1.Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences;2.Hunan Airbluer Environmental Technology Co., Ltd
National Natural Science Foundation of China (42077215); Project of Hunan High Tech Industry Science and Technology Innovation Leading Plan (2020GK4094); Project of Science and Technology Service Network of Chinese Academy of Science (KFJ-STS-QYZD-2021-24-001).
受农业面源污染影响，池塘水体污染状况与相关底栖动物群落特征备受关注。本文以亚热带丘陵区某典型小流域池塘为例，采用现场调查方法对流域内15个池塘的底栖动物和水体污染情况进行调查分析，探讨了底栖动物群落特征随季节和水体污染程度变化的关系。结果表明,区域内池塘中底栖动物多样性相对较低，共采集到底栖动物22种，其中以节肢动物居多（14种），耐污性较强的黄色羽摇蚊（Chironomus flaviplumus）、霍甫水丝蚓（Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri）和中华长足摇蚊（Tanypus chinensis）为主要优势种。季节变化对底栖动物丰度、生物量有显著影响，夏季底栖动物平均丰度和生物量分别为544 ind/m2和1.48 g/m2，显著低于冬季（分别为913 ind/m2和6.67 g/m2）（P<0.05）。不同的底栖动物对水环境因子表现出不同的响应特征，黄色羽摇蚊生物量与温度（T）呈显著正相关，而霍甫水丝蚓和苏氏尾鳃蚓（Branchiura sowerbyi）生物量则与水体总氮（TN）、氨氮（NH4+-N）呈显著正相关（P<0.05）。研究表明，区域内池塘水体整体污染程度相对较高，底栖动物群落结构较简单且受季节和水环境因子影响较大，其中霍甫水丝蚓和苏氏尾鳃蚓的丰度和生物量对于反映该区域池塘水体面源污染状况具有一定的指示作用。
Water pollution and the characteristics of the zoobenthos community were affected by agricultural non-point source pollution in the pond. This paper takes ponds in a typical small watershed in a subtropical hilly region as an example. The zoobenthos and water pollution in 15 ponds were investigated and analyzed by field investigation. Relationship between seasonal characteristics of the zoobenthos community and water pollution levels was discussed. The results showed that the diversity of zoobenthos in the ponds was relatively low. A total of 22 species of zoobenthos were collected, of which arthropod accounted for the majority (14 species). The dominant species were Chironomus flaviplumus, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, and Tanypus chinensis. The abundance and biomass of zoobenthos were significantly affected by seasonal variation. The average abundance and biomass of zoobenthos in summer were 544 ind/m2 and 1.48 g/m2, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in winter (913 ind/m2 and 6.67 g/m2, respectively) (P<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the biomass of Chironomus flaviplumus and temperature (T). There was a significant positive correlation between the biomass of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Branchiura sowerbyi and total nitrogen (TN), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) (P<0.05). These results indicated that the overall degree of water pollution in ponds was relatively high, while the community structure of zoobenthos was simple. They were greatly affected by season and water environmental factors. The abundance and biomass of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Branchiura sowerbyi could be used as indicators to reflect the impact of non-point source pollution on pond water.