中国种源“卡脖子”难题与破解路径——基于植物品种权布局视角
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山东科技大学经济管理学院

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山东省重点研发计划(软科学项目)重大项目(2022RZA06022)


The “bottleneck” problem and the solution path of China’s seed provenance: From the perspective of variety right layout
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College of Economics and Management, Shandong University of Science and Technology

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Major Project of Shandong Province Key R&D Plan (Soft Science Project) (2022RZA06022).

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    摘要:

    种子作为重要的农业生产资料,在保障粮食安全方面具有重大意义。我国种业发展起步较晚,在部分领域存在种源“卡脖子”问题。本文基于植物品种权布局视角,利用2010—2020年中国和UPOV成员品种权申请授权数据,通过国际对比分析了中国面临的种源“卡脖子”难题,并提出相应的破解路径。研究表明,中国育种技术不断发展,居民品种权申请量快速增加,但授权率却呈下降态势;与UPOV成员相比,中国品种权申请主体主要来自于国内申请人。目前中国面临的种源“卡脖子”难题主要有现代生物育种技术相对落后、植物品种权结构不均衡特别是蔬菜、花卉、牧草等种子依赖进口、种质资源挖掘利用保护不足和植物品种权保护水平较低。据此,从突破“卡脖子”技术攻关、加强农作物种质资源的引进开发利用、完善植物新品种保护体系与强化保护水平、构建政产学研深度合作的商业化育种体系和加强种源安全风险预警方面提出破解路径。

    Abstract:

    As an important means of agricultural production, seeds are of great significance in ensuring grain security. The development of the seed industry in China started relatively late, and there is a “bottleneck” problem of seed provenance in some fields. From the perspective of the distribution of plant variety rights, this paper analyzed the problems of seed provenance “bottleneck” problem faced by China through international comparison by using the application and authorization data of variety rights of China and the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) members from 2010 to 2020, and identified a corresponding solution path. Results show that the breeding technology was developing continuously in China, and the number of residents’ applications for variety rights increased rapidly. However, the authorization rate declined. Compared with UPOV members, the main applicants for variety rights in China were mainly from domestic applicants. Currently, China is facing the following major “bottleneck” problems of seed provenance: relatively lag behind biological breeding technology, insufficient protection of germplasm resource mining and utilization, low protection level of plant variety rights, and imbalanced structure of plant variety rights, especially for the seeds of vegetables, flowers and herbs, which mainly depend on import. Therefore, this paper provides the following suggestions: breaking through the “bottleneck” technology research, strengthening the introduction, development and utilization of crop germplasm resources, improving the protection system and protection level of new plant varieties, constructing the commercial breeding system of deep cooperation among government, industry, university, and research institutes, and strengthening the early warning of seed security risks.

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周衍平,徐华杰,陈会英. 中国种源“卡脖子”难题与破解路径——基于植物品种权布局视角[J]. 农业现代化研究, 2023, 44(4): 588-596
ZHOU Yan-ping, XU Hua-jie, CHEN Hui-ying. The “bottleneck” problem and the solution path of China’s seed provenance: From the perspective of variety right layout[J]. Research of Agricultural Modernization, 2023, 44(4): 588-596

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  • 收稿日期:2023-03-19
  • 最后修改日期:2023-07-27
  • 录用日期:2023-07-28
  • 在线发布日期: 2023-09-19
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