Abstract: Building an agricultural subsidy policy system and an incentive and restraint mechanism that are oriented towards green ecology and promote the rational use of agricultural resources is one of the main directions of the reform of China’s agricultural subsidy system. This paper analyzed the difference of environmental impact between agricultural subsidy and agricultural green subsidy and examined the reform effect and existing problems of the current agricultural green subsidy policy in China. Results show that, theoretically, the technical effect of agricultural subsidies is conducive to improving the ecological environment, and the scale effect, structural effect and the technical effect of agricultural subsidies aggravate agricultural environmental pollution, but the direct and indirect effects of agricultural green subsidies are conducive to the improvement of the ecological environment. In practice, as the reform of China’s agricultural green subsidy system continues, specific goals, including ensuring the supply security of major agricultural products such as grain, stabilizing the increase of farmers’ income, and enhancing agricultural ecological environment protection, have been basically achieved or initial results have been achieved. However, there are still some existing problems, including low performance of agricultural green subsidies, insufficient overall planning of agricultural green subsidy policies, and difficult implementation of agricultural green subsidies. Therefore, to promote the green and low-carbon transformation of agricultural production in China, this paper suggests: deepening the reform of the agricultural green subsidy system to enhance the incentive effect of subsidies, formulating a comprehensive agricultural green subsidy policy mechanism and letting it to play a leading role in subsidy demonstration, and perfecting the subsidy application verification and checking mechanism while consolidating the grassroot agricultural economics professional team.
Abstract: Rice-crayfish farming is the most extensive form of integrated farming of rice and animal aquaculture in China, and has played an important role in ensuring national food security, improving agricultural quality and efficiency, and setting an example for the development of green agriculture, as well as helping farmers increase their production and income. Based on the understanding the developmental status of the rice-crayfish industry in China, this paper analyzes the difficulties that the industry face, summarizes the industrial development of the rice-crayfish model, and puts forward suggestions for the development of green and high-quality rice-crayfish farming. Results show that the rice-crayfish industry in China is still in a period of strategic opportunity with a favorable policy environment and strong developmental momentum. Both the area and production of rice-crayfish farming are increasing steadily. Rice-crayfish farming in China is mainly located in the plains along rivers and lakes and around low hills and reservoirs. There are five main models for the development of the rice-crayfish industry in China, including the developmental model of the entire industrial chain of crayfish, the model applied to “Shuangshui Shuanglü”, the model of the industrial chain of rice produced by the rice-crayfish farming, the industry integration model for crayfish, and the model involving the ecological planting and breeding of both rice and crayfish without annular culturing channels. However, there are also some problems. For example, the development of the rice and crayfish industries is not synergistic, theoretical and technological innovation cannot keep up with the speed with which rice-crayfish farming is developing, the rice-crayfish industry requires further improvement, and measures surrounding policy guarantees require an urgent improvement. In order to promote both green and high-quality developmental strategies for the transformation of the rice-crayfish industry in China, this paper suggests: guiding the standardized and coordinated development of the industry using scientific planning, advancing the transformation and upgrading of the rice-crayfish industry with scientific and technological innovation, leading to high-quality development with the integration of these industries to promote rural revitalization, and improving policies to ensure the sustainable and healthy development of the rice-crayfish industry. development of agriculture, and helping farmers increase production and income. Based on the understanding the development status of rice-crayfish industry in China, this paper analyzes the difficulties facing the rice-crayfish industry, summarizes industrial development model of rice-crayfish, puts forward suggestions for the green and high-quality development of rice-crayfish. Results show that the development period of rice-crayfish industry in China is still in a period of strategic opportunity with a favorable policy environment and strong development momentum. The area and production of rice-crayfish farming are still increasing steadily. The spatial distribution of rice-crayfish farming in China is mainly in the plains along rivers and lakes and around low hills and reservoirs. There are four main models for the development of rice-crayfish industry in China, including the development model of the whole industry chain of crayfish, the development model of rice-crayfish applied to “Shuangshui Shuanglü”, the industry chain development model of rice produced by the rice-crayfish farming, the industry integration development model of crayfish, the ecological planting and breeding development model of rice-crayfish without annular culturing channel. However, there are also some problems such as the development between the rice and crayfish industries is not synergistic, theoretical and technological innovation cannot keep up with the development speed of rice-crayfish farming, rice-crayfish industry system needs to be further improved, policy guarantee measures urgently need to be improved. In order to promote the green and high-quality development strategy transformation of rice-crayfish industry in China, it is necessary to guide the standardized and coordinated development of rice-crayfish industry with scientific planning, promote the transformation and upgrading of the rice-crayfish industry with scientific and technological innovation, achieve high-quality development with the integration of three industries to promote rural revitalization, and improve policies to ensure the sustainable and healthy development of the rice-crayfish industry.
Abstract: As an important means of agricultural production, seeds are of great significance in ensuring grain security. The development of the seed industry in China started relatively late, and there is a “bottleneck” problem of seed provenance in some fields. From the perspective of the distribution of plant variety rights, this paper analyzed the problems of seed provenance “bottleneck” problem faced by China through international comparison by using the application and authorization data of variety rights of China and the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) members from 2010 to 2020, and identified a corresponding solution path. Results show that the breeding technology was developing continuously in China, and the number of residents’ applications for variety rights increased rapidly. However, the authorization rate declined. Compared with UPOV members, the main applicants for variety rights in China were mainly from domestic applicants. Currently, China is facing the following major “bottleneck” problems of seed provenance: relatively lag behind biological breeding technology, insufficient protection of germplasm resource mining and utilization, low protection level of plant variety rights, and imbalanced structure of plant variety rights, especially for the seeds of vegetables, flowers and herbs, which mainly depend on import. Therefore, this paper provides the following suggestions: breaking through the “bottleneck” technology research, strengthening the introduction, development and utilization of crop germplasm resources, improving the protection system and protection level of new plant varieties, constructing the commercial breeding system of deep cooperation among government, industry, university, and research institutes, and strengthening the early warning of seed security risks.
Abstract: The legalization of agricultural insurance is an important guarantee for the high-quality development of agricultural insurance. The legislative model of straddling commercial and policy-based agricultural insurance in China has become the “cause of disease” that hinders the development of policy-based agricultural insurance. Based on Japan’s agricultural insurance law, this paper analyzes the development process, the legal framework, and the basic characteristics of Japan’s agricultural insurance policies, explores Japan’s experience and practice of agricultural insurance, and discusses its implications for China’s policy-based agricultural insurance legislation. Results show that Japan enacted a separate legislation at the beginning of the establishment of agricultural insurance, and the provisions of the law not only include government’s responsibilities, insurance liability, the level of protection, penalties, but also incorporate the externality of the characteristics of agricultural insurance on financial, reinsurance, and other ancillary support measures to carry out detailed provisions. It has the characteristics of comprehensive legal content, mandatory insurance items, and the coordination with other laws. The “Regulations on Agricultural Insurance” promulgated by China has filled the blank of agricultural insurance regulations, preliminarily established the structure of the agricultural insurance system, and clarified the legal responsibility of agricultural insurance operation. However, compared with Japan, there are still legislative goals that do not reflect the strategic significance, the misalignment with other related laws, the lack of regulations on the power and responsibility relationships and behavioral norms of the governments at all levels, and inadequate market access and exit system. Therefore, China can learn from the legislative experience of Japan and further improve the agricultural insurance system by specifying legal norms such as institutional model, financial support mode, premium rate determination requirements, and catastrophe risk dispersion system in the policy-based agricultural insurance legislation.
