Abstract: As a form of deep integration of information technology and agriculture, smart agriculture has become an ultimate option for modern agricultural development in China. However, current research on smart agriculture is insufficient. It is necessary to conduct scientific analysis and accurate pulse on the development of smart agriculture. Based on a macro statistical data and the national survey data of smart agriculture development in 2019, this paper deeply analyzed the current situation and problems of smart agriculture, and then discussed the future strategic path and countermeasures of smart agriculture. Results show that the development of smart agriculture has the characteristics of digital information perception, scientific management and decision-making, intelligent equipment control, accurate factor input and personalized information service. Focusing on the fields of smart agriculture infrastructure, smart planting, smart breeding, and smart supply chain of agricultural products, China’s new agricultural infrastructure has achieved encouraging results, and automatic monitoring of agricultural situation, fertigation, precise breeding, automatic post-harvest processing of agricultural products and others have been better applied. However, smart agriculture also faces some problems, including weak information infrastructure, key technologies controlled by overseas companies, insufficient data resource sharing, and the lack of talents and funds. Accordingly, to promote the development of China’s smart agriculture around the pre-production, in-production and post-production of agriculture and to provide some enlightenment for accelerating the development process of China’s smart agriculture, this paper suggests: to strengthen top-level design of smart agriculture, to formulate supporting policies, to enhance R&D and promotion of key technologies, to promote digitization of whole agricultural industry chain, and to improve the information personnel training system.
Abstract: Agricultural modernization improved agricultural productivity, which increased agricultural contributions to urban development and promoted the urbanization. This paper constructed an index, which includes six dimensions of agricultural productivity level, agricultural output level, agricultural industrialization level, agricultural economic structure, rural social development level, and agricultural eco-environmental development level to evaluate the agricultural modernization level in Tibet Automatous Region and analyzed the influencing mechanism of Tibetan agricultural modernization on its urbanization during 1990-2019. Results show that: 1) the agricultural modernization level in Tibet increased significantly from 1.22 in 1990 to 17.65 in 2019 and the urbanization rate increased from 16.36 in 1990 to 31.54 in 2019; 2) Tibetan agricultural modernization played significant and positive roles in the development of urbanization, and it worked by increasing the contributions of agriculture to urban development and by changing the push-pull forces of urban and rural areas; and 3) the effects of the six dimensions of Tibetan agricultural modernization on the development of urbanization were inconsistent. Such heterogeneity was rooted in the differences of the social development stages in the contributions of agriculture to urbanization. To further increase agricultural modernization level and to strengthen the effects of agricultural contributions on urbanization in Tibet, this paper provides the following suggestions: providing more investiment support for agricultural mechanization to enhance agricultural productivity level and agricultural output level, constructing agriculturial processing industries to enhance agricultural industrialization level, and motivating rural commodity market to increase rural income and living standard in Tibet.
Abstract: Constructing a long-term and stable interest linkage mechanism is an inevitable trend in the realization of agricultural industrialization and an important way to increase farmers’ income. Taking family farms in Hunan Province as the research object, this paper constructed an evaluation index system for the effectiveness of the benefit linkage mechanism from three dimensions of institutional benefit, governance level, and growth ability to analyze the effectiveness of the linkage mechanism between family farms and agricultural enterprises and compared different results by the entropy TOPSIS model and the obstacle factor diagnosis model. Results show that the organization modes of family farms and agricultural enterprise benefit linkage mechanism are mainly divided into three categories: shareholding, contract, and buyout. The comprehensive effectiveness scores in descending order are shareholding, contract, and buyout. From the perspectives of the weight of the standard level and the governance level, the system benefit weight is relatively large, and the weight of the growth ability is general. From three dimensions of the evaluation index system, although the shareholding type score is higher than those of the contract type and the buyout type, the three model scores are generally low with much room to improve. The growth rate of operating income, default costs, risk capital, the number of involved households, the proportion of secondary income, and the amount of guarantee are the main factors that affect the effectiveness of contractual and shareholding mechanisms. Therefore, this paper suggests that the relevant government departments should focus on promoting the development of the share-based benefit linkage model when strengthening the benefit linkage mechanism between family farms and agricultural enterprises, improve the ability of family farms to grow, innovate risk sharing and benefit distribution mechanisms, and enhance the profitability of partners.
