, government needs cooperation with the universities to build the agricultural science and technology promotion system. It guids the agricultural scientific research institutions and universities to set up the marketing company to promote agricultural science and technology. On the basis of respect for the wishes of farmers, with administrative villages as the unit set up the public land transfer market.According to farmers' operating conditions, adopt different types of industrialization
Abstract: The revitalization of rural talents is the foundation of rural revitalization. In order to deal with the shortage of rural talents, and make sure that rural talents can play the supporting role in rural revitalization, this paper, taking Qingdao City as an example, summarized and analyzed two ways to promote rural revitalization through rural talent revitalization, which include attracting urban talents and cultivating local talents. Results show that from the perspectives of the shortage of agricultural and rural talents, relative low quality level of talents, the lack of attraction of talents in rural areas, under-optimized rural talent cultivation mechanism, and some other problems, Qingdao City adopted the following measures: increasing the number of talents and improving the talent structure through bringing in, sinking and retaining urban talents in rural areas, constructing the attraction system of urban talents and trying to retain them. At the same time, Qingdao City has built a complete system of local talent cultivation network from the aspects of discovering local talents and training and supporting local talents. In conclusion, Qingdao City has set up a mechanism of encouraging and attracting urban talents with prominent focus, comprehensive coverage and perfect measures, and has set up a mechanism of the cultivation of local talent with integration, cooperation and incentives called “the Qingdao experience”, which is enlightening and worth spreading.
Abstract: Based on the research review, the wine industry has been around all round the world, not only limited in developed counties and western countries. Nowadays, wine consumption in China presents the trend of rapid growing, China’s wine industry cluster develops in a higher level; nonetheless this industry is facing some challenges in China. As such, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the status and developing trends of China’s wine industry from the various aspects namely regional planting, yield, market consumption, and the investment. Data and information from current literatures are used to investigate the conditions of China’s wine industry. It was found that numerous problems impede the development of China’s wine industry including lack of overall planning of the construction of exist producing region, imbalance development between eastern and western areas, poor and lag behind of product quality management and pre-maturation of the marketing system. The article eventually points out some developing strategies involving reasonable layout and enhance competitiveness in overall producing area; set up the wine industry chain management; strengthen origin protection, and improve the quality certification system; use the new marketing and promoting model, to spread wine culture and to promote the sustainable development of China’s wine industry.
Abstract: Using grain production panel data in 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2010, this paper adopts a DEA-based Malmquist productivity index method to measure and decompose grain TFP (Total Factor Productivity) growth index of the nation’s main grain production areas, main grain sales areas, and balancing areas. This paper also analyzes the spatial and temporal disparities and the underlying mechanism of dynamic TFP index. On this basis, it continues to explore TFP and its decomposition value - exogenous influencing factor of technical efficiency index and technical progress index. Our results show that the TFP index of main production areas have realized an average annual increase of 0.28% within 10 years, which has benefited from technical improvement and efficiency enhancement. However, main sales areas have suffered from a duel loss in the technical progress and technical efficiency. As a result, TFP has an average annual decrease of 0.35%. TFP in balancing areas also has an average decrease of 0.69%, influenced by deterioration of technical progress. We also find that the implementation of the central government’s favorable policies to farmers has significant influence on improving grain TFP level in main production areas. However, these policies have a lagging influence on main sales areas and balancing areas. In addition, per capital grain production scale and mechanization level have negative influence on TFP growth in main grain production area, but positive influence on TFP in main grain sales areas. As for the grain production-sales balancing areas, expansion of the per capita production scale can improve the technical efficiency, but has a reverse inhibiting impact on TFP and technical progress. Finally, based on the research results, this paper proposes measures and suggestions to improve grain productivity more effectively.
Abstract: From the angle of urban and rural aging population inversion phenomenon in China and the challenges brought by it, this paper analyzes the relationship between urbanization and aging population inversion in urban and rural areas in China. In the long term of traditional process of urbanization, population transfer is mainly labor transfer, and the elderly population transfer has been driven by the transfer is limited, thus improve the degree of aging of the rural population and have an impact on the balanced urban and rural development. This population transfer mode is the main reason for the formation of urban and rural aging population inversion. Meanwhile, urban and rural aging population inversion have an impact on urbanization, it not only affects the level and pace of urbanization, but also affects the quality of urbanization. To alleviate this condition, we must take a new urbanizing road, change the urban and rural population transfer mode, and integrate urban and rural social security system.