Abstract: Resolving the challenge of “being a large country with a small agricultural sector” in line with China’s context and rural conditions hinges on forging a modernization path for agriculture and rural areas. The dynamic growth of the digital economy has presented a novel avenue for tackling this issue. Anchored in panel data at the municipal level spanning 2012 to 2021, this study employs the TOPSIS entropy weighting method to compute and analyze the Chinese Agricultural and Rural Modernization Index (CARMI). Furthermore, it employs a high-dimensional fixed-effects panel model and a multi-period Difference-in-Differences (DID) model to scrutinize the impact and mechanisms of the digital economy on China’s distinctive style of agricultural and rural modernization. The findings reveal that the CARMI exhibited a consistent overall elevation from 2012 to 2021, along with a narrowing disparity among regions. Additionally, the digital economy can effectively propel the progression of China’s agricultural and rural modernization, with a particularly pronounced impact witnessed in the eastern and southern regions, non-grain-producing areas, and regions with higher levels of agricultural and rural modernization. Mechanism analysis discloses that the digital economy can heighten the level of agricultural and rural modernization by stimulating the deepening of rural capital and enhancing market orientation. Significantly, the substantial transfer of the agricultural labor force amplifies the promotional impact of the digital economy on China’s style of agricultural and rural modernization. Thus, this research suggests that, grounded in China’s national circumstances, leveraging the role of the digital economy should be prioritized, and concerted efforts should be directed towards rectifying the issue of imbalanced development. The organized advancement of non-agricultural employment for the agricultural labor force and the augmentation of farmers’ market involvement and rural capital deepening are recommended.
Abstract: Examining the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics and the constraint factors of the agricultural modernization development level is helpful for promoting high-quality agricultural development and optimizing the top-level design of related fields. Taking 9 provinces in the Yellow River Basin as examples, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics and differences of the agricultural modernization level in the Yellow River Basin by the entropy method, the Theil index, and the constraint degree model. Results show that from the perspective of the entire Yellow River Basin, the level of agricultural modernization is constantly improving but still at a low level. From the perspective of the spatial distribution characteristics of the Yellow River Basin, the development level of agricultural modernization in the 9 provinces is in a non-equilibrium state, with Inner Mongolia, Shandong, Sichuan, Qinghai, and Henan having higher development levels, and Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Ningxia relatively lower levels, forming a spatial development pattern of “low in the middle, high around”. But the gaps among provinces are gradually narrowing. The constraint factors to the development of agricultural modernization in the Yellow River Basin are mainly concentrated in agricultural basic input and the level of agricultural technology and socialized services. Among them, water resources per unit of farmland, construction of high-standard farmland, per capita farmland, the level of development of agricultural socialized services, and the organization of mechanized social services are common constraint factors in most provinces. Therefore, this paper suggests: 1) to optimize the spatial layout of agricultural modernization; 2) to manage agricultural production scientifically to improve water resource utilization efficiency; 3) to strengthen high-standard farmland construction; 4) to promote agricultural scale management; 5) to improve agricultural socialized service system under policy guidance; and 6) to strengthen technological innovation and improve the level of socialized services for agricultural mechanization.
Abstract: In 2016, the agricultural subsidy framework for corn production in China underwent a pivotal transformation. This transition entailed a shift from the antecedent temporally-oriented policy of inventory control to a novel regime oriented towards producer subsidies. In comparison to its precursor, the temporal control policy, the efficacy and ramifications of this producer-oriented corn subsidy policy necessitate a deeper analytical exploration, drawing upon extant research as a foundation. Based on the economics theory of firms and applying the Difference-in-Differences (DID) model, this research seeks to empirically analyze the granular repercussions of producer subsidies upon corn producers and to examine the nuanced disparities across provinces and the temporal dynamics from the perspective of corn producers. Results show that: 1) Producer subsidies played a significant role in promoting corn production in policy implementation areas, ensuring the stability of regional corn production; 2) From the perspective of "dynamic effects" of time, the influence of producer subsidies on corn production gradually increased; and 3) There were heterogeneity of the impacts of producer subsidies among different provinces: particularly, in Heilongjiang Province, a preeminent corn-production hub, comparing with the former temporal control policy, the influence of producer subsidy on corn yield was relatively low because producer subsidy could not compensate the loss of corn producers from price drop. In summary, this paper provides the following suggestions: continuing the refinement of the corn producer subsidy framework, necessitating the coordination between the producer subsidy policy and other price support policies to reduce producer’s price loss, and paying attention to the changes in the impacts of the producer subsidy policy over time for future adjustment.
Abstract: Exploring the influence and mechanism of family endowment on farmers’ income is of great significance for promoting non-agricultural employment and increasing farmers’ income in the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River Basin. Based on a microscopic survey data of 1,770 farmers in the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River Basin, and applying the OLS and quantile regression models, this paper explored the impacts of family endowment on farmers’ income and farmers at different income levels and the mediating effect between endowment and household income. Results show: 1) Family endowment has a significant impact on household income, of which the impact of family economic capital is the most significant, followed by family natural capital, and finally family human capital and family social capital; 2) Household endowments have different effects on farming households at different income levels and have a significant positive effect on both middle and high income levels; and 3) Non-agricultural employment has an intermediary effect between family human capital and household income and between family economic capital and income, accounting for 19.0% and 6.4% respectively. Therefore, to promote income generation for farmers, this paper suggests: fully taking into account the level of farmers’ household endowment , vigorously cultivating the new types of professional farmers who “love agriculture, know technology and are good at business management”, and continually enriching and broadening farmers’ access to information. In addition, this paper also suggests to pay attention to the construction of pension services for low-income level farm households, to increase policy support and financial support, and vigorously pursue the development of regional characteristic industries and actively encourage non-farming entrepreneurship of farm households to realize the employment of the labor force in the vicinity.
Abstract: Ecological compensation for cultivated land protection plays an important role in ensuring the continuous supply of ecological functions of cultivated land and internalizing the externalities of cultivated land protection. Based on the logic of "trinity" protection of cultivated land, this study introduces the landscape pattern index, takes into account the differences in spatial configuration of cultivated land, establishes a multi-scale accounting system for the ecological service value of cultivated land in watersheds, and formulates the ecological compensation amount for differential protection of cultivated land in watersheds by combining the ecological carrying capacity of cultivated land, and proposes a financial transfer path. The research results show that: 1) From 2000 to 2020, the ecological value of cultivated land in the Liaohe River basin of Jilin Province was gradually revealed, and the spatial heterogeneity was significant, with the overall northern region higher than the southern region, and the middle and lower reaches of the region being the main contributing region to the ecological value of cultivated land. 2) As of 2020, the cultivated land in the basin as a whole is in ecological surplus, with a surplus of 484.5 thousand hectares, and the supply and demand of cultivated land in various districts and counties are characterized by “surplus in counties (cities) and deficit in districts”. 3) There are significant spatial differences and scale-dependent effects in the amount and mode of ecological compensation for cultivated land protection in the watershed. The total amount of compensation for cultivated land protection in the watershed is 1.350 billion yuan, and the amount of compensation for cultivated land protection in each district and county is -0.003 billion ~0.657 billion yuan. Therefore, the establishment of the ecological compensation mechanism for cultivated land protection should take into full consideration the ecological service value of cultivated land, carrying capacity, regional differences, scale-dependent characteristics, and other relevant factors, so as to improve the precision and effectiveness of compensation. At the same time, horizontal and vertical financial transfers of cultivated land for ecological compensation can be realized through the establishment of intermediary platforms and other means.
Abstract: Leveraging the role of urban-rural integration in curbing agricultural carbon emissions intensity holds significant practical value for promoting low-carbon transitions in rural areas and advancing agricultural and rural modernization. Grounded in the theory of urban-rural integration development, this study employs a classical panel model to examine the impact of urban-rural integration on agricultural carbon emissions intensity. Using panel data spanning 2005 to 2020 from 30 provinces (cities, districts), the study delves into the mechanisms and heterogeneity of this relationship. Results reveal an ongoing upward trajectory in national and regional (eastern, central, and western) urban-rural integration development, juxtaposed with a notable decline in agricultural emissions intensity—opposite fluctuation trends. Urban-rural integration significantly dampens the intensity of agricultural carbon emissions. Further analyses spotlight a pronounced suppression of emissions intensity in the eastern region and major grain-producing areas due to urban-rural integration. Moreover, the urban-rural integration achieves this by bolstering agricultural technology advancement and scaling operations. To this end, proactive promotion of targeted urban-rural integration policies, reinforcement of agricultural technology progress and scaled operations, and recognition of emission reduction divergence are pivotal for curbing agricultural carbon emissions intensity.
