Abstract: Based on the new requirements and tasks of building an agricultural power, ensuring grain security at a high level is the primary issue for building a large powerful agricultural country with Chinese characteristics. It determines whether the foundation of a large powerful agricultural country is solid. This article explains the connotation and significance of ensuring grain security from the perspective of an agricultural power, clarifies the practical foundation of grain security for China, identifies the problems and challenges faced by maintaining high-level grain security, and finally proposes some policy suggestions. Results show that the requirements for ensuring grain security from the perspective of an agricultural power are multi-level, including total quantity security, quality improvement, structural optimization, ecological sustainability, and supply diversification. Since the reform and opening up, China has made tremendous achievements in various aspects, including grain production capacity, production efficiency, the construction of production and operation system, reserve capacity, and the construction of the logistics system. However, China’s grain security still faces some problems and challenges such as a large gap in total grain production, increased constraints on natural resources, great difficulty in increasing unit yield, continued decline in grain production efficiency, increased import uncertainty, and food waste, etc. In the new era, this paper suggests: to ensure grain security at a high level, to promote the construction of an agricultural power by ensuring grain security as the first priority, continuously to improve grain production capacity, to enhance the resilience of the food supply chain, and to diversify the food supply system.
Abstract: Consolidating the foundation of grain security in an all-round way, it covers a wide range of areas, but farmland and seed are “two key points”. From the view of ensuring grain security and building agricultural powerhouse, this paper seeks to explain the importance of holding on the “two key points”, to reveal realistic problems, and to provide some policy suggestions. Results show that holing on the “two key points” is the intrinsic requirement and foundation for ensuring national grain security and building agricultural powerhouse. Currently, consolidating grain security’s farmland foundation is faced with many realistic problems, including the total amount of farmland and reserve resources are insufficient, the proportion of area of high-quality farmland is low, the increasing degradation trend of farmland foundation is difficult to reverse, “non-agricultural” and “non-grain” transformation of farmland are hard to contain. Consolidating grain security’s seed foundation also were faced with many realistic problems, including inadequate of protection and utilization of germplasm resources, inadequate of breeding innovation ability, “many mountains but few peaks” of seed industry enterprises, lack of R&D investment, and loose link between “industry-university-research”. To consolidate grain security’s farmland foundation, this paper suggesting: “protecting farmland like protecting a giant panda”, holding the red line of farmland, improving the quality of farmland, resolutely curbing “non-agricultural” and “non-grain” transformation of farmland, and developing reasonable and orderly reserve farmland resources. In addition, this paper also suggests that consolidating grain security’s seed foundation is to pursue vitalization of seed industry, to control the core crop seed source, to hold fast to master the breed, and to achieve sci-tech self-reliance and self-strengthening of the seed industry.
Abstract: The revitalization of China’s seed industry is an important project for people’s livelihood, and it is of great importance to guarantee food security in China. Based on a systematic analysis of the development history of China’s seed industry, this paper identified the difficulties and challenges facing the revitalization of China’s seed industry and put forward some related optimization measures and implementation methods from the perspective of seed industry system construction and mechanism innovation. Results show that after many years of development, China’s seed industry has achieved some remarkable results, changing from mass, specialization, and industrialization to modernization. However, there still exist some problems, including low total factor productivity of seeds, low independent innovation ability of varieties, outdated breeding infrastructure and other internal pressures. In addition, the commercial breeding system has not been established in China, financial support policy is not perfect, and foreign seed enterprises and capital competition impose some external pressures. The research also shows that we should continue to deepen the reform of the system and mechanism and build a whole-industry integration system involving the government, enterprises, scientific research institutions, financial institutions and other subjects, such as breeding research and development, production, promotion, sales, service, etc. Therefore, this paper suggests: strengthening the revitalization of the seed industry, enhancing the protection and utilization of germplasm resources, carrying out breeding innovation, optimizing the facilities of breeding bases, and accelerating the formation of seed industry enterprises.
Abstract: China’s main grain producing areas play an important role in achieving stable grain production and supply. The improvement of the benefit compensation mechanism for main grain producing areas is a system arrangement to ensure national grain security. Based on the production and damage status of grain in main producing areas, this paper reviewed government support policies for main grain producing areas, explored the problems existing in current benefit compensation mechanism for main grain producing areas, and discussed some countermeasures to improve the benefit compensation mechanism for main grain producing areas. Results show that the contribution of main producing areas to China’s grain security continues to increase, but the losses caused by the development of grain production have not been properly compensated. Currently, the compensation mechanism for main grain producing areas in China mainly consists of ensuring income for grain farmers in main producing areas, improving comprehensive economic strength of main producing areas, and enhancing the comprehensive production capacity of grain in main producing areas. However, the current benefit compensation mechanism of main grain producing areas has some problems, including a single compensation subject for main producing areas, insufficient compensation for grain farmers, and limited incentive effects on local governments of main producing areas. Therefore, to improve and strengthen the benefit compensation mechanism for main grain producing areas in the future, this paper suggests: forming a sound legal and regulatory system for compensating the benefit of main grain producing areas, establishing a sound organizational system for compensating the interests of main grain producing areas, and improving the comprehensive supporting measures for the benefit compensation mechanism for main grain producing areas.
Abstract: Grain security is the most important thing of the country. To ensure national grain security, it needs stabilizing grain planting area and production, as well as paying attention to solving the waste phenomenon in the aspects of grain producing, processing and consumption. This paper discusses the situation and challenges of stabilizing domestic grain production and reducing food waste. Considering China’s current agricultural conditions, stabilizing grain production is facing the tightening constraints of agricultural resources and increasing difficulty of technical progress. It also faces lower enthusiasm of local governments to develop grain planting and producers to grow grain, as well as the restriction of support policies by international regulation. For food consumption, there are many problems, including the industrial chain losses and food waste. This paper suggests paying equal attention to both increasing grain production and reducing food waste. On the one hand, it needs to implement the strategy of sustainable farmland use and innovative application of agricultural technology, which includes strengthening the foundation of domestic production capacity and stimulating the enthusiasm of local governments to develop grain planting and producers to grow grain. On the other hand, it needs to promote the whole food industrial chain to reduce waste.
