Abstract: Under the two situations of the global unprecedented changes in a century and the overall strategy of the great rejuvenation of China, the domestic grain support and protection policy is facing new requirements and challenges. Since the country started a new round of minimum purchase price policy reform in 2015, the impacts of continuous policy adjustment on rice production and grain security deserve attention. Based on the national and provincial panel data from 2004 to 2019 and applying the generalized synthetic control method, this paper analyzed the mechanism and the impacts of the new round of minimum purchase price policy adjustment on acreage, per unit yield and total production of rice. Results show that the new round of policy adjustment has a significant negative impact on the sown area of rice with obvious regional heterogeneity, which brings the fluctuation of rice yield. Further analysis found that under the pressure that the minimum purchase price is no longer continuously raised, the sown area of paddy rice has been significantly reduced, and the increase in output mainly depends on the advance in yield per unit. Therefore, this paper provides the following suggestions: paying attention to the impacts and risks of this round policy adjustment, maintaining the stability of the basic framework of the domestic minimum purchase price policy, adhering to the main principle of step-by-step and the direction of market adjustment, further deepening policy reform, improving supporting policies, and strengthening biological breeding and technological innovation to firmly hold the bottom line of national grain security.
Abstract: Land use transition and adjustment of agricultural production structure have the important characteristics of complex network nexus and cross coupling. Recognizing the network nexus of their coupling process has become a key point responding to rapid urbanization and rural transformation, and it is also the focus of rural revitalization. Based on the statistical data of land use and rural economy in Sichuan Province, this paper analyzed the characteristics and the complex nexus of land use transition and adjustment of agricultural production structure. Results show that: 1) During 1980—2018, the area of grassland and paddy field decreased the most, and the land use change rates were -0.72% and -0.64% respectively. While the urban-rural residence land, industry development land, and forest area increased significantly. Meanwhile, the proportion of grain production decreased the most, while the proportion of the vegetable production increased by 20.43%; 2) The network nexus between land use transition and adjustment of agricultural production structure is prominent. Especially the changes of forestland and water area are highly correlated with the corresponding changes of agricultural products. While the changes of dryland are differentiated, which highlights the trend of the current agricultural structure transition from grain to vegetables and cash crops; 3) The spatial pattern of the network correlation between land use transition and agricultural restructure is obviously different among the five economic zones in Sichuan Province. The relationship between regional agricultural development leading products and land use types is the most prominent, and the rest are relatively weak.
Abstract: The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward the strategy of rural revitalization, giving farmers, as important participants and practitioners, a full play to the subjectivity for the realization of rural revitalization is of great significance. From the perspective of the Japanese cultural heritage and taking the Japanese cultural heritage as an example, this paper constructed an analytical framework of the generating process and the types of the main body practice to analyze the characteristics of the main body practice of Japanese farmers. This paper also discussed the role played by Japanese farmers in promoting rural economic development and continuing the vitality of traditional villages and its implications for China to provide experience for Chinese farmers to participate in the protection and utilization of agricultural cultural heritage. Results show that the flexible use of Japanese cultural heritage is mainly composed of important traditional buildings and intangible cultural heritage, as well as a historic district that blends tangible cultural heritage with intangible cultural heritage. The practice of farmers is a process from scratch, a deep-going process, and a problem-oriented operating mechanism. The main practice types include mutual aid, cooperation, and planning. Different villages have different main body practice generation process and types with some commonalities. From the vertical dimension, the practice of farmers’ main body has the characteristics of dynamic change, and from the horizontal dimension, the practice of farmers’ main body has the characteristics of differentiation. In the process of protecting and utilizing the agricultural cultural heritage, Japan’s experience reveals that the formation of farmers’ independent practice should be viewed from the perspective of development and farmers should construct the main practice types according to local conditions.
Abstract: Under the rural revitalization strategy, the phenomenon of rural gentrification in the outer suburbs of Chinese metropolises has sprung up. Studying this phenomenon can expand the connotation and extension of rural gentrification and provide reference paths for high-quality rural development. Taking Beijing’s Beigou Village as an example, this research employs the methods of participant observation and semi-structured interviews to analyze the characteristics and the driving mechanism of rural gentrification in the outer suburbs of metropolises. The study has unveiled that rural gentrification is a process of the growth of middle class without displacement. Four kinds of stratum representation modes are formed, including amenity migration, immigrant entrepreneurship, self-gentrification, and gentrifying agent. Rural gentrification brings about rural landscape changes in the aspects of revitalizing idle land assets, merging individual buildings, and touristification of public space. The flows of people, capital, culture and other elements in the era of globalization, accompanied by the interaction of diverse groups based on nostalgia and rent gap, are the key driving mechanisms that account for the rural gentrification. This research finds that rural gentrification in the outer suburbs of metropolises is a tourism-driven process that is supported and steered by the government, spontaneously participated by external gentrifiers, and proactively engaged in by village committees and villagers. Therefore, this paper provided the following policy recommendations: establishing a coordination mechanism for the interests of the government, village committees, external gentrifiers, and farmers, improving the rural homestead withdrawal system, optimizing the rural land use control system, and strictly enforcing the access and supervision system of capital fleeing to the countryside.
Abstract: Exploring the gaps of the awareness and the usage of food nutrition information between urban and rural consumers is important to identify food nutrition deficiencies in rural areas, and it is of great significance to fill the food nutrition and safety depression of vulnerable groups in rural areas. Based on a large sample of consumer questionnaire data in China and applying the seemingly unrelated regression model and propensity score method, this paper investigated the gaps of the awareness and the usage of food nutrition information between urban and rural consumers and analyzed the influencing factors by the Oaxaca-Blinder method. Results show that, in general, the awareness and the usage of food nutrition information are low with significant difference between urban and rural consumers. After considering the correlation between information awareness and the usage, as well as the potential sample self-selection bias, the gap is still significant. In addition, heterogeneity estimation results show that the urban-rural gap is significant for female and high-income consumers, but not for male and low-income consumers. Furtherly, discrimination effect also exists in the gaps of the awareness and the usage of food nutrition information between urban and rural consumers, accounting for 41.65% and 51.05%, respectively, indicating that the consistency of food nutrition information with rural residents was low, and rural areas faced obvious information discrimination. To reduce the gaps, this paper suggests strengthening normative review of nutrition information in rural areas, implementing differentiated policies, and enhancing food nutrition education and training.