Abstract: Based on a panel data of 78 counties in Guizhou from 2015 to 2020, this paper incorporates agricultural net carbon sink into expected output, uses the Malmquist-Luenberger index based on the SBM directional distance function to measure the agricultural eco-efficiency, and comprehensively applies the Dagum Gini coefficient decomposition method, kernel density estimation method, and β-convergence model to systematically analyze the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of agricultural eco-efficiency in Guizhou. This study finds that the agricultural eco-efficiency of Guizhou and its five regions showed a fluctuating and increasing trend. The intra-reginal differences of each region showed an expanding trend, indicating that the imbalance of agricultural eco-efficiency in different counties within each region has become increasingly prominent. The inter-regional differences of the five regions showed a generally expanding trend, indicating that the agricultural eco-efficiency in different regions was gradually unbalanced. By decomposing the differences this paper also finds that he inter-regional differences had exceeded the intensity of trans-variation, which became the main source of differences. The kernel density distribution curves of Guizhou and its five regions showed a rightward trend during the observation period with different degrees of polarization trends. The whole province and the five regions basically supported absolute β-convergence, and after considering the different influencing factors, the agricultural eco-efficiency in different regions will gradually converge to their own steady-state level.
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to clarify the differences in soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) contents as affected by different cropping patterns in reddish paddy soil, thereby provided a basic data for future optimization of cropping patterns and improvement of soil quality. A long-term field experiment (started from 2012) was conducted, including early rice-late rice-winter fallow (DR, as control), midseason rice-winter fallow (MR), midseason rice-oilseed rape rotation (MRR), and midseason rice-pakchoi-oilseed rape rotation (MRPR). The soil samples (0 ~ 15 cm) were collected randomly in each plot in January, May, September, and November, respectively. The MBC and MBN contents, ratio of MBC to MBN, and soil chemical properties were analyzed. The results showed that both cropping pattern and soil sampling time significantly influenced MBC and MBN contents and their ratio. Compared with DR, the cropping patterns with midseason rice (MR, MRR, and MRPR), especially for MRR and MRPR, significantly (P < 0.05) lowered the MBC and MBN contents, and changed the ratio of MBC to MBN. Meanwhile, the cropping patterns with midseason rice significantly (P < 0.05) increased soil available phosphorus content but decreased dissolved organic carbon, and their effects on other soil chemical properties mainly depended on soil sampling time. The correlation analysis of Spearman showed that the MBC content was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the content of soil dissolved organic carbon, while the MBN content was significantly correlated with soil dissolved organic carbon and NH4+-N contents. In summary, the changes from double cropping rice to cropping patterns with midseason rice in reddish paddy field lowered the MBC and MBN contents, hence effective agronomical approaches, such as optimizing cropping pattern and fertilization regime, should be applied to improve soil microbial biomass and maintain sustainable production of reddish paddy field.
Abstract: The large amount of chemical fertilizer applied in protected vegetable soil in China has caused a lot of N2O and NH3 losses. The substitution of organic fertilizer for part of chemical fertilizer is an effective measure to realize the recycling of nutrient resources in the planting and breeding system, and to reduce the application of chemical fertilizers and their environmental losses. In this study, a protected vegetable soil with Chinese cabbage planting in the suburbs of Changsha was taken as the research object. In the protected vegetable soil, a plot experiment was conducted to plant milk cabbage. The field experiment was conducted with four treatments: non-fertilization (CK), conventional fertilization (CON), 30% N from cow manure organic fertilizer + 70% from chemical fertilizer (CM), and 30% N from chicken manure organic fertilizer + 70% from chemical fertilizer (NM). The emissions of nitrous oxide and ammonia volatilization during the growing season of Chinese cabbage were measured by static chamber method and closed chamber intermittent extraction method, respectively. The aims of the study were to explore the emission reduction effects of organic-inorganic fertilizer combined application on N2O emissions and NH3 volatilization, and to clarify the influencing factors. The results showed that compared with conventional fertilization, N2O emissions from CM and NM treatments decreased by 38.5% and 33.1% respectively, while NH3 volatilization from CM and NM decreased by 8.5% and 19.4% respectively. The total warming potential of nitrous oxide and ammonia volatilization in CM and NM treatments decreased by 38.4% and 33.0%, respectively. Among the two organic fertilizer treatments, the ammonia volatilization of NM treatment was significantly lower than that of CM treatment, with a decrease of 11.9%. N2O emissions and ammonia volatilization daily fluxes was positively and significantly correlated with soil temperature. N2O emissions and ammonia volatilization daily fluxes of CON and NM treatments was positively correlated with soil ammonium nitrogen, while N2O emissions of CON treatment was positively correlated with soil nitrate nitrogen only. Compared with CON treatment, the nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency of CM and NM treatment increased by 26.8% and 41.5%, respectively, with no significant difference in yields. Therefore, combined application of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer can reduce N2O and NH3 emissions as well as stabilize yields in the protected vegetable production systems, which is of great significance to reduce greenhouse gases emissions from vegetable production.
Abstract: In recent years, woody plants have been widely utilized for the remediation of heavy metal tailings due to their large biomass and well-developed root systems. Among them, species like Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, and Paulownia have demonstrated strong resistance and effective enrichment under lead and zinc stress. However, the precise impacts on the rhizosphere environment of slag remain unclear. This study employed slag from a lead-zinc mining region in Chenzhou City, Hunan Province, as the experimental substrate. Two control groups were established: 100% slag (CK group) and 90% slag + 5% mushroom residue + 5% calcium carbonate (S0 group). Additionally, Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, and Paulownia were cultivated on the basis of the S0 group (S1 group). The study aimed to discern differences in substrate physicochemical properties, forms of Pb and Zn, volatile organic compounds, microbial community structure, and related indicators to explore the response mechanism of woody tolerant plants in the rhizosphere under lead and zinc stress. The findings revealed the following outcomes: Under enhanced conditions, these three plant species adjusted the slag substrate""s acid-base balance and enhanced water and nutrient retention by regulating parameters such as substrate pH, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus. As a result, the effective content of Pb and Zn decreased by 16.29% to 36.50% and 24.50% to 47.33%, respectively. Furthermore, there was an increase in the abundance of organic compounds such as esters and phenols. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased, while the abundance of genera in Bacteroidea, Actinobacteria, and Bradyrhizobium increased. In conclusion, planting woody plants under enhanced conditions not only altered the physicochemical properties of the substrate and the abundance of organic matter but also affected the structure of the microbial community. This led to an improved slag environment and a reduced bioavailability of Pb and Zn.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of soil particle size in the context of different land use patterns on the Longji terrace and to provide a reference basis for forest water conservation and paddy field farming management. Taking bamboo forest, Chinese fir forest, mixed forest and paddy field as the research objects, the soil particle size and physical properties were measured. The fractal parameters of soil particle size were also calculated. The influence of land use patterns on the fractal characteristics of soil particle size was examined based on principal component analysis, correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that the clay content in Chinese fir forest and the sand content in bamboo forest were the highest. The soil particle size from different land use patterns was mainly 2 ~ 200 μm, representing approximately 79.4% of samples. The values for volume dimension D(0), information dimension D(1) and correlation dimension D(2) were Chinese fir forest > mixed forest > paddy field > bamboo forest. The values for information dimension/volume dimension D(1)/D(0) and single fractal dimension D were Chinese fir forest > bamboo forest > paddy field > mixed forest. The spectral width ?? and symmetry degree ?f of the singular spectral function were the largest for mixed forests and the smallest for paddy field. D was the most closely related to the soil clay content (P<0.01). D(0), D(1)/D(0) and ?f were the most closely related to the soil silt content (P<0.05). Land use patterns could change the fractal parameters by affecting the soil mechanical composition. The values of D, D(0), D(1), D(2), D(1)/D(0), and the soil clay content of Chinese fir forest were the largest.
