中国种业发展形势与国际比较
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中国社会科学院农村发展研究所

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国家自然科学青年基金项目(72003194);财政部和农业农村部国家现代农业产业技术体系项目(CARS-36);国家自然科学基金面上项目(72073130)


Development situation and international comparison of China’s seed industry
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Rural Development Institute, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

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National Natural Science Foundation for Young Scientists of China (72003194); China Agriculture Research System (CARS-36); National Natural Science Foundation of China (72073130).

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    摘要:

    种业是农业的“芯片”,是保障中国粮食安全和实现农业现代化的基础。本文从育种产业链的角度,比较分析中国与种业发达国家在种业研发模式、育种技术、种子企业和种质资源四个方面的发展态势,并针对种业发展面临的问题提出发展思路和建议。研究表明,种业强国已经形成了以寡头种子企业为研究主体,以生物技术、人工智能和大数据为育种技术且种质资源全球布局的现代化种业发展格局;国内种业则以科研机构和企业并行研发为主,形成了“政府+市场”的育种研发模式,且种质资源主要集中在国内。然而,中国种业存在研发主体创新动力不足,基础研究难以支撑育种核心技术;生物育种产业化管理体制不健全,产业化生产进展缓慢;市场监管不足,种子企业多而不强;种质资源储备和鉴定不足,育种研发源头处于劣势等问题。因此,中国种业应该建立基础研究和应用研究协同发展、原始创新和产业发展良好互动、种质资源保护和鉴定利用双向发展的思路,最终构建现代化的商业育种体系和多主体协同发展的种业创新生态圈。

    Abstract:

    The seed industry is like the “chip” of agriculture and is the basis for ensuring China’s grain security and achieving agricultural modernization. From the perspective of the breeding industry chain, this paper compares and analyzes the development situation of China and the developed countries in four aspects: breeding R&D patterns, breeding technique, seed enterprise, and germplasm resources, and proposes suggestions to solve the the problems of the seed industry. Results show that foreign countries with strong seed industry have formed a modern development pattern with oligarchic seed enterprises as the main research subjects, biotechnology, artificial intelligence and big data as the breeding technology, and germplasm resources are distributed around the world. The seed industry in China is mainly based on the parallel research by research institutions and enterprises, forming a breeding research model of “government + market”, and germplasm resources are mainly from domestic sources. The problems of China’s seed industry include: 1) R&D subjects lack innovation motivation, and basic research is difficult to support core breeding technologies; 2) the biological breeding management system is not perfect, and the progress of commercial production is slow; 3) market supervision is insufficient, and seed companies are numerous but not strong; and 4) germplasm resource reserve and identification are insufficient, and the origin of breeding research is at a disadvantage. Therefore, China needs to formate the thought of collaborative development of basic research and applied research, good interaction between original innovation and industrial development of the seed industry, two-way development of germplasm resources conservation and identification, and a modern commercial breeding system and a seed industry innovation ecosystem with the collaborative development of multiple subjects.

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王术坤,韩磊. 中国种业发展形势与国际比较[J]. 农业现代化研究, 2022, 43(5): 814-822
WANG Shu-kun, HAN Lei. Development situation and international comparison of China’s seed industry[J]. Research of Agricultural Modernization, 2022, 43(5): 814-822

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  • 收稿日期:2022-03-22
  • 最后修改日期:2022-08-09
  • 录用日期:2022-08-09
  • 在线发布日期: 2022-10-17
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