Abstract: Collaborative innovation is an important part of the high-quality development of clustered agricultural e-commerce firms. It is of great significance to realize the effective connection between small-scale production and large-scale consumption and the development of agricultural modernization. Based on a micro survey data of 358 clustered agricultural e-commerce firms in Hubei, Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces, this paper adopts the multi-level regression analysis and the bootstrap analysis methods to analyze the relationship among geographical concentration, dual knowledge network embedding, and collaborative innovation performance of clustered agricultural e-commerce firms and to explore the moderating effect of asset specificity and environmental uncertainty. Results show that the geographical concentration and collaborative innovation performance of clustered agricultural e-commerce firms are at a high level, while dual knowledge network embedding, asset specificity, and environmental uncertainty are at a medium level. Geographical concentration, dual knowledge network embedding, and asset specificity are positively correlated with collaborative innovation performance, while environmental uncertainty is negatively correlated with it. Geographical concentration of clustered agricultural e-commerce firms positively affects collaborative innovation performance. Dual knowledge network embedding plays a partial mediating role between geographical concentration and collaborative innovation performance. Asset specificity positively moderates the positive relationship between dual knowledge network embedding and collaborative innovation performance, while environmental uncertainty plays a negative moderating role. Meanwhile, asset specificity and environmental uncertainty jointly moderate the positive relationship between dual knowledge network embedding and collaborative innovation performance. Therefore, clustered agricultural e-commerce firms should strengthen cooperative innovation with internal and external firms of cluster, pay attention to the input and renewal of digital technology equipment, build competitive advantages based on knowledge resources, grasp development opportunities in an uncertain environment, and realize high-quality collaborative innovation development.
Abstract: Social e-commerce sales can improve farmers’ market dominant position and broaden agricultural products sales channels. It is a vital means to connect small farms and the large market. Based on the embedding theory and a micro-survey data of 302 winter jujube growers in the facility agricultural production area of Dali County, Shaanxi Province, this paper analyzed the social e-commerce participation behaviors of farmers from the perspective of virtual embedding and explored its impacts on agricultural income and agricultural production input by the endogenous switching regression model and discussed the heterogeneity issues. Results show that 65.6% of farmers have participated in social e-commerce. The number of social software usage, the number of friends in social software, the number of friend class categories, and information release can significantly promote farmers’ participation in social e-commerce. While information reception has a negative influence. Farmers’ social e-commerce participation will significantly increase agricultural income, with an average of 53,530 yuan. When the planting area crossed the threshold value of 0.2 hm2, social e-commerce participation significantly increased agricultural income per unit area. Under the framework of counter-fact analysis, if the non-participating farmers participated in social e-commerce, their agricultural production input would increase by 131,700 yuan. Agricultural production input is positively affected by farmers’ social e-commerce participation and agricultural income, and the promoting effect of agricultural income on agricultural production input has structural heterogeneity. Therefore, to promote the development of rural e-commerce, this paper provides the following suggestions: publicizing typical cases of social e-commerce sales actively, forming a demonstration and leading role, strengthening social e-commerce training and guidance, improving the ability level of farmers, establishing a county-level farmland information exchange platform, and intensifying the quality supervision of agricultural products.
Abstract: The precise implementation of rural formal financial policies is a key to realizing rural revitalization and promoting healthier development of rural households’ livelihood strategies. Based on the micro-survey data of the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) and applying the sustainable livelihood theory, this paper analyzed the formal loan embedding and rural households’ livelihood strategies by the Simpson index and the M-Logit model and discussed the impacts of formal loan embedding on households’ livelihood choices. Results show that there are three types of livelihood choices for households: agriculture-oriented, entrepreneurship-oriented, and work-oriented. Regardless of whether households have regular loans or not, entrepreneurship-oriented accounts for the lowest share, while work-oriented accounts for the highest share. The shares of entrepreneurship-oriented and work-oriented households with formal loans are higher than those without formal loans, but the share of agriculture-oriented households is lower than those without formal loans. The formal loans of households dominated by agriculture and labor are mainly small loans, while the formal loans of households dominated by entrepreneurship are generally larger. Formal loans significantly promoted the choice of entrepreneurial-oriented or job-oriented livelihood strategies of households, and the promotion effects are more obvious (2.436>1.371). The amount of formal loan significantly promotes the choice of entrepreneurial-oriented livelihood strategies of rural households, but the influence degree of job-oriented livelihood strategy is not obvious. The effect of formal loan on the choice of entrepreneurial oriented livelihood strategy in central and eastern regions is greater, followed by the job-oriented livelihood strategy. In northeast China, households with regular loan tend to choose the agriculture-oriented livelihood strategy, followed by the job-oriented livelihood strategy. In addition, the households’ livelihood strategies are also affected by household head factors, family factors, and community factors to varying degrees. Therefore, to promote households’ livelihood strategy optimization and transformation according to regional differences, this paper suggests: building a multi-level and diversified financial service system and products, increasing agricultural investment through formal loan, refining the classification and preferential policies of “start-up loans”, and taking effective lending measures.
Abstract: With the in-depth implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, new farmers have become the main force in the development of modern agriculture in Zhejiang Province. Increasing the financing loan scale of new farmers is critical to solve their financing dilemma and to promote their entrepreneurial development. Based on the theory of behavioral economics and a field questionnaire survey data of new farmers in Zhejiang Province in 2020, this paper empirically analyzed the influencing factors of new farmers’ financing loan scale and discussed the differences in influencing factors between different types of entrepreneurial operations by the multiple linear regression model and the ordered logit model. Results show that: 1) new farmers’ financing loan scale in Zhejiang Province is small, which is mainly concentrated in the range of 100,000 to 500,000 yuan, and new farmers in cooperative and enterprise management have a larger financing loan scale than that of new farmers with individual operation; 2) participation in agricultural technology training, the identity of the Communist Party of China, relatives and friends working in banks or credit unions, annual operating income, Internet access to entrepreneurial information, Internet social frequency and government entrepreneurship subsidies have significant positive impacts on new farmers’ financing loan scale, while financing interest cost has a negative impact on their financing loan scale; and 3) from the perspectives of different types of entrepreneurial operations, participation in agricultural technology training, annual operating income, financing interest cost, Internet access to entrepreneurial information and government entrepreneurship subsidies significantly affect the financing loan scale of new farmers with individual operation, while the identity of the Communist Party of China, relatives and friends working in banks or credit unions and Internet social frequency have greater impacts on new farmers in cooperative and enterprise management. Accordingly, to increase new farmers’ financing loan scale and ability, this paper provides some policy suggestions, including encouraging new farmers to participate in agricultural technology training, improving rural Internet service system, and formulating differentiated financial support policies.