Abstract: Yulin city is an enrichment region of energy resources, and an extremely vulnerable area as well in China. The energy resources' exploitation and eco-reconstruction has seriously restricted by water resources. Based on fuzzy mathematical and AHP method, it has estimated the water resources intimidation from 2000 to 2005 in Yulin city. The results show that water resource intimidation already approaches to or exceeds the heavy stress degree, and presents an increasing trend. In the basis of the analysis of the industrial structure and its characteristics of water use, the results indicates that agriculture has the biggest proportion in water use, along with the industry scale enlarging and eco-reconstruction, both industrial and ecological water use has been increasing. The interaction mechanism between water resources and society-economy development tells us that: the development of economy has restricted by water resources, which propels the industry to move to the direction of low water demand and high efficiency; impelled by the aridification, agrotype has conversed from crops to grazing and forest; the industry changes to the low water demand and high efficiency types, meanwhile, the industry incomes would help development water-saving agriculture and transform water; the increase of water demand in society and economy produces many eco-environment problems, such as, the excess utilization and declining water level of groundwater.
Abstract: From the perspectives of nature, human, and carrying capacity and applying the entropy and linear weighted comprehensive methods, this paper constructed an evaluation system to assess the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province from 2001 to 2016. In addition, this paper also examined the main obstacles affecting the vulnerability. Results show that the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in 9 cities in Henan Province decreased from 2001 to 2016, while it increased in the other 9 cities; and the vulnerability growth rate varied significantly. The evolution trend of vulnerability could be divided into four types: increasing first and then decreasing, decreasing first and then increasing, increasing with some fluctuations, and decreasing with some fluctuations. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province illustrated a concentrating characteristic in its spatial distribution with the decreasing order as follows: Northern Henan, Eastern Henan, Southern Henan, Central Henan, and Western Henan. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in municipalities was mainly affected by human and carrying capacity, and the main obstacle factors were different. In order to achieve the coordinated development of agricultural production and water resource utilization in Henan Province, this paper suggests that human intervention in water resource system should be positively strengthened by increasing investment in agricultural funds, improving the level of farmland water conservancy construction, and promoting agricultural water use efficiency.
Abstract: Urban development is one of the main factors that affect material circulations and energy flows in ecosystems. Studies on how urban development influences net primary productivity (NPP) are necessary for science-based planning of regional land use. Based on data of land uses and NPP in Wuhan Metropolitan Area from 2000 to 2010, the impacts of construction land expansion on NPP in Wuhan Metropolitan Area were assessed. The construction land in Wuhan Metropolitan Area increased by 57.88% (1 459.44 km2) from 2000 to 2010, and the average NPP decreased from 919.55 g C/(m2·a) to 702.95 g C/(m2·a) while total NPP increased from 2 317.66 Gg C/a to 2 797.97 Gg C/a with an increase rate of 20.72%. Among the nine cities in Wuhan Metropolitan Area, Wuhan and its surrounding area expanded fastest in their construction land. During the decade, the construction land in Wuhan increased by 80.73%, while the total NPP raised by 30.53%. Since the average NPP in the construction area was reduced by 27.78%, total NPP in Wuhan Metropolitan Area only increased marginally.
Abstract: This paper analyses the current status of agricultural pollution resulting from overuse of agricultural chemical inputs since the reform and open-up. It turns out that the formation of agricultural pollution is related to agricultural industrial policies, rural-urban economic structure, pollution controlling fund, environmental general management, “agri-environmental” policies, pollution controlling law and farmer’s environmental awareness. In order to cope with agricultural pollution effectively, some measures that have to be taken are as follows: integration of agricultural and environmental policies, establishment of environmental friendly agricultural technology system, implementation of valley comprehensive management, enhancement of environmental management capabilities of agricultural pollution, strengthening of peasants’ environmental education and establishment of agricultural environmental protection law.
