日本农业保险法:制度背景、法律框架与镜鉴启示
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作者单位:

1.中国农业大学经济管理学院;2.中国农业科学院农业信息研究所

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基金项目:

国家自然科学基金项目(71773121);国家社科基金重大项目(18ZDA074);现代农业产业技术体系北京市产业经济与政策创新团队项目(BAIC11-2023)


Japan’s agricultural insurance law: Policy background, legal framework, and implications
Author:
Affiliation:

1.College of Economics and Management, China Agricultural University;2.Agricultural Information Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Fund Project:

National Natural Science Foundation of China (71773121); Major Program of National Social Science Foundation of China (18ZDA074); Project of Modern Agricultural Industrial Technology System of Beijing (BAIC11-2023).

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    摘要:

    农业保险法制化是农业保险高质量发展的重要保障,我国跨越商业性和政策性的农业保险立法模式已然成为阻碍政策性农业保险发展的“病因”,有必要借鉴国际经验对我国政策性农业保险进行专门立法。基于日本《农业保险法》,分析日本农业保险法的发展历程、法律框架和基本特点,探讨我国在政策性农业保险立法方面可以借鉴的经验做法。研究表明,日本在建立农业保险制度之初就进行了单独立法,法律条款不仅包括政府在农业保险中的职责、保险责任、保障水平、违规处罚办法等基本内容,还基于农业保险的外部性特征对财政、再保险等各项配套支持措施进行了详细规定,具有法律内容全面、规定强制性保险项目、与其他法律协同配合等特点。我国颁布的《农业保险条例》虽然填补了农业保险法规制度的空白、初步确立了农业保险制度架构、明确了农险经营的法律责任,但与日本相比仍存在立法目标未能体现战略意义、与其他相关法律错位、对政府行为缺乏规定、市场准入退出制度不健全等问题。因此,中国可以借鉴日本的立法经验,在政策性农业保险立法中规定制度模式、财政支持方式、费率厘定要求、大灾风险分散体系等法律规范,进一步完善农业保险制度。

    Abstract:

    The legalization of agricultural insurance is an important guarantee for the high-quality development of agricultural insurance. The legislative model of straddling commercial and policy-based agricultural insurance in China has become the “cause of disease” that hinders the development of policy-based agricultural insurance. Based on Japan’s agricultural insurance law, this paper analyzes the development process, the legal framework, and the basic characteristics of Japan’s agricultural insurance policies, explores Japan’s experience and practice of agricultural insurance, and discusses its implications for China’s policy-based agricultural insurance legislation. Results show that Japan enacted a separate legislation at the beginning of the establishment of agricultural insurance, and the provisions of the law not only include government’s responsibilities, insurance liability, the level of protection, penalties, but also incorporate the externality of the characteristics of agricultural insurance on financial, reinsurance, and other ancillary support measures to carry out detailed provisions. It has the characteristics of comprehensive legal content, mandatory insurance items, and the coordination with other laws. The “Regulations on Agricultural Insurance” promulgated by China has filled the blank of agricultural insurance regulations, preliminarily established the structure of the agricultural insurance system, and clarified the legal responsibility of agricultural insurance operation. However, compared with Japan, there are still legislative goals that do not reflect the strategic significance, the misalignment with other related laws, the lack of regulations on the power and responsibility relationships and behavioral norms of the governments at all levels, and inadequate market access and exit system. Therefore, China can learn from the legislative experience of Japan and further improve the agricultural insurance system by specifying legal norms such as institutional model, financial support mode, premium rate determination requirements, and catastrophe risk dispersion system in the policy-based agricultural insurance legislation.

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引用本文

魏腾达,穆月英,张峭. 日本农业保险法:制度背景、法律框架与镜鉴启示[J]. 农业现代化研究, 2023, 44(4): 597-608
WEI Teng-da, MU Yue-ying, ZHANG Qiao. Japan’s agricultural insurance law: Policy background, legal framework, and implications[J]. Research of Agricultural Modernization, 2023, 44(4): 597-608

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  • 收稿日期:2023-06-19
  • 最后修改日期:2023-08-11
  • 录用日期:2023-08-11
  • 在线发布日期: 2023-09-19
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