1.College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University;2.Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Key Research and Development Program of Hunan Province (2021NK2012); Hunan Fishery Industry Technology System Project; National Natural Science Foundation of China (41907085).
稻鱼复合种养能减少化肥和农药的施用，在保证水稻正常生长和稻田环境质量稳定的同时提高农民经济效益。本研究选取“巨型稻”和 “稻花鲤”为稻鱼复合种养试验材料，开展为期两年的田间定位试验，设置稻鱼复合种养（URF30）、单独水稻种植（UR30）和干湿交替（CK）三种种植模式处理，在分蘖期结束时淹水30 cm并持续保持水位至收获，分析水稻不同生育期土壤养分含量、微生物量和酶活性，探讨长期淹水稻鱼复合种养模式对土壤养分和酶活性的影响。结果表明，URF30处理在连续的两年内土壤有机碳（SOC）含量和土壤总氮（TN）含量呈增加趋势，并且高于其他处理，籽粒产量均高于其他处理。UR30和URF30处理进行短期淹水后，土壤中硝态氮和有效磷含量下降，同时土壤中β-葡萄糖苷酶（BG）活性和脲酶（UR）活性显著降低；稻田长期淹水会降低土壤微生物量氮（MBN）含量，UR30处理2020年和2021年土壤MBN含量在长期淹水后分别显著下降146.9%和55.8%；稻田养鱼有利于土壤整体酶活性的提高，2020年和2021年URF30处理土壤酶几何平均值比UR30处理分别高5.8%和7.5%，比CK分别高19.4%和15.6%。研究表明，稻田进行短期淹水导致土壤微生物在水稻拔节期受到磷限制，长期淹水导致土壤微生物在水稻成熟期受到氮限制。巨型稻复合种养在长期淹水条件下仍能有效保证土壤肥力和土壤酶活性，在水稻产量稳定的基础上提高经济收益。
The rice-fish integrated system can reduce the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, ensure the normal growth of rice, maintain the environment quality of paddy field, and improve the economic benefits of farmers. In this study, “giant rice” and “Daohua carp” were selected as the experimental materials for the rice-fish integrated farming, and a two-year field experiment was carried out. Three farming modes were set up: rice-fish integrated farming with long-term flooding (URF30), rice planting alone with long-term flooding (UR30), and rice planting alone with dry-wet alternating (CK). Soil nutrient content, microbial biomass, and enzyme activities were analyzed at different rice growth stages, and the effects of rice-fish integrated farming on soil nutrients and enzyme activities were investigated. Results showed that the soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents of the URF30 treatment increased in two consecutive years, and were higher than those of other treatments. The grain yield of the URF30 treatment was also higher than other treatments. After short-term flooding for the UR30 and URF30 treatments, the soil nitrate and available phosphorus contents decreased, and the activities of soil β-glucosidase and urease significantly decreased. Long-term flooding in paddy fields decreased soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) content. Compared to that at the beginning of flooding, soil MBN content in the UR30 treatment decreased significantly by 146.9% and 55.8% in 2020 and 2021, respectively. Fish farming in paddy field was beneficial to increase soil enzyme activities. In 2020 and 2021, the geometric mean of soil enzymes in the URF30 treatment were 5.8% and 7.5% higher than those of the UR30 treatment, and 19.4% and 15.6% higher than those of the CK treatment. The biomass of soil microorganisms were limited by soil phosphorus in the jointing stage of rice by short-term flooding, while were limited by nitrogen in the mature stage of rice by long-term flooding. The integrated farming of giant rice and fish could effectively guarantee soil fertility and soil enzyme activities under the condition of long-term flooding, and improve rice yield.
周榆淇`,邹冬生,王安岽,邹京辰,郑志广,刘沐琦,张满云,王华,肖润林. 长期淹水条件下稻鱼复合种养对土壤养分和酶活性的影响[J]. 农业现代化研究, 2022, 43(5): 911-920
ZHOU Yu-qi, ZOU Dong-sheng, WANG An-dong, ZOU Jing-chen, ZHENG Zhi-guang, LIU Mu-qi, ZHANG Man-yun, WANG Hua, XIAO Run-lin. Effects of rice-fish integrated farming on soil nutrients and enzyme activities under long-term flooding[J]. Research of Agricultural Modernization, 2022, 43(5): 911-920