Abstract: The implementation of ecological farming is of great significance for protecting farmland and achieving high-quality agricultural development. Based on a survey data of Hubei Province and applying the endogenous-treatment Poisson model, this paper explored the effect of farmers’ participation in technology training on the adoption intensity of ecological farming technology and the path of how training affecting farmers’ adoption intensity of ecological farming technology. Results show that: 1) Participation in the technology training can effectively promote farmers’ adoption intensity of ecological farming technology. Compared with those who did not participate in the training, the adoption of ecological farming technology for those farmers who participated in the training increased by 1.124 times. If farmers who participated in the training did not, the adoption of ecological farming technology will drop by 24.9%. 2) The participation rate of farmers in technology training positively promotes the adoption of ecological farming technologies. When farmers’ participation rate of technology training increases by one, the adoptions of ecological farming technologies will increase by 1.445 times. 3) Participation in technology training indirectly affects farmers’ adoption intensity of ecological farming technology through ecological cognition and technical cognition. Therefore, the government should increase the supply of ecological agricultural technology training, enrich the content and form of training, and build an ecological knowledge and ecological technology information exchange platform to increase farmers’ adoption intensity of ecological farming technology.
Abstract: Preventing and controlling agricultural pollution from non-point sources is a critical element to speed up the green development of agriculture. Currently, the mode of China’s agriculture, which mainly depends on resource input, has not fundamentally changed. How to bring small agricultural households in line with the green development is a key issue. Based on a survey data of wheat growers in Jiangsu Province, the paper evaluated the fertilizer-reduction effect of different scale agricultural operations. Results show that there is U-shape relationship between land-scale operation and fertilizer application intensity, meaning that only moderate land scale operation can drive farmers to reduce chemical fertilizer application. If the land area is further expanded, the scale benefit will decline, and the cost of employment will increase. Therefore, rational farmers will apply more chemical fertilizer to avoid these risks. The fertilizer intensity of farmers who buy green socialized services is lower than that of farmers who do not buy. The reason is that socialized services can reduce technical costs and alleviate farmers’ concerns about quality assessment and crop yield reduction. In addition, this paper also found that the reduction effect of land concentration is the most obvious and has a significant synergistic effect with socialized services. Based on the above results, this paper suggests that the government should avoid equating the concentration of land transfer with scale agricultural operations, focus on moderate land scale operation and high-standard farmland constructing, and provide convenience for the deepening of specialized agricultural services. At the same time, the government should also increase direct subsidies for the agents who provide green specialized services, improve the evaluation and accountability mechanism for specialized organizations, and reduce farmers’ negative concerns about technology adopting.
Abstract: Agricultural production outsourcing is an important way to realize the organic connection between small farms and modern agriculture, but there may be differences in efficiency between different outsourcing modes. It is of great practical significance to explore the efficiency differences of different outsourcing modes for the development of agricultural modernization. Based on the theory of property rights and a survey data from agricultural production outsourcing organizations in Heilongjiang Province, this paper analyzed the technical efficiency differences of different agricultural production outsourcing modes by the stochastic frontier production function and explored its influencing factors. Results show that, agricultural production outsourcing can be divided into village collective-led mode and new-type agricultural business entity-led mode. There is an obvious difference in technical efficiency between these two modes. The average technical efficiency of the village collective-led mode is higher than that of the new-type agricultural management entity-led mode. The scale of agricultural production outsourcing, the degree of fragmentation of outsourcing land, the number of self-sufficiency labor force in outsourcing organizations, and hiring agricultural brokers can significantly affect the technical efficiency of agricultural production outsourcing. The reason for the difference in efficiency between the two modes is that the village collective-led mode has a low degree of land fragmentation, and the number of self-sufficiency laborers is generally larger due to property rights. While the new business entity-led mode does not give a full play to the advantages of outsourcing scale and agricultural brokers. Therefore, this research propose some suggestions as follows: actively encouraging the development of the village collective-led mode, further supporting new agricultural business entities to expand the scale of outsourcing, and cultivating the team of agricultural brokers.
Abstract: The installation of solar panels has a long-term impact on rural household income. Exploring how the installation of solar panels influences Rural Revitalization Strategy is of great practical significance. Based on the tracking data of solar panel installation of Y county of Central China from 2014 to 2019, this paper analyzed the impacts of the installation of solar panels on rural household income by a Difference-in-Difference model and discussed its influencing mechanism. Results show that rural household income increased significantly from 2014 to 2019, and the growth rate of per capita income for those households with solar panels was greater than those households without solar panels. The installation of solar panels has increased per capita income by 25.4%. Among them, agricultural operating income and property income increased by 74.4% and 444.5%, respectively. While wage income decreased by 45.3%. The installation of solar panels influenced per capita income by reducing off-farm employment hours, shortening off-farm employment spatial distance, and increasing agricultural operating income. Further analysis indicated that the installation of solar panels had a greater impact on wage income and agricultural operating income of those households in non-central villages than those in central villages, and the stronger household labor is, the greater agricultural operating income increase, the smaller wage income decline. Therefore, this paper puts forward the following suggestions: providing uniform solar panel maintenance services, promoting effective allocation of labor forces, distributing shares by a hierarchical strategy according to different labor ability, reducing the dependence on government subsidies for households with strong labor ability, encouraging innovations in the development mode of solar energy industry, and broadening income channels for solar energy industry.
Abstract: Rapid, high-precision and low-cost monitoring of vegetation status in small watersheds is basis for evaluating the efficacy of returning farmland to grassland and ecological environment construction. In order to enrich the diversity of vegetation index, this paper aims to propose a visible light vegetation index suitable for monitoring the vegetation status of small watersheds on the Loess Plateau. Based on the orthophoto images of small watersheds obtained by the UAV remote sensing technology, a simplified visible light vegetation index (SVVI) was developed for two small typical watersheds on the Loess Plateau. Then, the threshold was determined by the sample statistics, and the extraction effects of eight common visible vegetation indexes were compared with the supervised classification results of support vector machine (SVM). Finally, the accuracy and applicability of the SVVI were tested by the confusion matrix. The results showed: 1) The SVVI can effectively suppress the information of non-vegetation features. When extracting areas with rich types of features and relatively low vegetation coverage, the extraction accuracy of SVVI reached as high as 96%. 2) In the verification area with relatively single features and high vegetation coverage, the extraction accuracy of SVVI was still more than 90%, indicating that SVVI had a good applicability. Compared with the supervised classification results, the vegetation coverage calculation based on the SVVI can effectively retain the vegetation information and realize high-precision monitoring of vegetation status in small watershed of Loess Plateau.