Abstract: Large scale is the direction of pig- producing development of China in future, but does not mean breeding
scale the bigger the better. The rationality, scientificalness and suitability of each region pig- producing scale has
determined the effectiveness of pig-producing to a large extent. This paper shows that, from the national average level
to see, the moderate scale has the strongest profitability. Specific to major pig producing provinces, the strongest
profitability of farming was difference in different province. The current pig scale cultivation exist such problems as the
disease prevention and control status not optimum, production cost and the scales price has no advantage and the
standardization level need to improve. Finally, combine the current national and provincial pig scale development
situation and problems, this paper proposed the corresponding countermeasure to promote the healthy development of
Abstract: This paper try to comparative multi-function of urban modern agriculture of Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou for example, and use the method of combing static and dynamic and of combing qualitative and quantitative to comparative and analyze the urban modern agriculture functions of economy, ecology and society. It can be seen that the differences on economic mainly in the difference of structure of agricultural land only for the difference of types of terrain of three cities, which affect the structure of agriculture industry. Ratio of agro-structural change decreases gradually. Advantage indexes of animal husbandry and fisheries of Shanghai are higher, farming, fisheries and agricultural services of Nanjing, forestry and animal husbandry of Hangzhou are higher as well. The production capacity of vegetables of Shanghai and the production capacity of grain of Nanjing and the production capacity of fruit of Hangzhou is higher than that of others separately in 2010. Secondly, the value of farmland ecosystem carbon sequestration and oxygen releasing of Nanjing is lowest in 2010. Optimal adjustment of the agricultural space layout maintains the ecological environment. The pesticide and chemical fertilizer excessive remains a serious problem. Lastly, agricultural tourism of three cities is in the leisure stage towards the holiday stage. Meanwhile, the three cities take different leisure agriculture development models, and achieve results in employment and economic benefits.
Abstract: Along with the intelligence and automation improving in agricultural machinery, the application of steering-by-wire technology in agricultural vehicles such as tractors has received concerns and researches. In order to guide the study of hydraulic steering-by-wire of tractor and to shorten the development cycle, a co-simulation model was built based on the analysis of hydraulic steering-by-wire system control algorithm and structure. The hydraulic system and full vehicle model were built on AMESim software platform. Meantime, PID, fuzzy PID and fuzzy immune PID control modeling were constructed by using Simulink software. While Visual C++ 6.0 was chosen to realize interface communication, the angle response and angle following co-simulation were completed with angle transmission ratio 1; as well as the co-simulation of yawing angular velocity response and centroid side-slip angle response under the speed of 15 km/h, the steering wheel Angle 180°, angle transmission ratio 9. The experimental results show that step response time achieves 0.272 s with fuzzy immune PID control, following error of 1.182°, 3% overshoot amount of the yawing angular velocity response, and 0.85°/s steady-state value of centroid side-slip angle response, they both prevail over the performance of common PID and fuzzy PID. In conclusion, co-simulation maintains a strong reference value, and an ideal control effect is able to achieve while fuzzy immune PID control are applied into hydraulic steering-by-wire system.
Abstract: Clearing up rural poverty, realizing city and country correspond development is long striving aim of Chinese Government. Currently, the quantity of rural poverty population in China has taken on a sharp decline, comparative poverty standing out, returning poverty severity, and overspread to city. This article from economic rising, income distributing, trade freedom, rural labor mobility and finance support agriculture, puts up economics explaining about currently Chinese rural poverty status, Lastly, puts forward relevant policy suggestion of enlarging domestic demand, adjusting income distribution, strengthening education train, adjusting agriculture production structure and method of supporting agriculture.
Abstract: With the increase of the importation scale, the quality and safety of imported whey powder has become the
hot issue which arise a lot of attentions and should be solved urgently. This thesis analyzes the necessities of
establishing the quality and safety risk warning mechanism of imported whey powder, based on the current conditions
of whey powder importation, using the method of warning method based on case study ratiocination, sets up the
imported whey powder quality and safety risk warning mechanism from three aspects, including warning information
gathering, warning model building and fast response system, and puts forwards the countermeasures of consummating
the warning system
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