Abstract: Water quality evaluation is a crucial component in assessing, analyzing, and mitigating water pollution, playing a significant role in ensuring water environment quality and residents’ water safety. To ensure the safety of centralized surface drinking water sources in Yan’an City, this study monitored water bodies in 10 Class I source water protection areas during March, May, July, August, and October 2019. Based on 63 monitoring indicators, the water quality condition and eutrophication level were assessed using the single-factor evaluation method, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI), and the trophic level index (TLI). Additionally, factor analysis was applied to analyze the main impact indicators and pollution sources. Results indicated significant spatial heterogeneity in water quality across the study area’s source water protection areas, with the exception of the Zhongshanchuan Reservoir, which showed poor in the east and excellent in the west water quality patterns. The single-factor evaluation revealed 11 indicators exceeding the standard, with only 3 water sources meeting the Class II environmental quality standard for surface water, and the rest classified as Class III. WQI evaluation indices ranged from 62.59 to 93.74, with 5 sources having good, 4 medium, and 1 poor water quality. The trophic level index of reservoir-type water sources was 34.41~49.05, indicating a medium nutrient level. The main sources of pollution were agricultural non-point source pollution, oil industry pollution, and domestic pollution. Key indicators affecting water quality were ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and five-day biochemical oxygen demand. This study provides a scientific basis for developing pollution prevention measures and management strategies for centralized drinking water sources in Yan’an City.
Abstract: Shorebirds are an important group of migratory waterbirds, and its population dynamics can indicate the changes of wetland ecosystem. However, the crucial environmental variables affecting the shorebird distribution in inland wetland are still unclear. Based on the theories of species-habitat relationships in waterbirds, and applying data from waterbird surveys, field surveys, and remote sensing inversion in Dongting Lake region during the period from 2013/2014-2021/2022, this paper analysis to identify the crucial environment variables that influence the distribution of LB-L, LB-S and SB shorebirds, and discuss the impact of macro-habitat variables and micro-habitat variables (benthic density) on the spatial distribution patterns of these shorebird by employing optimal subset regression, generalized linear model and hierarchical segmentation. Results show that East Dongting Lake was the dominant distribution area of the three different types of shorebirds, Baihu Lake and Daxiaoxi Lake in East Dongting Lake were the main distribution areas of three different morphological characteristics shorebirds. LB-L shorebirds were mainly distributed in Daxiaoxi Lake and Baihu Lake, LB-S shorebirds were mainly distributed in Baihu Lake, and SB shorebirds were distributed in all core areas, there was no significant difference. At the macro level, shallow water area, human disturbance and hydrological connectivity were the crucial environmental variables affecting LB-L shorebirds distribution, shallow water area was the crucial environmental variable affecting LB-S shorebirds distribution, and human disturbance was the crucial environmental variable affecting SB shorebirds distribution. At the micro level, the distribution of LB-L shorebirds was closely related to the density of benthic animals in different microhabitats, while the distribution of LB-S and SB shorebirds were closely related to benthic animal types in some microhabitats. This study has significantly enhanced the ecological investigation of wintering waterbirds in Dongting Lake, thereby playing a crucial guiding role in terms of biodiversity conservation and wetland management within this region.
Abstract: Revealing the spatial pattern and influencing factors of cultivated land fragmentation in typical counties in the northeast black soil region can provide a basis for high-standard farmland construction, three-round land contracting and black land protection in the black soil region. Taking Baiquan County as the research area, this paper calculated the weight of each index and the comprehensive evaluation value of cultivated land fragmentation by the entropy method, and examined the effect intensity of each influencing factor by the Pearson correlation coefficient analysis method. Results showed that: 1) the cultivated land fragmentation was deeply affected by the topography. The cultivated land fragmentation level was the highest in the border area of hills and plain, followed by hilly area and plain area. Cultivated land ownership fragmentation was affected by land subcontracting and the average cultivated land area per household; 2) in the cultivated land fragmentation mode, "low degree of landscape fragmentation-low degree of ownership fragmentation" and "low degree of landscape fragmentation-medium degree of ownership fragmentation" were dominant, accounting for 33.33% and 17.20%, respectively; and 3) the main influencing factors of cultivated land fragmentation included ownership, facility, and natural cutting forces. Ownership cutting force showed a high negative correlation, while facility and natural cutting forces showed moderate positive correlations, with correlation coefficients of -0.775, 0.617 and 0.661, respectively. Ownership cutting force had the greatest influence. The spatial differentiation of cultivated land fragmentation in Baiquan County was obvious. Therefore, this paper suggests exploring countermeasures of cultivated land fragmentation in the northeast black soil area from the dual perspectives of landscape and ownership to provide reference for promoting agricultural modernization and formulating the third round of cultivated land contracting policy.
Abstract: Main grain producing areas are the main supply base of agricultural products in China. Ensuring the high-quality development of the agricultural economy in the main producing areas is of great significance for doing a good job in food production and building a livable, business-friendly and beautiful village. Based on a panel data of 13 major grain producing areas from 2010 to 2020, this paper calculated the high-quality development level of agricultural economy in major grain producing areas and explores its regional differences and spatial distribution patterns by the entropy method, Dagum Gini coefficient and decomposition method, ArcGIS data visualization function, and exploratory spatial data analysis method. Results show that the high-quality development level of the agricultural economy in major grain-producing areas is on the rise in time; and in space, it shows a slow transition from the middle-low level area to the middle-high level area, and the gradual advancement from the northeast region to the south-central region. The characteristics of spatial agglomeration are gradually weakening. The regional differences within the three major regions are continuously decreasing, but the inter-regional differences are still the main reason for the unbalanced development of agricultural economy. Therefore, to promote the sustainable development of agricultural economy in major grain-producing areas, this paper suggests: focusing on optimizing the efficiency of agricultural ecology, makeing overall plans for the development of agriculture and rural areas in various regions, and making full use of the radiation effect of high-level economic areas.
Abstract: Implementing conservation tillage is an effective way to promote the transformation of agricultural development mode, which provides a good technical support for the treatment of agricultural non-point source pollution in China. While the straw returning to field technology is one of the higher conversion rate technologies of conservation tillage. Therefore, based on China’s provincial panel data from 2000 to 2020, this paper examines the impact of straw returning to field technology on fertilizer pollution emission intensity by the two-way fixed effect model. Results show that: 1) The increase of the application rate of the straw returning to field technology can reduce fertilizer pollution emission intensity significantly, and there is a lag in the reduction effect of fertilizer non-point source pollution. The analysis result remains robust through a series of methods, including replacing the dependent variables and using instrumental variable methods; 2) The analysis of regional heterogeneity shows that the impacts of the application of the straw returning to field technology on fertilizer non-point source pollution are different between the major grain-producing areas and the non-major grain producing areas, and only the application of the straw returning to field technology in major grain producing areas has positive impacts on reducing fertilizer non-point source pollution; and 3) From the perspective of the influencing mechanism, the application of the straw returning to field technology reduces fertilizer non-point source pollution mainly through reducing nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer application intensity and optimizing the input structure of chemical fertilizer. Therefore, this paper suggests providing a strong policy support for the application of the straw returning to field technology, promoting the application rate of technology, and giving a full play to the environmental benefits of the straw returning to field technology.
Abstract: The initiative in security of grain production capacity is the necessary task for consolidating the foundation of grain security in all respects. To grasp the scientific connotation of security of grain production capacity with Chinese characteristics, we should pay attention to domestic key areas while vigorously promoting a new round of action to increase grain production capacity. On the basis of explaining the connotation of the security of grain production capacity, and focusing on the realistic problems of the security guarantee of grain production capacity in northeast China, this paper analyzed the current challenges of grain production in northeast China, which are mainly reflected in the structural problems, resource constraints and environmental risks in this area, and specifically put forward the future ideas of changing and breakthrough paths. Results show that the main obstacles of the security guarantee of grain production capacity in northeast China include structural contradictions that are difficult to change in the short term, increasing resource constraints and more serious environmental risks. In the future, it is urgent to promote the grain production from “more grain production” to “stable grain production and better grain structure”, from “resource-intensive, high-input” to “technology-intensive, green production”, and from “passive adjustment and response” to “proactive prediction and adaptation”. This paper also suggests continuously improving the production structure and increasing the supply of high-quality grain products, strictly observing the red line of ecological protection and reducing the pressure on resources and environment, enhancing the vitality of grain production and leading the way in modern production and management, and improving regional climate resilience and the environmental risk prevention and control system to make breakthroughs.