Abstract: Building a diversified food supply system can stabilize and expand food supply, meet the requirements of people’s diversified food needs, and promote the transformation of agri-food system. Adopting the idea of the big food approach, this paper analyzed China’s main practices in building a diversified food supply system, explored its shortcomings, and proposed countermeasures for building a diversified food supply system in the future through a systematic review of relevant policies, literature, and data. Results show that China has made great achievements in increasing domestic food production, ensuring the supply of major agricultural products, participating in international agricultural trade, and establishing a vision of big agriculture and big food approach. However, there are obstacles that limit the diversified food supply, including the mismatch between the supply of agricultural products and consumer demand, insufficient diversification of food consumption, unbalanced regional layout of domestic agricultural production, over-concentration of foreign agricultural imports, and lack of diversification of agricultural processing products. In order to better build a diversified food supply system, the government should adopt a big food approach to coordinate the production of grains and other major agricultural products, enrich and optimize the structure of food production and consumption, broaden and expand food sources, reasonably lay out the production areas of agricultural products, expand the whole industrial chain of the agri-food system, and make good use of both domestic and international markets and resources.
Abstract: Increasing farmers’ income is critical for ensuring grain output stability. Previous studies have shown that grain crop planting isn’t conductive to increase farmers’ income and non-grain production has higher economic benefits. However, the impacts of grain and cash crop planting scales on farmers’ income have not been thoroughly evaluated. Based on a panel data in China from 2000-2019, this paper examined the impacts of grain and cash crop planting scales on farmers’ income by a panel instrumental variable method. Results show that expanding grain and cash crop planting scales has a comparable positive effect on farmers’ total income at the national level, which the impact of the two is similar. The increasing effect of grain crop cultivation on farmers’ total income comes from the increase of transfer income such as agricultural subsidies. The cash crop planting scale has a great contribution to farmers’ operating income and wage income. Expanding grain crop planting scale increases the operating income in major grain-producing areas, and the cash crop planting scale has a great contribution to farmers’ operating income, wage income, and the total income. Therefore, this paper suggests to promote the implementation of differentiated non-grain treatment measures, to optimize grain subsidy rules, to increase the added values of grain products, and to implement the grain production responsibility in non-major grain-producing areas.
Abstract: It is of great significance to optimize the allocation of farmland property rights for ensuring grain security. Based on a survey data of 1 385 households and applying the theoretical framework of whether farmland property rights are transferred from farmers with weak production capacity to farmers with comparative advantages to reduce the rent dissipation, this paper explored whether or not the whole agricultural production trusteeship can optimize the allocation of farmland subdivision management rights by the SFA and the Probit models and examined the positive effect of the whole agricultural production trusteeship on the utilization rate of farmland by the PSM model. Results show that, the whole agricultural production trusteeship can optimize the allocation of farmland administration right and operation right among farmers and solve the distortion and efficiency loss of farmland allocation caused by policies, imperfect land transfer market, farmers’ personal preferences for land tenure, and other reasons. In terms of the reallocation effect of farmland subdivision management rights, whether compared with the production form of service internalization or the production form of accepting decentralized outsourcing services, the whole agricultural production trusteeship can optimize the input and output of farmland. The more thoroughly the weak productive farmers transfer out farmland administration right and operation right, the greater the degree of optimization of the input and output of farmland. The optimization degree of the whole agricultural production trusteeship on the input and output of corn farmland is greater than that of soybean farmland. Therefore, this paper provides the following suggestions: preventing trusteeship organizations from building large households, building "reassuring mechanism" to reduce the obstacles encountered by farmers with weak production capacity in participating in trusteeship, and guiding the expansion of soybean trusteeship service scale and the improvement of service technology.
Abstract: Agricultural diseconomies of scale are caused by various problems such as cropland fragmentation. To explore the effects of capital dependence and formal credit constraint on farmers’ willingness to scale up management, and to provide a policy basis for further improving the land scale management. Based on a sample data of 906 rice farmers in main producing areas, including Hubei, Hunan, Anhui, and Jiangxi provinces in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, this paper estimated the appropriate operation scale by the D-G production function under the output maximization objective and analyzed the influence of capital dependence and formal credit constraint on their moderate scale operation intention by the binary Logistic model. Results show that the appropriate scale range of rice production in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River was 13.33~20 hm2, and the number of farmers reaching the optimal scale accounted for less than 20%. The degree of capital dependence has a positive effect on farmers’ intention of moderate operation scale, among which, the proportion of transferred farmland and the original value of machinery purchased, which represent the degree of capital dependence, have positive effects on farmers’ willingness to operate at a moderate scale. The proportion of employed labor has no significant effects on the willingness to operate at a moderate scale. In terms of the impact of formal credit constraint, farmers constrained by demand-type credit were more likely to be willing to expand their business scale. Therefore, most farmers can increase the output rate by expanding the scale of land operation. Among them, farmers with greater capital dependence and stronger demand-oriented credit constraint are more willing to operate at a moderate scale. Therefore, it is necessary to speed up the cultivation of a new type of agricultural operation subject with appropriate scale, to improve the precision of policy implementation, to innovate various kinds of financial institutions to support agriculture, and to increase the participation rate of farmers in the financial market.
Abstract: The Rural Collective Land Joint-stock Cooperative System (RCLJCS) is a new measure to strengthen rural collective economy and increase rural household income. Based on a field survey data of 1051 farmers of Meixian of Shaanxi Province, this paper analyzed the impacts of the RCLJCS reform on farmers’ income and the difference of its impacts on farmers’ income with different production efficiency by the PSM-DID model and explored the mechanism of income growth effect by the mediating effect model. Results show that the collective land management mode was dominated by the internal and external share leasing. The scale management effect was remarkable, and the share dividend ratio reached 45.45%. The reform of the RCLJCS has shown initial results and had different effects on farming income and wage income of rural households with a significant positive impact on the total household income, which could effectively increase the income by 17 290 yuan. At the same time, the reform of the RCLJCS had a stock incentive effect, an industrial driving effect, and a labor transfer effect, forming a stable transmission mechanism for the increase of rural households’ income. In addition, based on different mechanisms of action, the RCLJCS had differential impacts on rural household income with different production efficiency. The increase in farming income of high-efficiency farmers was more obvious, and the increase in wage income of low-efficiency farmers was more significant. Therefore, to serve the development of agricultural modernization and rural revitalization strategy, this paper suggests to actively promote the reform of the RCLJCS, to implement differentiated technical means of the land joint-stock cooperative system, and to improve the relevant management and service of land joint-stock reform.