Abstract: To explore the effects of nitric oxides (NO) and superoxide anion on the lateral root development in rice seedling, DR5-GUS-labeled transgenic rice seedling after germination for three days was used as materials and was cultured with the solutions of different concentrations of NO donor, NO synthetase inhibitor, and NO scavenger, respectively. The lateral root growth in the primary root and the number of lateral roots growth were measured after being cultured in 3 days and 5 days. The detection of NO was performed with4,5-diamino-fluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) the detection of IAA histochemical location was performed with β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity, and the detection of superoxide anion O2.- histochemical location was performed with nitro blue tetrazoliums (NBT) to analyze the expressions of genes relative to the NO synthesis. The results showed that NO and IAA were mainly distributed in the vascular bundle, the lateral root of the beginning part, and the root tip of lateral root, whereas O2.-was a polar distribution in the lateral root of the beginning part and the root tip of lateral root. When NO synthesis was inhibited or superoxide radicals were scavenged, the accumulation of NO, IAA, and O2.- was significantly reduced in the lateral root, and the number of lateral root and length of primary root was significantly decreased. Real-time PCR analysis found that treating with the exogenous NO donor SNP could significantly induce the expressions of OsNIA1 and OsNIA2 gene, whereas the treatment with NO the synthetase inhibitor could inhibit the expressions of OsNIA1 and OsNIA2. Based on these results, it was speculated that NO might be used as an important signal substance to participate in the growth of the primary root and lateral roots, and IAA and O2.- were required to accumulate in the parts of lateral root of the beginning part and root tip of lateral root to promote the lateral root formation. When NO synthesis was blocked, the primary root and lateral root growth were inhibited.
Keywords：rice; lateral root; nitric oxide; sodium nitroprusside; auxin; superoxide anion
Abstract: Deeply understanding soil properties in root and non-root zones of the young Eucalyptus plantation is very important for optimizing Eucalyptus plantation management. In order to investigate soil physicochemical properties and bacterial abundance characteristics of root and non-root zones in the young E. urophylla × E. grandis plantation, we selected the young Eucalyptus plantation as the research object in this study, collected the root and non-root zone soils at the depths of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm during winter and summer of 2020, and analyzed soil the physicochemical properties, the C:N:P stoichiometric ratios and the bacterial abundance characteristics. Results showed that the contents of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soil organic carbon (SOC), and total nitrogen (TN) in the non-root zone were significantly higher than those in the root zone, while the contents of soluble organic nitrogen (DON) and total phosphorus (TP) at the 0-20 cm depth of the non-root zone soil were significantly higher than those in the root zone. The contents of soil water content, DON, SOC of the root and non-root zones, and DOC of the non-root zone in summer were significantly higher than those in winter. Soil TN, TP, and total potassium contents at the 0-20 cm depth of the root and non-root zone in summer were significantly lower than those in winter. According to the national soil nutrient classification standard, SOC content of the root zone in winter and soil TN content of the root zone in summer were classified as the fourth grade and were on the relatively deficient levels. Compared with the average C:N:P of global forest soil, the soil C:N in the root zone was high in summer and low in winter, and both N:P and C:P in the root zone were lower than the average. Therefore, it is inferred that there was C limitation in winter and N limitation in summer of the root zone soil. Bacteria abundance at the 0-20 cm depth of the non-root zone soil from Eucalyptus plantation was significantly higher than that in the 0-20 cm root and 20-40 cm non-root zones. Bacteria abundance in summer was significantly higher than that in winter. In conclusion, the soil nutrients of C, N and bacteria abundance in the non-root zone were higher than those in the root zone. The root zone soil may be in a relative C and N-limitation status. Furthermore, the root zone, the soil depth and the seasonality were found as the important factors affecting soil physicochemical properties and bacterial abundance in the young Eucalyptus plantation.
Abstract: Water pollution and the characteristics of the zoobenthos community were affected by agricultural non-point source pollution in the pond. This paper takes ponds in a typical small watershed in a subtropical hilly region as an example. The zoobenthos and water pollution in 15 ponds were investigated and analyzed by field investigation. Relationship between seasonal characteristics of the zoobenthos community and water pollution levels was discussed. The results showed that the diversity of zoobenthos in the ponds was relatively low. A total of 22 species of zoobenthos were collected, of which arthropod accounted for the majority (14 species). The dominant species were Chironomus flaviplumus, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, and Tanypus chinensis. The abundance and biomass of zoobenthos were significantly affected by seasonal variation. The average abundance and biomass of zoobenthos in summer were 544 ind/m2 and 1.48 g/m2, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in winter (913 ind/m2 and 6.67 g/m2, respectively) (P<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the biomass of Chironomus flaviplumus and temperature (T). There was a significant positive correlation between the biomass of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Branchiura sowerbyi and total nitrogen (TN), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) (P<0.05). These results indicated that the overall degree of water pollution in ponds was relatively high, while the community structure of zoobenthos was simple. They were greatly affected by season and water environmental factors. The abundance and biomass of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Branchiura sowerbyi could be used as indicators to reflect the impact of non-point source pollution on pond water.
Abstract: Small watershed is the basic landscape unit for the distribution and relocation of heavy metals in farmland soils, so it is fundamental to clarify the characteristics and sources of soil heavy metals for accurate and scientific prevention and remediation of soil contamination. However, the relevant source identification deserve further investigation at a small watershed scale. In the present study, the farmlands within a typically industrial small watershed were taken as samples to clarify the characteristics and sources of soil heavy metals contamination, using soil sampling and the positive matrix factor (PMF) model combined with the source emission inventory. The results showed that heavy metal-contaminated farmlands mainly distributed in the central area around industrial enterprises and southwestern of the small watershed. These farmlands were primarily contaminated by Cd with 90.5% of the sampling sites above the Chinese Soil Environmental Quality standard limit, and secondarily by As, Hg and Pb with 1.1%~6.3% of the sampling sites above the standard limit. There was no soil Cr contamination for these farmlands. Mean geo-accumulation index for Cd and Hg were relatively higher, as 1.41 and 0.87 respectively, reflecting their significant accumulation within surface soils. However, mean geo-accumulation index for Pb, As and Cr were relatively less or around zero. Heavy metals contents of both irrigation water and agricultural inputs (i.e., fertilizers and manures) did not exceeded limits. The current main input pathways of heavy metals for farmland soils are atmospheric deposition for Cd and Pb, accounting for 71.0%~82.6%, and atmospheric deposition and irrigation for As and Hg, accounting for 39.0%~58.9%. However, agricultural inputs only accounted for 2.1%~18.7% of the total annual input of heavy metals for the farmland soils. Further source identification and quantification results with PMF model and GIS mapping revealed that the mixed source (soil parent materials and industrial activities, 38.8%) accounted for the largest contribution to the soil heavy metals, followed by industrial activities (32.6%) and agricultural activities (28.6%). These reflected that source control should be furtherly strengthened for emissions of heavy metals from industry activities and livestock and poultry breeding. In conclusion, the receptor model (i.e., PMF) combined with the source emission inventory may effectively identify the sources of heavy metals in farmland soils at a small watershed scale. Our results are of great significance for the accurate source identification and prevention of heavy metals contamination in farmland soils at a small watershed scale.
