耕地经营规模与化肥减施效应——来自江西省水稻种植户的证据
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国家自然科学基金项目(71864017,72164014);江西省教育规划项目(20YB040);湖南省教育厅优秀青年科学研究项目(20B303)


Farmland management scale and the effect of chemical fertilizer reduction: Evidence from rice farmers in Jiangxi Province
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National Natural Science Foundation of China (71864017,72164014); Jiangxi Province Education Planning Project (20YB040); Excellent Youth Scientific Research Project of Hunan Provincial Education Department (20B303)

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    摘要:

    在当前农业面源污染日益严重的背景下研究耕地经营规模对化肥减施的影响,对实现我国农业绿色可持续发展有着重大的理论与现实意义。本文以江西省8县769份水稻种植农户为研究对象,利用引入工具变量的两阶段最小二乘法(IV-2SLS)探讨耕地经营规模与化肥减施效应之间的内在机理。结果表明:耕地经营规模对化肥施用强度产生了显著的影响,两者呈“U”型关系,适度规模为4.60 hm2,即化肥施用强度随着经营规模的扩大首先下降,达到适度规模后发生增长。耕地流入和耕地质量在经营规模对化肥减施效应中都产生了显著的增强性调节作用。进一步研究发现,新、老一代农户的耕地经营规模对化肥减施效应都产生了显著影响;丘陵山区的耕地经营规模对化肥减施效应产生了显著影响,平原地区不显著;二兼户的耕地经营规模对化肥减施效应产生了显著影响,一兼户不显著。因此,政府应进一步积极推动耕地适度流转,改造农业基础设施,建设高标准农田,提高耕地质量和规模化经营水平,同时对不同类型的农户和不同自然条件的地区,采取有差别的耕地保护措施。

    Abstract:

    Under the background of the increasingly serious agricultural non-point source pollution, it is of great theoretical and practical significance to study the impacts of farmland management scale on the reduction of chemical fertilizer application for the realization of green and sustainable agricultural development in China. Based on a survey data of 769 rice farmers in 8 counties of Jiangxi Province, this paper explored the internal mechanism between the scale of farmland management and the reduction of chemical fertilizer by the two-stage least squares method (IV-2SLS) with instrumental variables. Results show that the management scale of farmland had a significant impact on the fertilizer application intensity, and the relationship between them was a “U” type, with the moderate scale of 4.60 hm2, that is, the fertilizer application intensity decreased first with the expansion of the management scale, and then increased after reaching the moderate scale. The inflow of farmland and the quality of farmland have significantly enhanced the regulatory effect of the management scale on the reduction of chemical fertilizer. Further research found that the scale of farmland management of the new and old generation of farmers had a significant impact on the effect of fertilizer reduction, but there was no significant difference between the new and old generation of farmers; The scale of farmland management in hilly and mountainous areas has a significant impact on fertilizer application intensity, while that in plain areas is not significant. The scale of farmland management of two part-time households has a significant impact on the effect of reducing fertilizer application, while that of one part-time household is not significant. Therefore, the government should further actively promote the appropriate farmland transfer, transform agricultural infrastructure, build high standard farmland, improve the quality of farmland and the level of large-scale operation, and take different measures to protect farmland for different types of farmers and areas with different natural conditions.

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引用本文

刘桂英,成雪宇,张双庆,周丽. 耕地经营规模与化肥减施效应——来自江西省水稻种植户的证据[J]. 农业现代化研究, 2023, 44(1): 97-107
LIU Gui-ying, CHENG Xue-yu, ZHANG Shuang-qing, ZHOU Li. Farmland management scale and the effect of chemical fertilizer reduction: Evidence from rice farmers in Jiangxi Province[J]. Research of Agricultural Modernization, 2023, 44(1): 97-107

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  • 收稿日期:2022-05-24
  • 最后修改日期:2023-02-05
  • 录用日期:2023-02-06
  • 在线发布日期: 2023-03-11
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