1.College of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology(Beijing);2.Tianjin Binhai New Area Environmental Innovation Research Institute
Basic Research Funds for Central Universities (No.: 2021YJSDC10)
水质评价是水污染判断、分析和治理的重要环节，对保障水环境和居民用水安全具有重要意义。为了确保延安市集中式地表饮用水水源地的水质安全，分别于2019年3、5、7、8、10月对10个水源地一级保护区的63项指标进行了监测，运用单因子评价法、加拿大水质指数模型（CCME-WQI）和综合营养状态指数法（TLI）对监测区进行水质状况和富营养化水平评估，同时应用因子分析法进行污染来源分析并识别主要影响指标。结果显示：①单因子评价有11项基本项目超标，3个水源地水质达到Ⅱ类水平 ，其余水源地水质等级处于GB3838-2002《地表水环境质量标准》Ⅲ类；②WQI评价指数在62.59-93.74之间，水质等级为良好（5个）、中等（4个）和较差（1个）；③水库型水源地综合营养指数为34.41-49.05，均处于中营养水平；④研究区水源地的水质在空间分布上，具有显著的空间异质性，除位于最北部的中山川水库外，水源地水质污染程度表现为 “东高西低”的特点；⑤水质污染来源为农业面源污染、石油工业污染和生活污染，氨氮、总磷、总氮、化学需氧量、五日生化需氧量是影响水质的主要指标。本研究可为延安市制定集中式饮用水水源污染防范措施和管理提供科学依据。
Water quality evaluation is a crucial component in assessing, analyzing, and mitigating water pollution, playing a significant role in ensuring water environment quality and residents’ water safety. To ensure the safety of centralized surface drinking water sources in Yan’an City, this study monitored water bodies in 10 Class I source water protection areas during March, May, July, August, and October 2019. Based on 63 monitoring indicators, the water quality condition and eutrophication level were assessed using the single-factor evaluation method, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME-WQI), and the trophic level index (TLI). Additionally, factor analysis was applied to analyze the main impact indicators and pollution sources. Results indicated significant spatial heterogeneity in water quality across the study area’s source water protection areas, with the exception of the Zhongshanchuan Reservoir, which showed poor in the east and excellent in the west water quality patterns. The single-factor evaluation revealed 11 indicators exceeding the standard, with only 3 water sources meeting the Class II environmental quality standard for surface water, and the rest classified as Class III. WQI evaluation indices ranged from 62.59 to 93.74, with 5 sources having good, 4 medium, and 1 poor water quality. The trophic level index of reservoir-type water sources was 34.41~49.05, indicating a medium nutrient level. The main sources of pollution were agricultural non-point source pollution, oil industry pollution, and domestic pollution. Key indicators affecting water quality were ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and five-day biochemical oxygen demand. This study provides a scientific basis for developing pollution prevention measures and management strategies for centralized drinking water sources in Yan’an City.
郝萌,闫祯,黄一恒,曹庆一,曹倬优. 延安市集中式饮用水水源地水质评价[J]. 农业现代化研究, 2023, 44(4): 736-744
haomeng, yanzhen, huangyiheng, caoqingyi, caozhuoyou. Water quality Evaluation of centralized drinking water sources in Yan[J]. Research of Agricultural Modernization, 2023, 44(4): 736-744