Abstract: The sustainable development of the new-type rural collective economy is the inherent requirement of the all-round revitalization of the countryside. Taking Qingyishan Town, Kuandian County, a mountainous area in eastern Liaoning province, as the object of study, this paper analyzed the current situation of the new-type collective economy in rural area, the way to advance it, and the predicament it faces, and identified some countermeasures for its sustainable development. Results show that, under the guidance and help of the local government and all social circles, Qingyishan town made a total of 5,815,400 yuan from 2017 to 2022. The average annual income in collective operating income per village was 107,700 yuan from the original zero income. The new rural collective economy has achieved rapid growth and quality of effective improvement. Village leaders and villagers in Qingyishan town were actively taking actions to explore diversified development paths of collective economy according to local conditions, mainly including contract operation, leading enterprises, enclave economy, independent operation, and collective asset leasing. The new rural collective economy is thriving. However, the new-type collective economic development foundation is still relatively weak and faces some challenges, including the lack of high-quality leaders, weak “Blood-generating” ability, aging of the left-behind villagers, and limited source of funds. Therefore, this paper puts forward some countermeasures and suggestions, including insisting on scientific development, giving a full play to the leading role of village party secretary, activating endogenous development momentum, perfecting the mechanism of attracting talents, cultivating talents, and gathering help.
Abstract: Relocation is an important way to win the fight against poverty. It is of great significance to explore the livelihood adaptability of rural migrants to consolidate the results of the fight against poverty. Based on the framework of sustainable livelihood approach and a field survey data of Fenghuang County, Hunan Province, this paper analyzed the impacts of human capital on rural migrants’ livelihood adaptability and explored the mechanism of human capital on migrants’ livelihood adaptability by the multiple regression model, the mediating effect model, and the moderating effect model. Results show that the health status of rural migrants in Fenghuang County is good, but they are less educated, and some families are with heavy burden. The overall human capital of migrants is weak. From the perspective of livelihood adaptation, the degree of social adaptation of migrants is high, the degree of psychological adaptation is low and the adaptability of livelihood is weak. Human capital significantly and positively affects the livelihood adaptability of migrants and credit support plays an intermediary role partly in the process of human capital improving livelihood adaptability. The diversity of livelihood strategies play a positive moderating role in the relationship of human capital improving credit support. Therefore, in order to ensure the achievement of relocation, this paper suggests: continuously enhancing the livelihood adaptability of rural migrants, improving the governance mechanism of the resettlement area, speeding up efforts to strengthen areas of weakness in medical care and education, promoting the development of facilities to ensure employment, and increasing financial support.
Abstract: Continuous improvement of farmers’ subjective well-being is an inherent requirement of rural revitalization and an essential part of common prosperity. Based on the happiness economics theories and the data from the China Labor Dynamics Survey (CLDS), this paper analyzed the impacts of the adoption of socialized service of agricultural machinery on farmers’ subjective well-being by the ordered Probit model and the intermediary effect model and discussed its mechanism and intergenerational heterogeneity. Results show that 64% of farmers choose to adopt the socialized service of agricultural machinery and 51% of farmers feel relatively happy or very happy, showing that there is a lot of room for improvement in the subjective well-being of farmers. The adoption of socialized service of agricultural machinery is conducive to improving farmers’ subjective well-being and results are still robust after using the endogenous transformation model and replacing the core variable test. From the perspective of mechanism, the socialized service of agricultural machinery can improve farmers’ subjective well-being by promoting non-agricultural employment. In addition, heterogeneity analysis shows that there is intergenerational heterogeneity in the impacts of socialized service of agricultural machinery on the subjective well-being of farmers, which significantly improves the subjective well-being of the older generation farmers, but no significant impacts on the subjective well-being of the new generation farmers. Accordingly, this paper proposes to vigorously support the development of socialized service of agricultural machinery, to promote the development of socialized service of agricultural machinery in the direction of specialization and standardization, to guide the connection between supply and demand of socialized service of agricultural machinery, and continuously to promote the improvement of farmers’ subjective well-being.
Abstract: E-commerce adoption by farmers’ cooperatives plays an important role in the digitization and high-quality development of agricultural and rural areas. Based on the integration framework of the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the technology-organization-environment model (TOE), this paper uses the survey data of farmers’ cooperatives in Anhui Province and the Heckman model to analyze the factors influencing the selection and adoption degree of farmers’ cooperatives’ e-commerce adoption and discusses their promotion path. Results show that the probability of e-commerce adoption by cooperatives needs to be improved. Only 24% of cooperatives choose e-commerce adoption, and the average degree of e-commerce adoption is 33.8%. Among the technical factors, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use imposes significant positive influences on the selection and degree of adoption of cooperative e-commerce, while perceived risk imposed significant negative influences on the selection and degree of adoption of cooperative e-commerce. Among the organizational factors, only land scale and high-level support have significant positive impacts on the adoption of cooperative e-commerce, while industry type has a significant positive impact on the adoption degree of cooperative e-commerce. Among the environmental factors, cooperator support has a significant positive impact on cooperative e-commerce adoption choice and adoption degree, while government support has no significant impacts. Accordingly, to promote the digital transformation and e-commerce transformation of cooperatives, this paper suggests to construct a three-level e-commerce technology application and promotion system of “popularity-consumption-guarantee”, a cooperative talent training system combining “introduction and education”, and an external environment guarantee system of “facility construction - platform construction - policy support”.