Abstract: Environmental monitoring using smartphones for parameter inversion is gaining increasingly popular, partic-ularly in the field of optical active parameter inversion using visible light reflectance. This paper utilized smartphones to capture water images using polarizers, mobile phone telescopes, filters of different specifica-tions, and 24-color standard color cards. Through stepwise regression and artificial neural network methods, we performed inverse monitoring of optical parameters (chlorophyll and turbidity) and non-optical parameters (DOC) in small water bodies in the Yangtze River Delta region. The results showed that the DOC concentra-tion ranged from 2.73 to 16.90 mg/L, turbidity ranged from 6.53 to 91.10 NTU, and chlorophyll concentra-tion ranged from 0.36 to 245.47 μg/L. Stepwise regression identified five image feature parameters of DOC concentration: R1’, B/G2’, R2”, R4”, B/G6’. Turbidity image feature parameters were B/R3’, G5", R6", and chlorophyll a were B/G1’, R2", B/G4’. Combined with the artificial neural network model, the water quality parameters were successfully inverted, with NSE values of 0.62 for DOC concentration, 0.65 for turbidity, and 0.67 for chlorophyll, indicating high inversion accuracy. This study established a method for inverting water quality optical parameters using smartphones and explored the feasibility of inverting non-optical pa-rameters, providing a foundation for the development of smartphone applications and the inversion of water quality parameters.
Abstract: High-quality development of agricultural insurance provides risk protection for agricultural development, which is important for realizing high-quality development. Taking the nine provinces through which the main tributaries of the Yellow River pass as examples, the study analyzes the spatio-temporal evolution pattern of the level of high-quality development of agricultural insurance in the Yellow River Basin in the period of 2010–2020 by using the entropy-based TOPSIS methods and utilizes the obstacle-degree model to identify its main development obstacle factors. The results of the study show that, in terms of temporal evolution, the overall level of high-quality development of agricultural insurance in the Yellow River Basin shows a fluctuating upward trend, but the overall level is still relatively low, and the speed and level of high-quality development of agricultural insurance in different provinces are different. In terms of spatial evolution, there is a “binary spatial structure”, and it gradually evolves from a low gradient to a high gradient, presenting a more complex development pattern. In addition, the results of the identification of obstacle factors show that factors such as government support and the development level of agricultural insurance constrain the high-quality development of agricultural insurance in the Yellow River Basin. Therefore, it is recommended to increase government support for agricultural insurance, clarify the rights and responsibilities of government departments in the development of agricultural insurance, and improve the development level of agricultural insurance, etc., so as to realize the high-quality development of agricultural insurance in the Yellow River Basin.
Abstract: Henan Province faces numerous challenges, including a delicate ecological environment, limited ecological carrying capacity, and a substantial carbon emission foundation, all of which significantly impede the successful execution of the dual carbon strategy. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the influence of land use changes on the spatiotemporal distribution of carbon emissions in Henan Province. Additionally, it seeks to furnish the government with a scientific foundation for crafting models of low-carbon land use and implementing tailored policies for reducing carbon emissions. Utilizing land use and energy consumption data spanning from 2000 to 2020 in Henan Province, in conjunction with the land use carbon emission methodology and ArcGIS technology, this research quantifies both the spatial and temporal carbon emission patterns within the province. Furthermore, it employs the geographic detector method to analyze the factors contributing to the spatial disparities in land use-related carbon emissions in Henan Province. The findings indicated that construction land and arable land constitute the primary carbon sources in Henan Province, while forest land serves as the predominant carbon sink, responsible for absorbing more than 90% of the total carbon sequestration. In general, carbon emissions in Henan Province exhibited a pattern of rapid expansion followed by gradual reduction. Specifically, emissions increased from 33.67 million metric tonnes in 2000 to 73.37 million metric tonnes in 2010, marking a growth rate of 118%. Subsequently, from 2010 to 2020, emissions decreased by 5.247 million metric tonnes, representing a decline rate of 7%. The study revealed noteworthy disparities in carbon emission levels among various cities, an imbalance in carbon budgets and expenditures in certain urban areas, and regional carbon absorption inadequately offsetting carbon emissions. Moreover, the results of the impact analysis indicated that the level of urbanization, population size, and the proportion of construction land had a substantial influence on carbon emissions from 2000 to 2020. Notably, the q value related to construction land witnessed the most significant increase, and the q value associated with population size reached its peak in 2020, both exerting substantial influence on carbon emissions within Henan Province. In order to move towards low-carbon land use and make good policies in Henan Province, it is very important to look into how changes in land use affect carbon emissions and the patterns of those emissions, as well as to figure out what causes those patterns.
Abstract: Promoting the coordinated development of regional economies and solving the "dual structure" issue in urban and rural economic development have always been core issues of the "common prosperity" strategy. This study focuses on the integration of rural industries with the goal of narrowing the urban-rural income gap. It takes data from 110 prefecture-level cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt as research subjects and uses the Spatial Durbin Model with double fixed effects to analyze the impact pathways of rural industry integration on increasing farmers"" income and reducing the urban-rural income gap. The results show that rural industry integration, with internal indicators such as integration within agriculture, extension of the agricultural industry chain, expansion of agricultural functions, and high-tech penetration, plays a positive role in narrowing the urban-rural income gap. Furthermore, the heterogeneity analysis indicates that the development maturity of central city clusters in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin is closely related to the impact of rural industry integration on the urban-rural income gap. Therefore, different regions need to clearly understand the stage of economic development in the process of using industry integration to narrow the income gap. By focusing on improving the industrial system and formulating corresponding policies according to local conditions, regions can achieve coordinated development and realize common prosperity.
Abstract: Biochar-based fertilizer can improve and fertilize soil, which is important for promoting agricultural production. However, the response of soil nutrients and enzyme activities to biochar-based fertilizer at different growth stages of drip irrigation corn in arid areas is still unclear. Based on this, this experiment was set up in a one-way randomized block design with five treatments of biochar-based fertilizer: T1 (1 125 kg/hm2), T2 (1 031 kg/hm2), T3 (900 kg/hm2), T4 (788 kg/hm2), and CK (common chemical fertilizer). The influence of biomass-based fertilizer on soil nutrient contents and enzyme activities in the 0~20 cm tillage layer was analyzed at different growth periods for maize. The results showed that soil nutrients and enzyme activity show a trend of first increasing and then decreasing during the maize growth period, and nutrient release characteristics are consistent with the fertilizer requirements of maize growth. application amount of biochar-based fertilizer in T1 and T2 treatments can significantly improve soil nutrients and enzyme activities in arid areas. Low application of biochar-based fertilizer can reduce the content of total nitrogen and available nutrients in the soil and inhibit the activities of alkaline phosphatase, catalase, and invertase in individual growth stages of the soil. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the overall fertility of each treatment was T2>T1>T3>CK>T4. In summary, the comprehensive fertilization effect of the application rate of 1 013 to 1 125 kg/hm2 is better than that of chemical fertilizers, significantly promoting the increase of soil nutrient contents, enzyme activities, and improving soil fertility.
Abstract: Analyzing various risks perceived by land-lost farmers and profoundly revealing the impacts of risk attitudes and institutional trust on risk perception are of reference significance for the government’s land acquisition and resettlement work. This article constructs a risk perception evaluation system based on a questionnaire survey of land-lost farmers in Shanghai, Jiangxi, and Guangxi that measures the risk perception and attitude of land-lost farmers. The ordered logit model is used to analyze the impact of risk attitude and institutional trust on land-lost farmers’ social security risk perception, economic income risk perception, residential environment risk perception, and psychosocial risk perception. The study found that the risk attitude of land-lost farmers has a significant positive impact on the four types of risk perception, among which risk-averse land-lost farmers have a higher degree of risk perception; however, institutional trust can effectively reduce risk perception. The heterogeneity analysis demonstrates that risk aversion has a strong effect on the risk perception of land-lost farmers in the middle and low-income groups and the midwest region. Institutional trust can inhibit the risk perception of land-lost farmers in high-income groups and the eastern region. In order to promote land acquisition work and protect the interests of land-lost farmers, it is necessary to relieve farmers’ risk aversion attitudes, enhance institutional trust, and reduce and effectively control the risks of land-lost farmers.
