College of Life Sciences,Zhejiang University,College of Life Sciences,Zhejiang University,College of Life Sciences,Zhejiang University,College of Life Sciences,Zhejiang University,College of Life Sciences,Zhejiang University,College of Life Sciences,Zhejiang University,Crop Production Bureau of Zhejiang Province,Crop Production Bureau of Zhejiang Province,College of Life Sciences,Zhejiang University
National Key Research and Development Project of China (2016YFD0300905); Zhejiang Provincial Intra-departments Integration Research and Demonstration Project of “Rice ” Core model and Techniques (CTZB-F170623LWZ-SNY1-1).
Rice-fish system (“fish” refers to a wide range of aquatic animals including fish, prawn, shrimp, crabs, soft shell turtles, etc. in this study), one of the integrated agro-aquaculture system (IAAS), integrates rice production with aquaculture to obtain more and diversified food and a better environment. In the last decades, diversified rice-fish systems have been developed in China. In this study, we conduct a farmer survey on the rice-fish integration based farms (RF-farm) and their corresponding rice monoculture farms (RM-farm) by means of pair sampling method. Five types of the RF-farms that included rice-carp, rice-loach, rice-crayfish, rice-crab and rice-turtle, totally 153 pair of samples, were selected. We compared the farm management, farming activities, yields of rice and fish, nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide application rate, economic output and input/output ratio of sampled farms. Our survey showed that the land scale of 90% of RF-farms was 1 to 50 hm2. Forty-seven percent of the RF-farms were run in “Specialized Farmers Cooperatives” while 29.4% and 24% of the RF-farms were run in family farm and agricultural company, respectively. The average age of RF-farms’ owners was 44 years old, and 97.2% of them graduated from high school or better educated. Compared to their corresponding rice monoculture, rice grain yield of the five types of RF-farms did not decreased. For farms of rice-carp, rice-crab and rice-crayfish, rice yield was almost the same as RM- farms. For the farms of rice-loach and rice-turtle, rice yields were 3.77% and 6.93% higher than RM- farms respectively. RF-farms also produced a substantial aquatic production. The yields of fish in the five types of RF-farms were (1.19 ± 0.08) t/hm2. The average use of pesticides in the five types of RF-farms was (6.21 ± 0.62) kg a.i./hm2, which was 59.73% lower than that in RM-farms. The average use of nitrogen fertilizer in the five types of RF-farms was (128.40 ± 8.03) kg N/hm2, which was 33.63% lower than in RM-farms. The average total economic output in the five types of RF-farms was (69 800 ± 41 200) yuan/hm2. Compared to their corresponding RM-farms, which average output is (26 000 ± 3 400) yuan/hm2, the total economic output of rice-carp, rice-crab, rice-crayfish, rice-turtle and rice-loach increased by 205%, 78%, 156%, 710%, and 480%, respectively. For the ratio of input to output, the RF-farms had a significantly lower ratio (0.47 ± 0.16) than the RM-farms (0.66 ± 0.17). These results suggested that the construction and promotion of rice-fish farms can ensure a sustainable development of rice-fish systems.
WANG Chen, HU Liang-liang, TANG Jian-jun, GUO Liang, REN Wei-zheng, DING Li-lian, HUAI Yan, WANG Yue-jun, CHEN Xin. Characteristics and the effects of the rice-fish integration based farms in China[J]. Research of Agricultural Modernization, 2018, 39(5): 875-882Copy