Abstract: The development of the rural tourism industry conforms to the basic requirements of the rural revitalization strategy. It focuses on the multiple values of rural tourism from the perspective of sustainable development, and provides a lasting impetus for the integration of rural industries, economic development and farmers’ employment and income. Based on the framework theory of Integrated Rural Tourism (IRT) and taking typical rural tourism villages in Shandong Province as examples, this paper examined the internal basis and stage characteristics of the collaborative development of rural tourism and analyzed the driving mechanism and realizing path of the rural tourism’s collaborative development. Results demonstrate that 1) the initial development stage of rural tourism relies on resource endogeneity and benefit sharing; 2) the market operation stage emphasizes organizational embedding and large-scale operation; 3) the rapid expansion stage focuses on the community empowerment and endogenous development; and 4) the sustainable development stage demands a balance of benefits and cooperative symbiosis. In addition, the research also finds that the community participation, multiple empowerment and value recognition, multi-stakeholder participation, association and coordination, continuous and effective institutional supply and regulation are the operating foundations for the coordinated development of rural tourism. In response to the problems and challenges at different development stages of rural tourism, including the imbalanced interests of multiple subjects, insufficient endogenous resources, alienation of rural culture, low degree of community empowerment, and the inefficient flow of urban and rural elements, this paper suggests to enhance the following cooperative development mechanisms: cooperative network construction and cooperative management mechanism, interest coordination mechanism of multiple subjects, protection and construction mechanism of rural social culture, and capital embedding, competition and cooperation mechanism.
Abstract: The countries along the “One-Belt and One-Road” are important grain producing areas in the world and have great potential to increase grain production. Accoding to the estimation results based on the GAEZ model, taking 2018 as the reference period, the potential for increased grain production in countries along the “One-Belt and One- Road” is about between 538 million to 561 million tons. The countries along the “One-Belt and One-Road” are also major exporters of wheat and rice with great grain export potential, too. China’s increased utilization of grain markets and resources in countries along the “One-Belt and One-Road” helps China to diversify the sources of grain import to reduce the risks of international grain market utilization. In addition, it can also improves grain security of countries along the “One-Belt and One-Road”, increases the total supply of international grain markets to reduce the cost of China’s grain import, to build China’s own global grain supply chain channels and international grain cycle, and to promote a shift in world grain security governance to a more favourable direction for developing countries. In the future, China’s governmant should further strengthen mutually beneficial and win-win cooperation with countries along the “One-Belt and One-Road” in the field of grain trade, promote the construction of regional grain logistics infrastructure, strengthen the construction of facilitation mechanism for regional grain trade, and jointly safeguard the multilateral international grain trade rules and order.
Abstract: With the in-depth reform of the farmland system of “Three Rights Separation Policy (TRSP)”, more non-collective members became agricultural operators, and the performance of the new agricultural management subject deserves attention. Based on a survey data of 617 agricultural operators in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, this article examined farmland use features of different agricultural operators from three aspects: farmland use, farmland input allocation, and farmland productivity. Results show that: 1) from farmland use perspective the production scale of agricultural operators was significantly expanded, and the expansion was oriented to more non-grain production; 2) from farmland input perspective, inputs, wages of employees, and land rent have become the three main cost components; and 3) from farmland output perspective, large farms have the highest land productivity, capital farms have the highest labor productivity, and traditional farms have the highest capital productivity. The logics of farmland use by diversified agricultural operators include: traditional farmers considering farmland as a livelihood guarantee to obtain some safe agricultural products for their consumption and to realize their self-value; large farms using farming technology and local knowledge constantly to improve the quality of labor and to increase the output and the profit of each labor; family farms emphasizing the transformation from the pursuit of land productivity to labor productivity to achieve the optimal operation scale through rational labor utilization and to reduce unit cost to increase income; and capital farms concentrating inputs on scale production to maintain more profits and extending “technology effect” to the upstream sectors and “brand effect” to the downstream sectors. Therefore, the basic trend of agricultural modernization in the future should rely on extensive agricultural technological progress, expansion of farm production scales, and high efficiency of agricultural production.
Abstract: Outsourcing agricultural machinery services is an important part of the agricultural socialization service system, which is related to the development of agricultural mechanization and the organic connection between small farmers and modern agriculture. Based on the large national sample data CLDS2016, this paper studied the impact of farmland management scale on rural households’ outsourcing agricultural machinery services and explored the moderating effect of land ownership stability by the Ordered Probit model. Results show that: 1) small-scale rural economy is still relatively common, but the promotion of agricultural machinery outsourcing services has made some progress and agricultural scale operations can be increased through service scale operations; 2) there is an inverted U-shaped curve relationship between the scale of farmland management and farmer’s agricultural machinery service outsourcing, with an inflection point of 2.833 hm2. Farmers’ agricultural machinery service outsourcing behaviors of different farmland management scales are different; 3) farmland adjustment has a negative moderating effect and compared with farmland adjustment, when there is no farmland adjustment (land rights are stable), the inflection point of the curve between the scale of agricultural land and outsourcing agricultural machinery services is shifted to the left by 2.011 hm2; and 4) farmland title confirmation shifts the inflection point of the curve to the left by 0.709 hm2, but the adjustment effect is not significant. The reason might be that the policy effect of the confirmation of farmland ownership is lagging behind. Therefore, this paper suggests to comprehensively consider regional differences and the diverse needs of agricultural production when developing agricultural machinery outsourcing service market, to improve the service quality of agricultural machinery outsourcing, to standardize market operations, to improve the supporting system of farmland right confirmation policies, and to establish farmland data exchange platform.