Abstract: Exploiting the promotion effects of social capital on rural households’ willingness and behaviors to use agricultural credit guarantee financing is of great significance to solve the difficulties of farmers’ mortgage guarantee financing in rural financial market. Based on a survey data of 666 rural households in three counties (districts) in Shaanxi, and applying the Bivariate Probit model, this paper analyzed the effects of social capital on rural households’ willingness and behaviors to use agricultural credit guarantee financing. Results show that 50.4% of the surveyed households are willing to use agricultural credit guarantee financing, but the rate of financing behaviors is only 18.6%, and the effective willingness of households to use agricultural credit guarantee financing is low with a deviation between willingness and behaviors. Among various types of social capital, government relationship capital is only beneficial to increase households’ willingness to use agricultural credit guarantee financing, while bank relationship capital and village-level relationship capital can significantly increase the probability of households having both willingness and behaviors to use agricultural credit guarantee financing with low deviation between them. Social capital increases the probability of households’ willingness and behaviors by improving their knowledge of agricultural credit guarantee financing process and policy knowledge. While social capital has more significant effects on the willingness and behaviors of household heads under the age of 60, with high school education or less, and with low-income level than those of other age, education level and income level. Therefore, this paper provided some suggestions, including enriching households’ social capital, increasing the publicity of agricultural credit guarantee financing, and formulating differentiated policies and application conditions for agricultural credit guarantee loans.
Abstract: Common prosperity is an essential requirement of socialism and realizing the common prosperity of farmers is the key content and main sta rting point of the common prosperity for the entire population. Based on the national macro statistical data since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the realistic foundation of farmers and rural development, this paper focuses on the main difficulties in increasing income faced by farmers and discusses the path selection and countermeasures to promote the common prosperity for farmers. Results show that in recent years, China has eliminated absolute poverty, sustained growth in farmers’ income, markedly improved their living conditions, built a better rural social security system, and significantly improved basic rural public services, which have laid a solid foundation for promoting the common prosperity for farmers. However, it should also be recognized that there are still some difficulties in this process, such as the comparatively low efficiency of the agricultural sector, the unreasonable income structure of rural residents, the insufficient investment in human capital of rural residents, and the widening regional gap in rural residents’ income. Accordingly, to broaden the sources of farmers’ income growth and enhance their ability to increase income to promote substantial progress of farmers’ common prosperity, this paper provides some policy suggestions, including building a modern rural industrial system, deepening the comprehensive rural reform, building a human capital investment system, and improving the regional coordinated development mechanism.
Abstract: As an important component and main manifestation of China’s socialist public ownership economy, the new rural collective economy is an important path to comprehensively promote rural revitalization and accelerate agricultural and rural modernization. Talents are an important support to promote its development. Based on the realistic background and policy requirements, this paper explores the different modes of the new rural collective economy supported by talents, discusses the main problems existing in the construction of talents, and provides an optimization path of the development of the new rural collective economy supported by talents. Results show that some areas have made some practical exploration on the development of talents supporting new rural collective economy and strengthened the construction of talents from the aspects of talent attraction, talent selection, talent training and talent incentive, so as to make the rural collective economy radiate new vitality. But overall, China’s rural collective economic talent team is still faced with many practical difficulties such as backward quality, imperfect development and training mechanism, insufficient relevant guarantee, etc. Therefore, from the aspects of planning, funds, teachers and technology, this paper puts forward the development path of optimizing talents to support the new rural collective economy, including improving the introduction mechanism of local talents, focusing on the introduction of talents in urgent need, perfecting the talent training system, implementing the classified training system, and strengthening material and spiritual incentive.
Abstract: Due to the experience economy transformation and tourism consumption upgrading, rural tourism is facing new opportunities and challenges. Consequently, the innovation of rural tourism experience mode, expansion of experience dimension, optimization of experience process and improvement of experience effect become effective ways to achieve high-quality development of rural tourism. Based on the rich natural and cultural tourism resources in rural areas of China, this paper seeks to reconstruct a multi-sensory experience value system of rural tourism resources and to develop a multi-sensory path model of rural tourism experience through analyzing five sensory dimensions of tourists (sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch). Results show that relying on the sensory tourism resources in rural areas and the demands of the tourism market in rural leisure, rural research tourism, in-depth experience, and health tourism, and then developing a sensory experience product support system which integrates six elements of tourism, encouraging the experience value co-creation behavior of stakeholders, to meet the consumer experience needs with diverse, personalized, and in-depth in the era of experience economy. Therefore, this paper suggests the following product development strategies, including sightseeing, entertainment, catering, accommodation, shopping and transportation of rural tourism multi-sensory experience, as well as experience value co-creation strategies of managers, developers, and tourists.
Abstract: The expansion of production scale has created strong demand for mechanized returning straw to field operations. In the process of promoting agricultural scale operation, utilizing policy incentives in promoting farmers’ adoption of returning straw to field technology faces some difficulties and challenges. Based on a survey data in Heilongjiang Province, this paper analyzed the impacts of the production scale on farmers’ adoption of returning straw to field technology by the Probit model and the moderating effect model and discussed its enhancement path and effects. Results show that the straw returning rates in Heilongjiang Province are low with an increasing trend, with 20.59% and 17.74% for farmers and filed plots, respectively. The reasons why farmers of different scales do not adopt returning straw to field technology vary. The expansion of production scale can significantly increase farmers’ adoption rate of returning straw to field technology, and the straw returning subsidies, machinery supply, and machinery operation quality have significant enhancement effects on the influence of the production scale on farmers’ adoption behaviors of returning straw to field technology. The enhancement effect of each pathway varies with the increase of the probability of adopting returning straw to field technology. This research also finds that moderate expansion of the production scale and dynamic policy interventions are the keys to promoting the adoption of returning straw to field technology. Therefore, this paper provides the following policy recommendations: continuously promoting scale operation, improving the standard and target-focusing subsidies, increasing the investment in R&D and technical training of returning straw to field technology, and enhancing the socialized service system.