Abstract: Developing water-saving agriculture is an important measure to alleviate the water shortage pressure, improve agricultural ecological environment, and realize sustainable development of agriculture. Based on a survey data of farmers in Xinjiang, this paper analyzed the influence of information acquisition channels on farmers’ water-saving behaviors and explored the mechanism of information acquisition channels on farmers’ water-saving behaviors by the ordered logit model and the intermediary and moderating effect model. Results show that the proportions of farmers adopting agronomic water-saving, biological water-saving, and management water-saving technologies were 91.9%, 75.8% and 64.6%, respectively. Farmers’ main information sources mainly included traditional information channels and new media information channels. The proportion of farmers who obtained agricultural water information through new media information channels was lower than that of traditional information channels. Information acquisition channels had a significant positive impact on farmers’ water-saving behaviors. Water-saving policy cognition played a significant partial intermediary role in the process of information acquisition channels affecting farmers’ water-saving behaviors. Household non-agricultural income played a negative regulatory role between water-saving policy cognition and agricultural water-saving behaviors. Compared with traditional information channels, new media information channels had a greater marginal effect on promoting farmers’ adoption of water-saving behaviors. Therefore, this paper suggests to strengthen the use of various types of information channels, to increase the publicity and promotion of water-saving policies, to improve the water-saving incentive mechanism, and accurately to carry out the promotion of water-saving technologies to promote farmers’ adoption of water-saving behaviors.
Abstract: Improving rural infrastructure construction is an effective path to promote and to achieve the modernization of agriculture and rural areas. Taking Hunan Province as an example and using a panel data from 2011 to 2020, this paper analyzed the level of the modernization of agriculture and rural areas and explored the effects of rural infrastructure on the level of the modernization of agriculture and rural areas by the Tobit model. Results show that the overall level of the modernization of agriculture and rural areas in Hunan Province has improved from 2011 to 2020, with a spatial distribution pattern of “Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan city cluster > Dongting Lake> Southern Hunan > Great Xiangxi region”. However, rural infrastructure can effectively contribute to the improvement of the modernization of agriculture and rural areas, but the impacts of different types of rural infrastructures are different, among which water and electricity infrastructures have positive effects and transportation infrastructures have negative effects. Meanwhile, the impacts of rural infrastructure on the level of the modernization of agriculture and rural areas have regional heterogeneity, among which the positive relationship of rural infrastructure on the modernization of agriculture and rural areas is most prominent in the Dongting Lake, and the positive impact is relatively weak in the remaining areas. Therefore, to accelerate the modernization of agriculture and rural areas, this paper suggests guaranteeing the high-quality input system of rural infrastructure, improving the high-quality construction system of rural infrastructure, and establishing the high-quality management and maintenance system of rural infrastructure.
Abstract: Benthic animals are an important component of wetland ecosystems, playing a crucial role in energy conversion and pollutant removal. A study on the subtropical hilly area of Changsha, Hunan Province was conducted to determine the community characteristics of the zoobenthos in floating plant, emergent plant, and no-plant surface flow constructed wetlands over four years of continuous field experiments. The zoobenthos community structure in constructed wetlands located in subtropical hilly areas were found to be simple, with a total of only 36 species collected during the experiment period. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri was identified as the most dominant species, with a dominance value up to 0.5. The average abundance and biomass of zoobenthos were 909 ind/m2 and 96 g/m2, respectively. However, there was a declining trend in the number, abundance, and biomass of zoobenthos species from year to year. The characteristics of zoobenthos community were found to be influenced by both water quality and climate conditions. The abundance and number of species of the zoobenthos were positively correlated with NH3-N and TN concentrations, while the species richness and evenness index of zoobenthos had a positive correlation with water temperature but a negative correlation with pH. Different classes of zoobenthos were affected by different environmental factors; Oligochaeta had a significant positive correlation with TN and NH3-N, while Gastropoda and Insecta had a significant positive correlation with TP and COD. The results showed that zoobenthos are vital indicators of water quality change, and that they also play an important ecological role in augmenting the absorption and transformation of pollutants in CWs. Furthermore, they are a significant way to improve economic benefits in CWs and are therefore worth further study.
Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal and can easily accumulate in rice grains, which is harmful to human health. China is the largest producer of rice, but the “cadmium rice” incident occurs frequently and has posed a serious threat to food safety. Therefore, it is urgent to study and develop effective measures to prevent rice Cd contamination and to safely utilize “cadmium rice”. The Changde rice noodles production process could reduce the Cd content of Cd contaminated rice below the national standard (0.2 mg/kg). In this study, the mechanism of Cd reduction in this process was investigated from the perspective of microorganisms. The composition and structure of the bacterial community during the rice fermentation was analyzed via high-throughput sequencing. Meanwhile, bacteria were isolated using the traditional culture method and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. And then the Cd removal efficiency of the isolated strains was investigated. The results showed that the dominant bacterial group in the fermentation broth is Lactobacillus. Meanwhile, a total of 58 strains were isolated from fermentation broth, and Lactobacillus strains accounted for the largest proportion. Strains of Lactobacillus fermentum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii showed Cd reducing capability. Strain P. acidilactici P1 and L. fermentum L4 had the highest Cd removal ability, reducing up to 0.55 mg/kg Cd during a 48 h fermentation. After addition of these strains, the pH value of the fermentation system decreased and the content of lactic acid increased, which was conducive to the dissolution of cadmium-binding protein. This could be the main microbial mechanism for decreasing Cd content during the rice noodles production process. Rice grinding can improve the activity of functional microorganisms and Cd reduction efficiency. This study demonstrated that the highly efficient Cd-removing strains in the rice fermentation broth could effectively reduce the Cd content of the Cd contaminated rice, providing new possibilities for the effective use of rice with excess Cd.