Abstract: Oxytetracycline, as a commonly used growth-promoting antibiotic in the livestock breeding industry, is prone to residue in the manure, which poses a potential threat to the reproduction of soil microorganisms and crop growth when returned to the field. Most previous studies have set high concentration gradients, resulting in their limited application. Based on this, this article proposes to study the impact of actual antibiotic residues on bacterial community diversity to provide a theoretical basis for the safe application of organic fertilizers. In this study, the addition of oxytetracycline was set at 0.2 mg·kg-1, and high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to analyze bacterial community composition, structural changes, and types of significant enriched species. The results showed that the addition of oxytetracycline increased the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, with a range from 1.1% to 5.0%; it also reduced the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Bacteroidetes, with a range below 2.0%. Compared to the control group (CK), Thermoactinomycetaceae were significantly enriched in the oxytetracycline group (OCK). Over time, oxytetracycline changed the structure of the bacterial community. This study proved that 0.2 mg·kg-1 oxytetracycline can alter the relative abundance of soil bacterial communities and cause differences in community structure, leading to significant enrichment of Thermoactinomycetaceae in soil. Therefore, this study can provide inspiration for finding microorganisms that are effective against antibiotic pollution and lay the foundation for the safe application of organic fertilizers.
Abstract: Realizing the common prosperity of farmers and rural areas is the key to solidly promoting the common prosperity of all the people. The construction of digital villages plays a crucial role in bridging the urban-rural income gap and advancing the shared prosperity of farmers and rural communities. This study utilizes panel data encompassing 30 provinces, districts, and cities in China from 2011 to 2021. Employing the spatial Durbin model and partial differential decomposition method, the study conducts a comprehensive analysis of the impact of digital rural development on the shared prosperity of farmers and rural areas, as well as examines the magnitude, extent, and pathways of spatial spillover effects. The results indicate that the overall level of digital rural construction and common prosperity among farmers and rural areas in China has been continuously improving from 2011 to 2021, but there is a clear spatial difference characteristic of “high in the east, low in the middle and west”. The common prosperity of farmers and rural areas has significant spatial agglomeration characteristics, primarily characterized by two clustering patterns: “high-high” and “low-low”. The construction of digital rural areas has a positive impact on enhancing the shared prosperity of farmers and rural regions. It not only contributes to local shared prosperity but also exerts a positive or even more substantial influence on surrounding regions. Furthermore, the influence of digital rural development on the shared prosperity of farmers and rural areas demonstrates regional disparities, with stronger spatial spillover effects in the eastern region compared to the central and western regions. Additional research reveals that the spatial spillover effects of digital rural development on the shared prosperity of farmers and rural areas display a declining pattern. A dense concentration of spatial spillover effects is observed within 400 km, with the boundary of spatial spillover effects extending to 900 km. Consequently, this study offers recommendations to address the issue of imbalanced development in the shared prosperity of farmers and rural areas, emphasizing the importance of tailoring strategies to local circumstances and removing barriers to the dissemination of digital information between regions.
Abstract: Exploring the basic public service supply quality and its influencing factors in northwest counties is of great significance for promoting the equalization of the basic public service. Taking 194 counties in northwest China as examples, this article analyzed the dynamic evolution characteristics and difference of the basic public service supply quality in northwest counties and explored their influencing factors by the Dagum Gini Coefficient and the spatial Durbin model. Results show that: the basic public service supply quality in northwest counties has steadily increased, from 22.73 in 2005 to 45.28 in 2020, with the overall level of Shaanxi > Gansu > Ningxia > Qinghai, and the spatial distribution pattern has gradually evolved from “high in the east and west, low in the middle” to “high in the east and low in the west, high in the northwest and low in the southwest”. The inter-regional difference was the main source of overall difference, with the largest difference between Shaanxi and Qinghai. At the direct effect level, industrial structure upgrading, fiscal self-sufficiency, urban-rural income ratio, urbanization level, government administrative capacity, and population density had significant promoting influences on the supply quality. At the indirect effect level, industrial structure upgrading, fiscal self-sufficiency, economic development level, and population density had positive spillover effects. Therefore, it is recommended to identify the focus of improving supply quality, to pay attention to the adequacy of the basic public service supply, to attach importance to the coordination of basic public services, and to deeply promote the equalization of basic public services.
Abstract: The characteristics of iron fractions and their differentiation in stagnic anthrosols (paddy soil) are important parameters for understanding the distribution and behavior of key elements in rice fields. This paper analyzed the iron fractions and their differentiation characteristics along 30 typical profiles (0~100 cm) at the group category level of stagnic anthrosols derived from the granite (GR), plate and shale (PS), Quaternary red clay (QRC), limestone (LS), purple sandy shale (PSS), and fluvial-lacustrine deposit (FLD) in Hunan Province. Based on classified the stagnic anthrosols according to the standards of Chinese Soil Taxonomy, Result showed to retrieve three soil groups of the hapli-stagnic anthrosols (HSA), Fe-accumulation-stagnic anthrosols (FSA), and gleyi-stagnic anthrosols (GSA), but the group of Fe-leachi-stagnic anthrosols was not observed. The mean content of total iron (Fet) in soil profile of stagnic anthrosols in Hunan Province is 44.66 g/kg. The mean content of iron with different fractions are as follows: crystalline iron (Fec) > silicate iron (Fesi) > active iron (Feo) > organic-bounded iron (Fep). Moreover, Fec shows an initial increase followed by a subsequent decline in the profiles, but Feo and Fep indicate an initial decline followed by an upward trend. However, there is no obvious change for Fesi. The mean content of Fec in soil derived from the PS, QRC and LS, the mean content of Feo in FLD, and the mean content of Fep in soil derived from the GR were higher than those from other parent materials, respectively. The illuvial coefficients of soils derived from the GR, PS, and QRC were higher than soils derived from the LS, PSS, and FLD. The mean content of Fec and illuvial coefficient of FSA, and the mean content of Fep in GSA were higher than those of other soil groups, respectively. This research indicated that iron fractions in stagnic anthrosols developed from 6 parent materials in Hunan Province are obviously different, and exhibit significant differentiation between profiles, parent materials, and soil groups. The characteristics of iron fractions and profile differentiation could reflect the soil development levels and soil-forming environments, and have indicative function for the genetic characteristics and Chinese Soil Taxonomy of stagnic anthrosols.
Abstract: Mountainous county areas are pivotal in the rural revitalization process, playing a vital role. Investigating the spatial structure and accessibility of tourism resources in representative mountainous counties is of paramount importance. This study significantly contributes to the promotion of tourism resource spatial restructuring and the rejuvenation of scenic mountain villages. In this study, we employed various analytical tools, including the nearest neighbour index, kernel density analysis, and ESDA spatial correlation, to assess the spatial distribution characteristics, density, and structure of tourism resources in Luanchuan County, a typical mountainous region within Henan Province. Additionally, we evaluated tourism resource accessibility through buffer analysis, raster calculations, and network analysis. The study findings reveal the following results: 1) Tourism resources in Luanchuan County are unevenly distributed and exhibit significant spatial clustering; 2) The results of the road network buffer analysis indicate a high level of coordination between the transportation road network and tourism resources, with tourism resources accounting for 88.54% within the road network buffer zones; 3) Overall accessibility to tourism resources in Luanchuan County is favourable, with the majority accessible within 1.5 hours and 92.68% within 1 hour. These findings strongly support the development of evidence-based policies for the tourism industry in Luanchuan County.
Abstract: In order to study the effect of tea residue biochar on the nitrogen adsorption-desorption characteristics of acidic soil in tea gardens, tea residue biochar with different pyrolysis temperatures (400 ℃, 500 ℃, 600 ℃) and application ratios (0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0%) were added into a tea garden soil. An incubation and an isothermal absorption and desorption experiment were carried out with the amended soils to study the improvement of biochar addition on soil physicochemical properties and nitrogen adsorption-desorption availability. Results showed that: soil pH, soil organic matter, base saturation (BS), cation exchange capacity, exchangeable Ca2+ and exchangeable Mg2+ contents significantly increased with the increase of biochar amendment, and soil pH, organic carbon, and salt-based ion gradually increased as the pyrolysis temperature of biochar increased. Tea residue biochar had obvious adsorption effect on soil NH4+-N with an adsorption isotherm well fitted by Langmuir equation (R2=0.968~0.987). The adsorption capacity of NH4+-N by the treated soils increased with the increase of NH4+-N concentration in the adsorption solution, while the equilibrium distribution coefficient decreased. The adsorption and distribution coefficient (Kd) of NH4+-N in treated soils gradually increased with the increase of biochar amendment, but it gradually decreased as the biochar pyrolysis temperature increased. The desorption of NH4+-N in treated soils decreased as follows: 0.25%>1%>0.5%>2% biochar addition. As the biochar pyrolysis temperature increased, desorption of ammonia nitrogen elevated in all treatments. The adsorption capacity of soil for NH4+-N was significantly and positively correlated with soil pH, soil organic matter, exchangeable K+, exchangeable Ca2+, and BS (P<0.05). The desorption ability of soil for NH4+-N was opposite. In conclusion, in practical application, the addition ratio and preparation temperature of tea residue biochar should be optimized according to the purpose of soil improvement to achieve the best effect, which is of great significance for soil fertility conservation and improving the utilization rate of soil nutrients.