Abstract: After the comprehensive victory in the battle against poverty, it is crucial to prevent people from large scale returning to poverty for consolidating and expanding the achievements of poverty alleviation and turning to rural revitalization. Taking 18 rural tourism sites in Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of Hubei Province (hereinafter referred to as Enshi) as the research areas, this study identified various potential poverty-returning risks (PRR) that households are facing, and built a set of indicators to evaluate the PRR. Collecting data from questionnaires distributed to the households, this paper discussed the synthesized PRR and its dimensions facing the surveyed households by using a weighted sum index method, and analyzed the differences of households with different types of livelihood strategies in the synthesized PRR and its dimensions by using ANOVA. Results show that households in the rural tourism sites of Enshi are facing five types of potential PRR: natural risks, consumption risks, education risks, income risks and health risks. The synthesized PRR of the surveyed households as a whole is low (16.737), while income risks are relatively high (4.682), followed by education and natural risks, and consumption and health risks are lower (2.614, 2.230). Different types of households are facing significantly different PRR, with tourism-involved households facing higher PRR than those households which are not involved in tourism, and agriculture-oriented households facing higher natural risks and subsidy-dependent households facing higher health risk. To consolidate the achievements of poverty-alleviation and to reduce the PRR in the period of “post poverty alleviation”, this paper proposes the following suggestions: setting up special fund to help households according to their real needs, improving skill training system to enhance households’ off-farm employment ability, and promoting rural civilization construction to raise the awareness of rational consumption.
Abstract: China is facing severe rural development challenges such as the degradation of rural leading industries and weakening of food production functions. The improvement of the agricultural structure of the rural territorial system and the improvement of economic, social security, ecological and other functions are the foundation for national food security and regional sustainable development. It is an important step toward rural revitalization. This research constructed evaluation system to assess the vulnerability of rural territorial system from three dimensions (i.e., exposure, sensitivity and adaptability) in Jilin Province between 2005 and 2019. The dominant factor method was used to analyze key factors of rural vulnerability in different counties. Entropy, factor analysis and comprehensive vulnerability evaluation model, were integrated to measure the vulnerability of rural territorial systems. While the sensitivity of the rural territorial system of Jilin Province had increased with significant fluctuations, the exposure and adaptability had decreased. The vulnerability of the rural territorial system of Jilin Province has a significant spatial variation, being low in the middle and west and high on both east and west portion of the province. The extremely and severely vulnerable counties are mainly in the west and the southeast, the moderately vulnerable counties are concentrated in the western and the northeastern. The mildly and slightly vulnerable counties are mainly concentrated in the central region. According to the dominant factors of the vulnerability of the rural territorial system, the study area were classified into 7 causal types. The dominant factors of the 14 counties with extreme and severe vulnerability are the sensitivity-adaptability and exposure-sensitivity-adaptability. For the 23 counties with moderate vulnerability, the adaptability is the dominant factor. For another 23 counties with mild and slight vulnerability, the adaptability and exposure-sensitivity-adaptability are the dominant factor. Accordingly, specific control measures include enhanced implementation of soil and water conservation, strengthening the prevention of geological disasters, increasing the fertility of medium and low-yield cropland, and strengthening government support and guidance, in order to improve the resilience of rural territorial systems in the Province.
Abstract: Pro-environmental agricultural technology is a new green production factor for controlling agricultural non-point source pollution and promoting green transformation and high-quality development of agriculture. Taking the new fertilizer-saving and pesticide-saving technology of characteristic forestry-fruit planting as an example, based on a survey data of 609 farmers in the study area, and applying the binary Logit model, this paper empirically analyzed the influences of farmers’ active choice and government multidirectional intervention on the adoption of pro-environmental agricultural technology of forestry-fruit. Results show that only 37.6% of farmers in the study area actively chose pro-environmental agricultural technology of forestry-fruit. The levels of government regulation, promotion intervention and government subsidies of pro-environmental agriculture were 48.3%, 86.5% and 63.1%, respectively. The adoption rates of new fertilizer saving and drug reduction technologies were 31.0% and 33.3%, respectively. Farmers’ active choice and government multidirectional interventions have significant impacts on promoting the adoption of pro-environmental agricultural technology of forestry-fruit. Government regulations and government subsidies have positive moderating effects on farmers’ active choice and technology adoption behaviors. There are differences in the effect of farmers’ active choice and government multidirectional interventions with different pro-environmental agricultural technologies. There are differences in the marginal effects of farmers’ active choice and government’s multidirectional interventions on the adoption of fertilizer-saving and pesticide-saving technologies under different educational levels. Farmers’ heterogeneity such as educational level will lead to differences in the adoption of pro-environmental agricultural technology. Therefore, this paper suggests to cultivate the endogenous motivation of farmers’ technological selection, to strengthen the external thrust of government’s multidirectional interventions, and to carry out the promotion of pro-environmental agricultural technology of characteristic forestry-fruit accurately.
Abstract: The fluctuation of the small-scale agricultural products price has a great impact on the development of agricultural economy and the improvement of people's living standard. The paper summarizes the causes of price fluctuating of the small-scale agricultural products and brings forward the question that we should strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market. Some methods and recommendations are proposed to strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market: promoting purchasing market, standardizing wholesale market, discovering futures market, and promoting information, nurturing broker, establishing co-operatives, increasing reserves, enacting transactions act, and so on.
Abstract: This article has analyzed the situation of forestry in Guizhou Province from the perspective of forest
resources, forestry ecological, forestry industry and forestry safety supply system, and pointed out the problems on the
distribution of forest resources, forestry total production value, industrial structure and the forestry funds investment.
Then it proposed the countermeasures for developing the modern forestry on scientific planning forestry layout,
developing forestry property energetically and to establish a diversified forestry investment system in Guizhou Province
Abstract: Using ESDA spatial analysis, this paper researches the spatial pattern evolution and characteristics of per capita net income of farmers in the Yangtze River Delta counties since 1989. The results show that: (1) the absolute difference in per capita net income of farmers is gradually widening, while the relative difference is decreasing with periodic fluctuations; (2)the level of per capita net income of farmers has a strong positive spatial correlation, and the regions with similar income levels have a spatial agglomeration; (3)the growth pattern of per capita net income is proved to be more instable, where its growth hot spots and cold spots switch frequently in their geographical locations, showing the existence of transition phenomenon. Apart from subordinate revenue growth cold spots, trend of spatial concentration enhanced while tendency of random distribution weakened in other growth type areas. Finally, this paper reaches some conclusions and conducts some corresponding discussions. Besides, related suggestions are given to narrow regional differences in Yangtze River Delta counties and promote the regional coordinated development.