Abstract: Anthocyanins in plants play an important role in modulating human health. The cultivation of rice varieties rich in anthocyanins is inevitable to fulfil the demand for developing green and healthy agricultural practices in the future. However, the current genetic resources related to anthocyanin content in rice pericarp are still limited. This is not conducive to germplasm innovation and genetic improvement of colored rice varieties. To comprehensively explore the genetic resources regulating anthocyanin content in rice pericarp, noninvasive detection of anthocyanin was combined with genome-wide association analysis. Using this approach, 13 QTLs associated with anthocyanin content in the pericarp were detected in 533 rice germplasms. These QTLs included 17 candidate genes in addition to Rc, Rd, Rb, and OsMYB3. Through the analysis of homology and expression patterns of these candidate genes, eight MYB and one bHLH gene were preliminarily identified as novel candidate genes associated with anthocyanin content in rice pericarp. This study comprehensively analyzed the genetic basis of anthocyanins in rice pericarp for the first time, providing a theoretical basis and identifying novel genetic resources for the breeding of healthy functional rice varieties.
Abstract: The contents and eco-stoichiometric ratios of soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus have important effects on crop nutrient supply. It is still unclear how long-term straw incorporation affects the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus contents and eco-stoichiometric ratio of soil aggregates in paddy fields. In this study, the double-cropping rice field was taken as the research object, and three treatments of only applying chemical fertilizer (CK), low amount straw incorporation + chemical fertilizer (LS), and high amount straw incorporation + chemical fertilizer (HS) were set up. Soil aggregate composition and its contents of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus were measured in 9~10 years after straw incorporation, and the distribution, average weight diameter, and eco-stoichiometric ratio of soil aggregates were also analyzed, so as to clarify the contribution of soil aggregates with different particle sizes to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus nutrients and the characteristics of the ecological stoichiometric ratios under long-term straw incorporation in double cropping rice fields. The results showed that in 9~10 years after straw incorporation, compared with CK, HS and LS treatment significantly increased the proportion of water-stable aggregates with the particle size of > 0.25 mm (R0.25) and mean weight diameter (MWD). HS treatment significantly increased the total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents of water-stable aggregates with the particle sizes of > 2 mm, 0.25~1 mm, 0.053~0.25 mm and < 0.053 mm, and the particle size with the largest increase of TC and TN was 0.25~1 mm, with an increase of 28.1% and 22.9% respectively, but had no significant impact on the total phosphorus (TP) content. Compared with CK, HS and LS treatments significantly increased the contribution rate of water-stable aggregates > 2 mm to soil TC, TN and TP, which was helpful to improve the nitrogen and phosphorus uptake of rice. Compared with the CK, HS treatment improved the nitrogen phosphorus ratio and carbon phosphorus ratio of water-stable aggregates (> 2 mm, 1~2 mm, 0.053~0.25 mm and < 0.053 mm), which was beneficial for improving nitrogen availability in rice fields and did not limit phosphorus supply with the carbon phosphorus ratio not exceeding the threshold. This study showed that the high amount of straw (6 t/hm2) incorporation at can improve the stability of water-stable aggregates, increase soil carbon and nitrogen storage, and the aggregate nitrogen phosphorus ratio, which has a good effect on improving soil structure and nitrogen supply in paddy fields.
Abstract: As the largest C pool in terrestrial ecosystems, soil plays a major role in the enhancement of ecosystem services and the regulation of climate change. An accurate prediction of soil organic carbon (SOC) content in areas with complex and variable environments will assist in assessing soil quality and carbon sink functions at regional scales. In this study, a typical small watershed in a subtropical hilly region was selected as the research object, and four machine learning algorithms namely, support vector machine regression (SVR), random forest (RF), extreme gradient boosting algorithm (XGBoost) and light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM), were used to predict the SOC content in the soil surface layer (0~20 cm). Three types of environmental variables, including topography, climate and vegetation, were utilized as environmental factors. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of different algorithms in predicting SOC content, and to screen the primary environmental influences affecting SOC distribution. Among the four models, the RF model performed the best in predicting SOC with RF (R2=0.540), and its prediction accuracy was superior to that of XGBoost (R2=0.528) and LightGBM (R2=0.504). Contrary to this, the SVR model had relatively low prediction accuracy (R2=0.427), therefore it was not suitable for predicting SOC content in subtropical hilly landscapes. As a result of the correlation analysis, it was found that topography (primarily elevation) played the most significant role in the model prediction in the subtropical hilly landscape area. In the digital mapping made by four model predictions, it was generally found that the trends of SOC spatial distribution were similar. Each showed a higher SOC content in the northern, southwestern and southeastern marginal regions, while the central region exhibited a low SOC content.
Abstract: The comprehensive reform of agricultural water price (CRAWP) applies the modern water management concept of government-market-society combination to improve agricultural water efficiency and ensure national water security. This study systematically examined the evolution process and internal logic of the CRAWP policy, identified the practical difficulties, clarified the deepening direction, and put forward countermeasures for the future. Results show that China’s CRAWP policy has gone through four stages: the exploration period, the pilot period, the comprehensive promotion period, and the breaking through period. The evolution path of the CRAWP indicated that the objectives and directions have been continuously clarified, the tasks have been deepened from a single breakthrough to the whole chain, and the measures have been constantly diversified. The internal logic of the evolution path of the CRAWP was based on the complexity of the reform objects and the priority was different in different stages. Based on the current situation of farmland water conservancy, the reform took the path of “building mechanism first and then engineering”. Based on the basic agricultural conditions, the reform must simultaneously design the reward and compensation mechanism. However, current CRAWP faced multiple practical dilemmas, including the large gap in capital investment, the low enthusiasm of local and rural households to participate, the absence of the “main body” of end-use water management, and the regional imbalance in the reform process. In the future, the deepening direction of the CRAWP includes further optimizing the water price structure, establishing a reasonable water price sharing, accurate pricing, and subsidy mechanisms, and improving the reform of water right system. This paper also suggests: thoroughly studying water price forming mechanism, incorporating farmland water conservancy into the construction of high-standard farmland, including precision subsidies and water-saving incentives into the comprehensive subsidy system for agricultural production, establishing a diversified management and maintenance mechanism through innovative government purchase services, and formulating a sub-regional acceptance criteria for the CRAWP according to local conditions.
