日本乡村振兴中农民主体实践特点——以文化遗产活用为例
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天津社会科学院日本研究所

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国家社会科学基金项目(21BGJ060)


Characteristics of the main body practice in rural revitalization in Japan: A case study of the flexible use of cultural heritage
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Institute of Japanese Studies, Tianjin Academy of Social Sciences

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National Social Science Foundation of China (21BGJ060).

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    摘要:

    党的十九大提出乡村振兴战略,农民作为重要的参与者、实践者充分发挥主体性对于实现乡村振兴具有重要意义。本文基于日本文化遗产角度,构建主体实践生成过程与主体实践类型分析框架,以重要传统建筑物群保存地区下乡町、无形文化遗产保存地区昭和村,以及融合有形文化遗产与无形文化遗产的历史文化街区津和野町为例,分析日本农民主体实践特点,探讨日本农民在促进乡村经济发展、延续传统村落生命力中发挥的作用,以期为我国农民参与农业文化遗产的保护利用提供经验借鉴。研究表明,下乡町的农民主体实践过程是从无到有的过程,昭和村是层层深入的过程,而津和野町则以问题为导向;三个乡村的主体实践类型分别是互助型、协同型、计划型。尽管三个村庄的主体实践生成过程与类型各不相同,但存在一定的共性,即从纵向的维度看,农民主体实践具有动态变化的特点;从横向的维度看,农民的主体实践具有差异化的特点。日本案例启示我们在保护利用农业文化遗产的过程中,首先,需要以发展的观点看待农民自主实践生成过程;其次,农民应因地制宜地构建主体实践类型。

    Abstract:

    The 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward the strategy of rural revitalization, giving farmers, as important participants and practitioners, a full play to the subjectivity for the realization of rural revitalization is of great significance. From the perspective of the Japanese cultural heritage and taking the Japanese cultural heritage as an example, this paper constructed an analytical framework of the generating process and the types of the main body practice to analyze the characteristics of the main body practice of Japanese farmers. This paper also discussed the role played by Japanese farmers in promoting rural economic development and continuing the vitality of traditional villages and its implications for China to provide experience for Chinese farmers to participate in the protection and utilization of agricultural cultural heritage. Results show that the flexible use of Japanese cultural heritage is mainly composed of important traditional buildings and intangible cultural heritage, as well as a historic district that blends tangible cultural heritage with intangible cultural heritage. The practice of farmers is a process from scratch, a deep-going process, and a problem-oriented operating mechanism. The main practice types include mutual aid, cooperation, and planning. Different villages have different main body practice generation process and types with some commonalities. From the vertical dimension, the practice of farmers’ main body has the characteristics of dynamic change, and from the horizontal dimension, the practice of farmers’ main body has the characteristics of differentiation. In the process of protecting and utilizing the agricultural cultural heritage, Japan’s experience reveals that the formation of farmers’ independent practice should be viewed from the perspective of development and farmers should construct the main practice types according to local conditions.

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  • 收稿日期:2021-11-11
  • 最后修改日期:2022-03-29
  • 录用日期:2022-03-29
  • 在线发布日期: 2022-05-09
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