Abstract: Characteristic agriculture is an important part of modern agricultural development, which can maximize
regional advantages, enhance the competitiveness of agricultural products and promote regional development of modern
agriculture. According to the connotation of characteristic agriculture, the conditions and characteristics of the
development of modern agriculture in Fujian Province, it analyzes the path and the effectiveness of modern agricultural
development in Fujian Province from the perspective of characteristic agriculture
Abstract: The revitalization of rural talents is the foundation of rural revitalization. In order to deal with the shortage of rural talents, and make sure that rural talents can play the supporting role in rural revitalization, this paper, taking Qingdao City as an example, summarized and analyzed two ways to promote rural revitalization through rural talent revitalization, which include attracting urban talents and cultivating local talents. Results show that from the perspectives of the shortage of agricultural and rural talents, relative low quality level of talents, the lack of attraction of talents in rural areas, under-optimized rural talent cultivation mechanism, and some other problems, Qingdao City adopted the following measures: increasing the number of talents and improving the talent structure through bringing in, sinking and retaining urban talents in rural areas, constructing the attraction system of urban talents and trying to retain them. At the same time, Qingdao City has built a complete system of local talent cultivation network from the aspects of discovering local talents and training and supporting local talents. In conclusion, Qingdao City has set up a mechanism of encouraging and attracting urban talents with prominent focus, comprehensive coverage and perfect measures, and has set up a mechanism of the cultivation of local talent with integration, cooperation and incentives called “the Qingdao experience”, which is enlightening and worth spreading.
Abstract: Based on the research review, the wine industry has been around all round the world, not only limited in developed counties and western countries. Nowadays, wine consumption in China presents the trend of rapid growing, China’s wine industry cluster develops in a higher level; nonetheless this industry is facing some challenges in China. As such, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the status and developing trends of China’s wine industry from the various aspects namely regional planting, yield, market consumption, and the investment. Data and information from current literatures are used to investigate the conditions of China’s wine industry. It was found that numerous problems impede the development of China’s wine industry including lack of overall planning of the construction of exist producing region, imbalance development between eastern and western areas, poor and lag behind of product quality management and pre-maturation of the marketing system. The article eventually points out some developing strategies involving reasonable layout and enhance competitiveness in overall producing area; set up the wine industry chain management; strengthen origin protection, and improve the quality certification system; use the new marketing and promoting model, to spread wine culture and to promote the sustainable development of China’s wine industry.
Abstract: Using grain production panel data in 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2010, this paper adopts a DEA-based Malmquist productivity index method to measure and decompose grain TFP (Total Factor Productivity) growth index of the nation’s main grain production areas, main grain sales areas, and balancing areas. This paper also analyzes the spatial and temporal disparities and the underlying mechanism of dynamic TFP index. On this basis, it continues to explore TFP and its decomposition value - exogenous influencing factor of technical efficiency index and technical progress index. Our results show that the TFP index of main production areas have realized an average annual increase of 0.28% within 10 years, which has benefited from technical improvement and efficiency enhancement. However, main sales areas have suffered from a duel loss in the technical progress and technical efficiency. As a result, TFP has an average annual decrease of 0.35%. TFP in balancing areas also has an average decrease of 0.69%, influenced by deterioration of technical progress. We also find that the implementation of the central government’s favorable policies to farmers has significant influence on improving grain TFP level in main production areas. However, these policies have a lagging influence on main sales areas and balancing areas. In addition, per capital grain production scale and mechanization level have negative influence on TFP growth in main grain production area, but positive influence on TFP in main grain sales areas. As for the grain production-sales balancing areas, expansion of the per capita production scale can improve the technical efficiency, but has a reverse inhibiting impact on TFP and technical progress. Finally, based on the research results, this paper proposes measures and suggestions to improve grain productivity more effectively.
Abstract: This paper analyzes many of the problems in China's agricultural scientific and technological progress system. It clears the reform direction of agricultural science and technology policy. The measures include that, the agricultural scientific research investment should be between the lower level of developed countries and the higher level of developing countries, the agricultural scientific research should be unified management by department of agriculture, the agricultural research project will be taken target management of facing the farmers, government needs cooperation with the universities to build the agricultural science and technology promotion system. It guids the agricultural scientific research institutions and universities to set up the marketing company to promote agricultural science and technology. On the basis of respect for the wishes of farmers, with administrative villages as the unit set up the public land transfer market.According to farmers' operating conditions, adopt different types of industrialization
Abstract: From the angle of urban and rural aging population inversion phenomenon in China and the challenges brought by it, this paper analyzes the relationship between urbanization and aging population inversion in urban and rural areas in China. In the long term of traditional process of urbanization, population transfer is mainly labor transfer, and the elderly population transfer has been driven by the transfer is limited, thus improve the degree of aging of the rural population and have an impact on the balanced urban and rural development. This population transfer mode is the main reason for the formation of urban and rural aging population inversion. Meanwhile, urban and rural aging population inversion have an impact on urbanization, it not only affects the level and pace of urbanization, but also affects the quality of urbanization. To alleviate this condition, we must take a new urbanizing road, change the urban and rural population transfer mode, and integrate urban and rural social security system.
Abstract: Yulin city is an enrichment region of energy resources, and an extremely vulnerable area as well in China. The energy resources' exploitation and eco-reconstruction has seriously restricted by water resources. Based on fuzzy mathematical and AHP method, it has estimated the water resources intimidation from 2000 to 2005 in Yulin city. The results show that water resource intimidation already approaches to or exceeds the heavy stress degree, and presents an increasing trend. In the basis of the analysis of the industrial structure and its characteristics of water use, the results indicates that agriculture has the biggest proportion in water use, along with the industry scale enlarging and eco-reconstruction, both industrial and ecological water use has been increasing. The interaction mechanism between water resources and society-economy development tells us that: the development of economy has restricted by water resources, which propels the industry to move to the direction of low water demand and high efficiency; impelled by the aridification, agrotype has conversed from crops to grazing and forest; the industry changes to the low water demand and high efficiency types, meanwhile, the industry incomes would help development water-saving agriculture and transform water; the increase of water demand in society and economy produces many eco-environment problems, such as, the excess utilization and declining water level of groundwater.