Abstract: The effective supply of ecological products is the foundation for realizing the value of ecological products. Evaluating the regional ecological product supply capacity helps to identify the direction and path for achieving effective supply. This study seeks to clarify the concept of ecological products, to define the connotation and theoretical mechanism of ecological product supply capacity, and to construct an assessment framework for regional ecological product supply capacity. Taking Jiangxi Province as an example and applying the GIS spatial analysis and the entropy weight method, this paper also analyzes the regional ecosystem service functions, evaluates the regional ecological product supply capacity at the prefectural level, and explores strategies for improving regional ecological product supply capacity. Results show that there is still significant room for improvement in the ecological product supply capacity of Jiangxi Province. Even in Ganzhou, which has the largest resource area, the evaluation index of ecological product supply capacity is only 71.07. From 2010 to 2020, the ecological product supply capacity of various prefectural-level cities has improved to varying degrees, mainly due to the enhancement of social resource allocation capacity. Compared to Ganzhou, Xinyu, Yingtan, Pingxiang, Jingdezhen, and Nanchang have lower ecological product production capacity, while Shangrao, Ji’an, and Yichun, which have medium-level ecological product production capacity, still have significant room for improvement in their social resource allocation capacity. Therefore, based on the identification of the shortcomings in the ecological product supply capacity of each prefectural-level city, this research suggests targeting division of ecological product supply type zones, combining proactive government and effective market, and promoting green and low-carbon development.
Abstract: The fluctuation of the small-scale agricultural products price has a great impact on the development of agricultural economy and the improvement of people's living standard. The paper summarizes the causes of price fluctuating of the small-scale agricultural products and brings forward the question that we should strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market. Some methods and recommendations are proposed to strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market: promoting purchasing market, standardizing wholesale market, discovering futures market, and promoting information, nurturing broker, establishing co-operatives, increasing reserves, enacting transactions act, and so on.
Abstract: This article has analyzed the situation of forestry in Guizhou Province from the perspective of forest
resources, forestry ecological, forestry industry and forestry safety supply system, and pointed out the problems on the
distribution of forest resources, forestry total production value, industrial structure and the forestry funds investment.
Then it proposed the countermeasures for developing the modern forestry on scientific planning forestry layout,
developing forestry property energetically and to establish a diversified forestry investment system in Guizhou Province
Abstract: Characteristic agriculture is an important part of modern agricultural development, which can maximize
regional advantages, enhance the competitiveness of agricultural products and promote regional development of modern
agriculture. According to the connotation of characteristic agriculture, the conditions and characteristics of the
development of modern agriculture in Fujian Province, it analyzes the path and the effectiveness of modern agricultural
development in Fujian Province from the perspective of characteristic agriculture
Abstract: Using ESDA spatial analysis, this paper researches the spatial pattern evolution and characteristics of per capita net income of farmers in the Yangtze River Delta counties since 1989. The results show that: (1) the absolute difference in per capita net income of farmers is gradually widening, while the relative difference is decreasing with periodic fluctuations; (2)the level of per capita net income of farmers has a strong positive spatial correlation, and the regions with similar income levels have a spatial agglomeration; (3)the growth pattern of per capita net income is proved to be more instable, where its growth hot spots and cold spots switch frequently in their geographical locations, showing the existence of transition phenomenon. Apart from subordinate revenue growth cold spots, trend of spatial concentration enhanced while tendency of random distribution weakened in other growth type areas. Finally, this paper reaches some conclusions and conducts some corresponding discussions. Besides, related suggestions are given to narrow regional differences in Yangtze River Delta counties and promote the regional coordinated development.
Abstract: This paper analyzes many of the problems in China's agricultural scientific and technological progress system. It clears the reform direction of agricultural science and technology policy. The measures include that, the agricultural scientific research investment should be between the lower level of developed countries and the higher level of developing countries, the agricultural scientific research should be unified management by department of agriculture, the agricultural research project will be taken target management of facing the farmers, government needs cooperation with the universities to build the agricultural science and technology promotion system. It guids the agricultural scientific research institutions and universities to set up the marketing company to promote agricultural science and technology. On the basis of respect for the wishes of farmers, with administrative villages as the unit set up the public land transfer market.According to farmers' operating conditions, adopt different types of industrialization
Abstract: The revitalization of rural talents is the foundation of rural revitalization. In order to deal with the shortage of rural talents, and make sure that rural talents can play the supporting role in rural revitalization, this paper, taking Qingdao City as an example, summarized and analyzed two ways to promote rural revitalization through rural talent revitalization, which include attracting urban talents and cultivating local talents. Results show that from the perspectives of the shortage of agricultural and rural talents, relative low quality level of talents, the lack of attraction of talents in rural areas, under-optimized rural talent cultivation mechanism, and some other problems, Qingdao City adopted the following measures: increasing the number of talents and improving the talent structure through bringing in, sinking and retaining urban talents in rural areas, constructing the attraction system of urban talents and trying to retain them. At the same time, Qingdao City has built a complete system of local talent cultivation network from the aspects of discovering local talents and training and supporting local talents. In conclusion, Qingdao City has set up a mechanism of encouraging and attracting urban talents with prominent focus, comprehensive coverage and perfect measures, and has set up a mechanism of the cultivation of local talent with integration, cooperation and incentives called “the Qingdao experience”, which is enlightening and worth spreading.
Abstract: Based on the research review, the wine industry has been around all round the world, not only limited in developed counties and western countries. Nowadays, wine consumption in China presents the trend of rapid growing, China’s wine industry cluster develops in a higher level; nonetheless this industry is facing some challenges in China. As such, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the status and developing trends of China’s wine industry from the various aspects namely regional planting, yield, market consumption, and the investment. Data and information from current literatures are used to investigate the conditions of China’s wine industry. It was found that numerous problems impede the development of China’s wine industry including lack of overall planning of the construction of exist producing region, imbalance development between eastern and western areas, poor and lag behind of product quality management and pre-maturation of the marketing system. The article eventually points out some developing strategies involving reasonable layout and enhance competitiveness in overall producing area; set up the wine industry chain management; strengthen origin protection, and improve the quality certification system; use the new marketing and promoting model, to spread wine culture and to promote the sustainable development of China’s wine industry.
Abstract: From the angle of urban and rural aging population inversion phenomenon in China and the challenges brought by it, this paper analyzes the relationship between urbanization and aging population inversion in urban and rural areas in China. In the long term of traditional process of urbanization, population transfer is mainly labor transfer, and the elderly population transfer has been driven by the transfer is limited, thus improve the degree of aging of the rural population and have an impact on the balanced urban and rural development. This population transfer mode is the main reason for the formation of urban and rural aging population inversion. Meanwhile, urban and rural aging population inversion have an impact on urbanization, it not only affects the level and pace of urbanization, but also affects the quality of urbanization. To alleviate this condition, we must take a new urbanizing road, change the urban and rural population transfer mode, and integrate urban and rural social security system.