Abstract: The development of rural collective economy is an inevitable choice to adapt to the new situation of agricultural and rural modernization and development. And it is also the way to achieve rural revitalization and farmers’ common prosperity in rural areas. Based on the collective action perspective and the 2016-2018 China Labor Force Dynamics Survey (CLDS) data, this paper analyzed the impacts of rural collective economic development on farmers’ happiness and its mechanism of action by the double fixed effect and mediating effect models and examined the moderating effect of village characteristics. Results show that compared to farmers who are relatively or very happy, 35.6% of farmers still feel unhappy. The finding that rural collective economic development contributes to farmers’ happiness passes endogeneity and robustness tests by the instrumental variable approach. Rural collective economic development mainly contributes to farmers’ happiness by improving infrastructure construction and ecological environment quality. Further analysis indicates that villages in the central and western regions, with higher levels of democracy and longer tenures of university student village officials and village chiefs, had a more significant effect of rural collective economic development on farmers’ happiness. Accordingly, this paper provides the following suggestions: accelerating the development of the new rural collective economy, improving the level of rural infrastructure construction and ecological environment governance, actively promoting rural democracy, and encouraging the tenure extension of village officials.
Abstract: Guiding farmers to voluntarily exit idle homesteads is an effective way to improve the quality of homestead management, and the integrated development of urban-rural areas provides a driving force for the exit. Based on the theoretical framework of urban-rural integration and intergenerational effects, and applying survey data of Jianou city, Fujian, this study analyzed the willingness to exit from idle homestead, and explores the influence mechanism of the urbanization and farmers’ intergeneration on the homestead exit willingness by the Probit, the IV-Probit and the moderation models. Results show that farmers are more willing to exit homesteads, and 65.77% of farmers are willing to exchange the idle homesteads for a payment, and pursuit of better work conditions and public services in the city is the main incentive for them to give up their homesteads. The level of population and economic integration has a significant impact on farmers’ willingness to exit their homesteads, while the land and social integration have a negative impact. The heterogeneity analysis indicates that suburban farmers’ willingness is significantly influenced by the population integration. Generation can regulate the influence direction of urban-rural integration, the population and economic integration positively improve the willingness of newer generation to quit homesteads, and the land and social integration levels inhibit the exit willingness of the older generation. To promote homestead exit, this paper puts forward some countermeasures and suggestions, including coordinately managing the urban housing permit and rural homestead permit to prioritize homestead management system, promoting the transformation of homestead reform achievement to development dividend and governance effectiveness, and improving farmers’ integration ability.
Abstract: In suburban areas, the expectation of land expropriation among farmers is a notable social phenomenon. Examining the factors that influence the expectation from a farmers’ livelihood perspective can provide a reference for improving the existing land expropriation system. Based on a survey data of 562 farmers in Caidian District, Wuhan City, this paper employs the sustainable livelihood framework to analyze suburban farmers’ livelihood patterns and land expropriation expectations during urbanization. In addition, this paper also adopts the ordered probit model to examine the influencing factors of farmers’ land expropriation expectations under different livelihood patterns. Results show that livelihood patterns of suburban farmers are predominantly agro-industrial and non-agricultural, accounting for 55.2% and 36.5%, respectively; 60.7% of the farmers interviewed expect their land to be expropriated and peri-urban farmers’ expectations of land expropriation are significantly higher than those of distant farmers; agro-industrial and non-agricultural households with less dependence on agricultural land for living have a stronger desire for land expropriation. The land expropriation expectations of farmers in suburban areas are primarily influenced by two factors: the proportion of the non-farm labor force and the amount of contracted land. The ratio of the non-farm labor force has a positive impact on the land expropriation expectation of both farm-workers and non-farm type farmers. Conversely, the area of contracted land has a negative impact on the land expropriation expectation of non-farm type farmers. Therefore, the government should fully consider the land expropriation expectations of suburban farmers and meet their demand for non-farm employment and compensation for the withdrawal of contracted land. This paper suggests strengthening support for the non-agricultural job of farmers and accelerating the improvement of the compensation mechanism for land expropriation.
Abstract: The fluctuation of the small-scale agricultural products price has a great impact on the development of agricultural economy and the improvement of people's living standard. The paper summarizes the causes of price fluctuating of the small-scale agricultural products and brings forward the question that we should strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market. Some methods and recommendations are proposed to strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market: promoting purchasing market, standardizing wholesale market, discovering futures market, and promoting information, nurturing broker, establishing co-operatives, increasing reserves, enacting transactions act, and so on.
Abstract: This article has analyzed the situation of forestry in Guizhou Province from the perspective of forest
resources, forestry ecological, forestry industry and forestry safety supply system, and pointed out the problems on the
distribution of forest resources, forestry total production value, industrial structure and the forestry funds investment.
Then it proposed the countermeasures for developing the modern forestry on scientific planning forestry layout,
developing forestry property energetically and to establish a diversified forestry investment system in Guizhou Province
Abstract: Characteristic agriculture is an important part of modern agricultural development, which can maximize
regional advantages, enhance the competitiveness of agricultural products and promote regional development of modern
agriculture. According to the connotation of characteristic agriculture, the conditions and characteristics of the
development of modern agriculture in Fujian Province, it analyzes the path and the effectiveness of modern agricultural
development in Fujian Province from the perspective of characteristic agriculture
Abstract: Using ESDA spatial analysis, this paper researches the spatial pattern evolution and characteristics of per capita net income of farmers in the Yangtze River Delta counties since 1989. The results show that: (1) the absolute difference in per capita net income of farmers is gradually widening, while the relative difference is decreasing with periodic fluctuations; (2)the level of per capita net income of farmers has a strong positive spatial correlation, and the regions with similar income levels have a spatial agglomeration; (3)the growth pattern of per capita net income is proved to be more instable, where its growth hot spots and cold spots switch frequently in their geographical locations, showing the existence of transition phenomenon. Apart from subordinate revenue growth cold spots, trend of spatial concentration enhanced while tendency of random distribution weakened in other growth type areas. Finally, this paper reaches some conclusions and conducts some corresponding discussions. Besides, related suggestions are given to narrow regional differences in Yangtze River Delta counties and promote the regional coordinated development.