Abstract: From the perspectives of nature, human, and carrying capacity and applying the entropy and linear weighted comprehensive methods, this paper constructed an evaluation system to assess the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province from 2001 to 2016. In addition, this paper also examined the main obstacles affecting the vulnerability. Results show that the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in 9 cities in Henan Province decreased from 2001 to 2016, while it increased in the other 9 cities; and the vulnerability growth rate varied significantly. The evolution trend of vulnerability could be divided into four types: increasing first and then decreasing, decreasing first and then increasing, increasing with some fluctuations, and decreasing with some fluctuations. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province illustrated a concentrating characteristic in its spatial distribution with the decreasing order as follows: Northern Henan, Eastern Henan, Southern Henan, Central Henan, and Western Henan. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in municipalities was mainly affected by human and carrying capacity, and the main obstacle factors were different. In order to achieve the coordinated development of agricultural production and water resource utilization in Henan Province, this paper suggests that human intervention in water resource system should be positively strengthened by increasing investment in agricultural funds, improving the level of farmland water conservancy construction, and promoting agricultural water use efficiency.
Abstract: This paper analyses the current status of agricultural pollution resulting from overuse of agricultural chemical inputs since the reform and open-up. It turns out that the formation of agricultural pollution is related to agricultural industrial policies, rural-urban economic structure, pollution controlling fund, environmental general management, “agri-environmental” policies, pollution controlling law and farmer’s environmental awareness. In order to cope with agricultural pollution effectively, some measures that have to be taken are as follows: integration of agricultural and environmental policies, establishment of environmental friendly agricultural technology system, implementation of valley comprehensive management, enhancement of environmental management capabilities of agricultural pollution, strengthening of peasants’ environmental education and establishment of agricultural environmental protection law.
Abstract: Large scale is the direction of pig- producing development of China in future, but does not mean breeding
scale the bigger the better. The rationality, scientificalness and suitability of each region pig- producing scale has
determined the effectiveness of pig-producing to a large extent. This paper shows that, from the national average level
to see, the moderate scale has the strongest profitability. Specific to major pig producing provinces, the strongest
profitability of farming was difference in different province. The current pig scale cultivation exist such problems as the
disease prevention and control status not optimum, production cost and the scales price has no advantage and the
standardization level need to improve. Finally, combine the current national and provincial pig scale development
situation and problems, this paper proposed the corresponding countermeasure to promote the healthy development of
Abstract: This paper try to comparative multi-function of urban modern agriculture of Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou for example, and use the method of combing static and dynamic and of combing qualitative and quantitative to comparative and analyze the urban modern agriculture functions of economy, ecology and society. It can be seen that the differences on economic mainly in the difference of structure of agricultural land only for the difference of types of terrain of three cities, which affect the structure of agriculture industry. Ratio of agro-structural change decreases gradually. Advantage indexes of animal husbandry and fisheries of Shanghai are higher, farming, fisheries and agricultural services of Nanjing, forestry and animal husbandry of Hangzhou are higher as well. The production capacity of vegetables of Shanghai and the production capacity of grain of Nanjing and the production capacity of fruit of Hangzhou is higher than that of others separately in 2010. Secondly, the value of farmland ecosystem carbon sequestration and oxygen releasing of Nanjing is lowest in 2010. Optimal adjustment of the agricultural space layout maintains the ecological environment. The pesticide and chemical fertilizer excessive remains a serious problem. Lastly, agricultural tourism of three cities is in the leisure stage towards the holiday stage. Meanwhile, the three cities take different leisure agriculture development models, and achieve results in employment and economic benefits.
Abstract: Along with the intelligence and automation improving in agricultural machinery, the application of steering-by-wire technology in agricultural vehicles such as tractors has received concerns and researches. In order to guide the study of hydraulic steering-by-wire of tractor and to shorten the development cycle, a co-simulation model was built based on the analysis of hydraulic steering-by-wire system control algorithm and structure. The hydraulic system and full vehicle model were built on AMESim software platform. Meantime, PID, fuzzy PID and fuzzy immune PID control modeling were constructed by using Simulink software. While Visual C++ 6.0 was chosen to realize interface communication, the angle response and angle following co-simulation were completed with angle transmission ratio 1; as well as the co-simulation of yawing angular velocity response and centroid side-slip angle response under the speed of 15 km/h, the steering wheel Angle 180°, angle transmission ratio 9. The experimental results show that step response time achieves 0.272 s with fuzzy immune PID control, following error of 1.182°, 3% overshoot amount of the yawing angular velocity response, and 0.85°/s steady-state value of centroid side-slip angle response, they both prevail over the performance of common PID and fuzzy PID. In conclusion, co-simulation maintains a strong reference value, and an ideal control effect is able to achieve while fuzzy immune PID control are applied into hydraulic steering-by-wire system.
Abstract: Clearing up rural poverty, realizing city and country correspond development is long striving aim of Chinese Government. Currently, the quantity of rural poverty population in China has taken on a sharp decline, comparative poverty standing out, returning poverty severity, and overspread to city. This article from economic rising, income distributing, trade freedom, rural labor mobility and finance support agriculture, puts up economics explaining about currently Chinese rural poverty status, Lastly, puts forward relevant policy suggestion of enlarging domestic demand, adjusting income distribution, strengthening education train, adjusting agriculture production structure and method of supporting agriculture.
Abstract: With the increase of the importation scale, the quality and safety of imported whey powder has become the
hot issue which arise a lot of attentions and should be solved urgently. This thesis analyzes the necessities of
establishing the quality and safety risk warning mechanism of imported whey powder, based on the current conditions
of whey powder importation, using the method of warning method based on case study ratiocination, sets up the
imported whey powder quality and safety risk warning mechanism from three aspects, including warning information
gathering, warning model building and fast response system, and puts forwards the countermeasures of consummating
the warning system
Abstract: The industrial base of rice such as enrichment of rice resources, preferable processing industry foundation and high quality and massive market demand in Heilongjiang Province were analyzed. Some advantages such as good ecological environment, less chemical pollution and larger quantity of high quality rice were also analyzed. The problems such as serious degradation of rice, lack of alternative rice, inadequate processing enterprises, severe losses of processing enterprises, inefficient logistics and lack of policy support and financial support from relevant government and financial department were also analyzed. Some countermeasures such as increasing investment in seed research, speeding up the seed base construction, introducing the market access system, gradually dissolving the backward production capacity, developing the food logistics and intensifying policy support etc were put forward for promoting the development of rice industry.
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