Abstract: Using grain production panel data in 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2010, this paper adopts a DEA-based Malmquist productivity index method to measure and decompose grain TFP (Total Factor Productivity) growth index of the nation’s main grain production areas, main grain sales areas, and balancing areas. This paper also analyzes the spatial and temporal disparities and the underlying mechanism of dynamic TFP index. On this basis, it continues to explore TFP and its decomposition value - exogenous influencing factor of technical efficiency index and technical progress index. Our results show that the TFP index of main production areas have realized an average annual increase of 0.28% within 10 years, which has benefited from technical improvement and efficiency enhancement. However, main sales areas have suffered from a duel loss in the technical progress and technical efficiency. As a result, TFP has an average annual decrease of 0.35%. TFP in balancing areas also has an average decrease of 0.69%, influenced by deterioration of technical progress. We also find that the implementation of the central government’s favorable policies to farmers has significant influence on improving grain TFP level in main production areas. However, these policies have a lagging influence on main sales areas and balancing areas. In addition, per capital grain production scale and mechanization level have negative influence on TFP growth in main grain production area, but positive influence on TFP in main grain sales areas. As for the grain production-sales balancing areas, expansion of the per capita production scale can improve the technical efficiency, but has a reverse inhibiting impact on TFP and technical progress. Finally, based on the research results, this paper proposes measures and suggestions to improve grain productivity more effectively.
Abstract: Urban development is one of the main factors that affect material circulations and energy flows in ecosystems. Studies on how urban development influences net primary productivity (NPP) are necessary for science-based planning of regional land use. Based on data of land uses and NPP in Wuhan Metropolitan Area from 2000 to 2010, the impacts of construction land expansion on NPP in Wuhan Metropolitan Area were assessed. The construction land in Wuhan Metropolitan Area increased by 57.88% (1 459.44 km2) from 2000 to 2010, and the average NPP decreased from 919.55 g C/(m2·a) to 702.95 g C/(m2·a) while total NPP increased from 2 317.66 Gg C/a to 2 797.97 Gg C/a with an increase rate of 20.72%. Among the nine cities in Wuhan Metropolitan Area, Wuhan and its surrounding area expanded fastest in their construction land. During the decade, the construction land in Wuhan increased by 80.73%, while the total NPP raised by 30.53%. Since the average NPP in the construction area was reduced by 27.78%, total NPP in Wuhan Metropolitan Area only increased marginally.
Abstract: Yulin city is an enrichment region of energy resources, and an extremely vulnerable area as well in China. The energy resources' exploitation and eco-reconstruction has seriously restricted by water resources. Based on fuzzy mathematical and AHP method, it has estimated the water resources intimidation from 2000 to 2005 in Yulin city. The results show that water resource intimidation already approaches to or exceeds the heavy stress degree, and presents an increasing trend. In the basis of the analysis of the industrial structure and its characteristics of water use, the results indicates that agriculture has the biggest proportion in water use, along with the industry scale enlarging and eco-reconstruction, both industrial and ecological water use has been increasing. The interaction mechanism between water resources and society-economy development tells us that: the development of economy has restricted by water resources, which propels the industry to move to the direction of low water demand and high efficiency; impelled by the aridification, agrotype has conversed from crops to grazing and forest; the industry changes to the low water demand and high efficiency types, meanwhile, the industry incomes would help development water-saving agriculture and transform water; the increase of water demand in society and economy produces many eco-environment problems, such as, the excess utilization and declining water level of groundwater.
Abstract: From the perspectives of nature, human, and carrying capacity and applying the entropy and linear weighted comprehensive methods, this paper constructed an evaluation system to assess the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province from 2001 to 2016. In addition, this paper also examined the main obstacles affecting the vulnerability. Results show that the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in 9 cities in Henan Province decreased from 2001 to 2016, while it increased in the other 9 cities; and the vulnerability growth rate varied significantly. The evolution trend of vulnerability could be divided into four types: increasing first and then decreasing, decreasing first and then increasing, increasing with some fluctuations, and decreasing with some fluctuations. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province illustrated a concentrating characteristic in its spatial distribution with the decreasing order as follows: Northern Henan, Eastern Henan, Southern Henan, Central Henan, and Western Henan. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in municipalities was mainly affected by human and carrying capacity, and the main obstacle factors were different. In order to achieve the coordinated development of agricultural production and water resource utilization in Henan Province, this paper suggests that human intervention in water resource system should be positively strengthened by increasing investment in agricultural funds, improving the level of farmland water conservancy construction, and promoting agricultural water use efficiency.
Abstract: This paper analyses the current status of agricultural pollution resulting from overuse of agricultural chemical inputs since the reform and open-up. It turns out that the formation of agricultural pollution is related to agricultural industrial policies, rural-urban economic structure, pollution controlling fund, environmental general management, “agri-environmental” policies, pollution controlling law and farmer’s environmental awareness. In order to cope with agricultural pollution effectively, some measures that have to be taken are as follows: integration of agricultural and environmental policies, establishment of environmental friendly agricultural technology system, implementation of valley comprehensive management, enhancement of environmental management capabilities of agricultural pollution, strengthening of peasants’ environmental education and establishment of agricultural environmental protection law.
Abstract: This paper try to comparative multi-function of urban modern agriculture of Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou for example, and use the method of combing static and dynamic and of combing qualitative and quantitative to comparative and analyze the urban modern agriculture functions of economy, ecology and society. It can be seen that the differences on economic mainly in the difference of structure of agricultural land only for the difference of types of terrain of three cities, which affect the structure of agriculture industry. Ratio of agro-structural change decreases gradually. Advantage indexes of animal husbandry and fisheries of Shanghai are higher, farming, fisheries and agricultural services of Nanjing, forestry and animal husbandry of Hangzhou are higher as well. The production capacity of vegetables of Shanghai and the production capacity of grain of Nanjing and the production capacity of fruit of Hangzhou is higher than that of others separately in 2010. Secondly, the value of farmland ecosystem carbon sequestration and oxygen releasing of Nanjing is lowest in 2010. Optimal adjustment of the agricultural space layout maintains the ecological environment. The pesticide and chemical fertilizer excessive remains a serious problem. Lastly, agricultural tourism of three cities is in the leisure stage towards the holiday stage. Meanwhile, the three cities take different leisure agriculture development models, and achieve results in employment and economic benefits.
Abstract: With the increase of the importation scale, the quality and safety of imported whey powder has become the
hot issue which arise a lot of attentions and should be solved urgently. This thesis analyzes the necessities of
establishing the quality and safety risk warning mechanism of imported whey powder, based on the current conditions
of whey powder importation, using the method of warning method based on case study ratiocination, sets up the
imported whey powder quality and safety risk warning mechanism from three aspects, including warning information
gathering, warning model building and fast response system, and puts forwards the countermeasures of consummating
the warning system
Abstract: Along with the intelligence and automation improving in agricultural machinery, the application of steering-by-wire technology in agricultural vehicles such as tractors has received concerns and researches. In order to guide the study of hydraulic steering-by-wire of tractor and to shorten the development cycle, a co-simulation model was built based on the analysis of hydraulic steering-by-wire system control algorithm and structure. The hydraulic system and full vehicle model were built on AMESim software platform. Meantime, PID, fuzzy PID and fuzzy immune PID control modeling were constructed by using Simulink software. While Visual C++ 6.0 was chosen to realize interface communication, the angle response and angle following co-simulation were completed with angle transmission ratio 1; as well as the co-simulation of yawing angular velocity response and centroid side-slip angle response under the speed of 15 km/h, the steering wheel Angle 180°, angle transmission ratio 9. The experimental results show that step response time achieves 0.272 s with fuzzy immune PID control, following error of 1.182°, 3% overshoot amount of the yawing angular velocity response, and 0.85°/s steady-state value of centroid side-slip angle response, they both prevail over the performance of common PID and fuzzy PID. In conclusion, co-simulation maintains a strong reference value, and an ideal control effect is able to achieve while fuzzy immune PID control are applied into hydraulic steering-by-wire system.
Abstract: Large scale is the direction of pig- producing development of China in future, but does not mean breeding
scale the bigger the better. The rationality, scientificalness and suitability of each region pig- producing scale has
determined the effectiveness of pig-producing to a large extent. This paper shows that, from the national average level
to see, the moderate scale has the strongest profitability. Specific to major pig producing provinces, the strongest
profitability of farming was difference in different province. The current pig scale cultivation exist such problems as the
disease prevention and control status not optimum, production cost and the scales price has no advantage and the
standardization level need to improve. Finally, combine the current national and provincial pig scale development
situation and problems, this paper proposed the corresponding countermeasure to promote the healthy development of
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