Abstract: This paper analyzes many of the problems in China's agricultural scientific and technological progress system. It clears the reform direction of agricultural science and technology policy. The measures include that, the agricultural scientific research investment should be between the lower level of developed countries and the higher level of developing countries, the agricultural scientific research should be unified management by department of agriculture, the agricultural research project will be taken target management of facing the farmers, government needs cooperation with the universities to build the agricultural science and technology promotion system. It guids the agricultural scientific research institutions and universities to set up the marketing company to promote agricultural science and technology. On the basis of respect for the wishes of farmers, with administrative villages as the unit set up the public land transfer market.According to farmers' operating conditions, adopt different types of industrialization
Abstract: The revitalization of rural talents is the foundation of rural revitalization. In order to deal with the shortage of rural talents, and make sure that rural talents can play the supporting role in rural revitalization, this paper, taking Qingdao City as an example, summarized and analyzed two ways to promote rural revitalization through rural talent revitalization, which include attracting urban talents and cultivating local talents. Results show that from the perspectives of the shortage of agricultural and rural talents, relative low quality level of talents, the lack of attraction of talents in rural areas, under-optimized rural talent cultivation mechanism, and some other problems, Qingdao City adopted the following measures: increasing the number of talents and improving the talent structure through bringing in, sinking and retaining urban talents in rural areas, constructing the attraction system of urban talents and trying to retain them. At the same time, Qingdao City has built a complete system of local talent cultivation network from the aspects of discovering local talents and training and supporting local talents. In conclusion, Qingdao City has set up a mechanism of encouraging and attracting urban talents with prominent focus, comprehensive coverage and perfect measures, and has set up a mechanism of the cultivation of local talent with integration, cooperation and incentives called “the Qingdao experience”, which is enlightening and worth spreading.
Abstract: Based on the research review, the wine industry has been around all round the world, not only limited in developed counties and western countries. Nowadays, wine consumption in China presents the trend of rapid growing, China’s wine industry cluster develops in a higher level; nonetheless this industry is facing some challenges in China. As such, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the status and developing trends of China’s wine industry from the various aspects namely regional planting, yield, market consumption, and the investment. Data and information from current literatures are used to investigate the conditions of China’s wine industry. It was found that numerous problems impede the development of China’s wine industry including lack of overall planning of the construction of exist producing region, imbalance development between eastern and western areas, poor and lag behind of product quality management and pre-maturation of the marketing system. The article eventually points out some developing strategies involving reasonable layout and enhance competitiveness in overall producing area; set up the wine industry chain management; strengthen origin protection, and improve the quality certification system; use the new marketing and promoting model, to spread wine culture and to promote the sustainable development of China’s wine industry.
Abstract: Using grain production panel data in 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2010, this paper adopts a DEA-based Malmquist productivity index method to measure and decompose grain TFP (Total Factor Productivity) growth index of the nation’s main grain production areas, main grain sales areas, and balancing areas. This paper also analyzes the spatial and temporal disparities and the underlying mechanism of dynamic TFP index. On this basis, it continues to explore TFP and its decomposition value - exogenous influencing factor of technical efficiency index and technical progress index. Our results show that the TFP index of main production areas have realized an average annual increase of 0.28% within 10 years, which has benefited from technical improvement and efficiency enhancement. However, main sales areas have suffered from a duel loss in the technical progress and technical efficiency. As a result, TFP has an average annual decrease of 0.35%. TFP in balancing areas also has an average decrease of 0.69%, influenced by deterioration of technical progress. We also find that the implementation of the central government’s favorable policies to farmers has significant influence on improving grain TFP level in main production areas. However, these policies have a lagging influence on main sales areas and balancing areas. In addition, per capital grain production scale and mechanization level have negative influence on TFP growth in main grain production area, but positive influence on TFP in main grain sales areas. As for the grain production-sales balancing areas, expansion of the per capita production scale can improve the technical efficiency, but has a reverse inhibiting impact on TFP and technical progress. Finally, based on the research results, this paper proposes measures and suggestions to improve grain productivity more effectively.
Abstract: From the angle of urban and rural aging population inversion phenomenon in China and the challenges brought by it, this paper analyzes the relationship between urbanization and aging population inversion in urban and rural areas in China. In the long term of traditional process of urbanization, population transfer is mainly labor transfer, and the elderly population transfer has been driven by the transfer is limited, thus improve the degree of aging of the rural population and have an impact on the balanced urban and rural development. This population transfer mode is the main reason for the formation of urban and rural aging population inversion. Meanwhile, urban and rural aging population inversion have an impact on urbanization, it not only affects the level and pace of urbanization, but also affects the quality of urbanization. To alleviate this condition, we must take a new urbanizing road, change the urban and rural population transfer mode, and integrate urban and rural social security system.
Abstract: Yulin city is an enrichment region of energy resources, and an extremely vulnerable area as well in China. The energy resources' exploitation and eco-reconstruction has seriously restricted by water resources. Based on fuzzy mathematical and AHP method, it has estimated the water resources intimidation from 2000 to 2005 in Yulin city. The results show that water resource intimidation already approaches to or exceeds the heavy stress degree, and presents an increasing trend. In the basis of the analysis of the industrial structure and its characteristics of water use, the results indicates that agriculture has the biggest proportion in water use, along with the industry scale enlarging and eco-reconstruction, both industrial and ecological water use has been increasing. The interaction mechanism between water resources and society-economy development tells us that: the development of economy has restricted by water resources, which propels the industry to move to the direction of low water demand and high efficiency; impelled by the aridification, agrotype has conversed from crops to grazing and forest; the industry changes to the low water demand and high efficiency types, meanwhile, the industry incomes would help development water-saving agriculture and transform water; the increase of water demand in society and economy produces many eco-environment problems, such as, the excess utilization and declining water level of groundwater.
Abstract: From the perspectives of nature, human, and carrying capacity and applying the entropy and linear weighted comprehensive methods, this paper constructed an evaluation system to assess the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province from 2001 to 2016. In addition, this paper also examined the main obstacles affecting the vulnerability. Results show that the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in 9 cities in Henan Province decreased from 2001 to 2016, while it increased in the other 9 cities; and the vulnerability growth rate varied significantly. The evolution trend of vulnerability could be divided into four types: increasing first and then decreasing, decreasing first and then increasing, increasing with some fluctuations, and decreasing with some fluctuations. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province illustrated a concentrating characteristic in its spatial distribution with the decreasing order as follows: Northern Henan, Eastern Henan, Southern Henan, Central Henan, and Western Henan. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in municipalities was mainly affected by human and carrying capacity, and the main obstacle factors were different. In order to achieve the coordinated development of agricultural production and water resource utilization in Henan Province, this paper suggests that human intervention in water resource system should be positively strengthened by increasing investment in agricultural funds, improving the level of farmland water conservancy construction, and promoting agricultural water use efficiency.
Abstract: Urban development is one of the main factors that affect material circulations and energy flows in ecosystems. Studies on how urban development influences net primary productivity (NPP) are necessary for science-based planning of regional land use. Based on data of land uses and NPP in Wuhan Metropolitan Area from 2000 to 2010, the impacts of construction land expansion on NPP in Wuhan Metropolitan Area were assessed. The construction land in Wuhan Metropolitan Area increased by 57.88% (1 459.44 km2) from 2000 to 2010, and the average NPP decreased from 919.55 g C/(m2·a) to 702.95 g C/(m2·a) while total NPP increased from 2 317.66 Gg C/a to 2 797.97 Gg C/a with an increase rate of 20.72%. Among the nine cities in Wuhan Metropolitan Area, Wuhan and its surrounding area expanded fastest in their construction land. During the decade, the construction land in Wuhan increased by 80.73%, while the total NPP raised by 30.53%. Since the average NPP in the construction area was reduced by 27.78%, total NPP in Wuhan Metropolitan Area only increased marginally.
Abstract: This paper analyses the current status of agricultural pollution resulting from overuse of agricultural chemical inputs since the reform and open-up. It turns out that the formation of agricultural pollution is related to agricultural industrial policies, rural-urban economic structure, pollution controlling fund, environmental general management, “agri-environmental” policies, pollution controlling law and farmer’s environmental awareness. In order to cope with agricultural pollution effectively, some measures that have to be taken are as follows: integration of agricultural and environmental policies, establishment of environmental friendly agricultural technology system, implementation of valley comprehensive management, enhancement of environmental management capabilities of agricultural pollution, strengthening of peasants’ environmental education and establishment of agricultural environmental protection law.
Abstract: This paper try to comparative multi-function of urban modern agriculture of Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou for example, and use the method of combing static and dynamic and of combing qualitative and quantitative to comparative and analyze the urban modern agriculture functions of economy, ecology and society. It can be seen that the differences on economic mainly in the difference of structure of agricultural land only for the difference of types of terrain of three cities, which affect the structure of agriculture industry. Ratio of agro-structural change decreases gradually. Advantage indexes of animal husbandry and fisheries of Shanghai are higher, farming, fisheries and agricultural services of Nanjing, forestry and animal husbandry of Hangzhou are higher as well. The production capacity of vegetables of Shanghai and the production capacity of grain of Nanjing and the production capacity of fruit of Hangzhou is higher than that of others separately in 2010. Secondly, the value of farmland ecosystem carbon sequestration and oxygen releasing of Nanjing is lowest in 2010. Optimal adjustment of the agricultural space layout maintains the ecological environment. The pesticide and chemical fertilizer excessive remains a serious problem. Lastly, agricultural tourism of three cities is in the leisure stage towards the holiday stage. Meanwhile, the three cities take different leisure agriculture development models, and achieve results in employment and economic benefits.
Abstract: With the increase of the importation scale, the quality and safety of imported whey powder has become the
hot issue which arise a lot of attentions and should be solved urgently. This thesis analyzes the necessities of
establishing the quality and safety risk warning mechanism of imported whey powder, based on the current conditions
of whey powder importation, using the method of warning method based on case study ratiocination, sets up the
imported whey powder quality and safety risk warning mechanism from three aspects, including warning information
gathering, warning model building and fast response system, and puts forwards the countermeasures of consummating
the warning system
Abstract: Large scale is the direction of pig- producing development of China in future, but does not mean breeding
scale the bigger the better. The rationality, scientificalness and suitability of each region pig- producing scale has
determined the effectiveness of pig-producing to a large extent. This paper shows that, from the national average level
to see, the moderate scale has the strongest profitability. Specific to major pig producing provinces, the strongest
profitability of farming was difference in different province. The current pig scale cultivation exist such problems as the
disease prevention and control status not optimum, production cost and the scales price has no advantage and the
standardization level need to improve. Finally, combine the current national and provincial pig scale development
situation and problems, this paper proposed the corresponding countermeasure to promote the healthy development of
Abstract: Along with the intelligence and automation improving in agricultural machinery, the application of steering-by-wire technology in agricultural vehicles such as tractors has received concerns and researches. In order to guide the study of hydraulic steering-by-wire of tractor and to shorten the development cycle, a co-simulation model was built based on the analysis of hydraulic steering-by-wire system control algorithm and structure. The hydraulic system and full vehicle model were built on AMESim software platform. Meantime, PID, fuzzy PID and fuzzy immune PID control modeling were constructed by using Simulink software. While Visual C++ 6.0 was chosen to realize interface communication, the angle response and angle following co-simulation were completed with angle transmission ratio 1; as well as the co-simulation of yawing angular velocity response and centroid side-slip angle response under the speed of 15 km/h, the steering wheel Angle 180°, angle transmission ratio 9. The experimental results show that step response time achieves 0.272 s with fuzzy immune PID control, following error of 1.182°, 3% overshoot amount of the yawing angular velocity response, and 0.85°/s steady-state value of centroid side-slip angle response, they both prevail over the performance of common PID and fuzzy PID. In conclusion, co-simulation maintains a strong reference value, and an ideal control effect is able to achieve while fuzzy immune PID control are applied into hydraulic steering-by-wire system.
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