Abstract: To comprehensively improve the protection quality of black-soil farmland and to fully release the social and ecological benefits of black-soil farmland protection are the internal requirements for consolidating the grain production capacity and promoting the green development of agriculture in Northeastern China. As an important resource for farmers to embed into the social structure, social capital plays a vital role in the formation of farmers’ willingness to protect black-soil farmland. Based on a survey date of farmers in Suihua City of Heilongjiang Province, and applying the theory of social capital, this paper analyzed the level of farmers’ willingness to protect black-soil farmland by the double hurdle model and discussed the influencing mechanism of social capital on farmers’ willingness to participate in and willingness to pay for black-soil farmland protection. Results show that the level of most farmers’ willingness to pay is between 1 181.40 to 1 859.85 yuan/(hm2?a) based on their willingness to participate in black-soil farmland protection. Social network and social participation positively stimulated farmers’ willingness to participate in black-soil farmland protection. While strong relationship network, the intensity of social participation, and the scope of social participation significantly promoted farmers’ willingness to pay for black-soil farmland protection. In addition, the general trust in social trust positively affected farmers’ willingness to participate in black-soil farmland protection. Although special trust inhibited farmers’ willingness to participate in black-soil farmland protection, it positively stimulated farmers’ willingness to pay for black-soil farmland protection. Therefore, this paper suggests that the government should enhance the level of social capital of farmers, build a platform for information exchange within rural communities, and improve the black-soil farmland ecological compensation policy.
Abstract: With the advocacy of green development in agriculture and rural areas in China, the policy direction of fertilizer input has gradually changed from increasing production to improving efficiency. And how to improve the efficiency of fertilizer application has become a key issue. Based on a micro-survey data of rice growers in Hubei Province, this paper evaluated the fertilizer application efficiency by the stochastic frontier method and further analyzed the impacts of land fragmentation and land quality on fertilizer application efficiency by the CLAD model. Results show that the current fertilizer application efficiency of rice farmers was only 63.85%. If the efficiency loss was eliminated completely the fertilizer application efficiency could be improved by 36.15%. The degree of farmland fragmentation significantly reduces the efficiency of fertilizer application, which may be related to the hedge behavior of farmers. Cognition of farmland quality improves fertilizer application efficiency significantly, indicating that farmers’ scientific understanding of farmland quality could improve the fertilizer application efficiency. Therefore, to improve the efficiency of fertilizer application, this paper provides the following policy suggestions: speeding up the construction of laws and regulations on the integration of farmland and contiguity operation of farmland, accelerating the combination of farmland fragmentation management experience and innovation, strengthening the guidance of farmers’ correct cognition of fertilizer application, and promoting scientific cultivation and production mode.
Abstract: Encouraging farmers to adopt ecological fertilization is of great significance to the reduction of chemical fertilizer applications in China and the development of ecological agriculture. Based on a survey data of 385 farmers in Heilongjiang Province, this paper studied the impacts of farmers’ perceived benefits on ecological fertilization behaviors and explored the influencing factors by a binary logistic regression model. In addition, this paper also discussed the regulating effect of environmental regulation. Results show that: 1) perceived economic benefits have a significant promoting effect on farmers’ ecological fertilization behaviors, while the impact of perceived ecological benefits is not significant; 2) environmental regulations have a regulatory effect on farmers’ perceived benefits and ecological fertilization behaviors. Environmental regulations influence farmers’ perceived benefits by guiding farmers’ cognition, financial subsidies, and punitive measures to encourage farmers to adopt ecological fertilization; 3) farmer’s education level and whether they have participated in technical training have significant influences on farmers’ ecological fertilization behaviors. The distance between the village and the county will inhibit farmers’ ecological fertilization behaviors. Finally, this paper provides the following policy suggestions: accelerating the development and innovation of ecological fertilization technology to promote ecological fertilization, to reduce costs, and to increase efficiency, strengthening policy guidance and financial subsidies for ecological fertilization, formulating a reasonable punishment mechanism, speeding up the spread of ecological fertilization technology, and building an expedite information transmission mechanism.
Abstract: It is crucial to achieve the goal of “carbon neutrality” and to increase the income of farmers by promoting large-scale hog farms’ participation in carbon trading. Based on the theory of planned behavior and taking the household biogas CCER project as an example, this paper analyzed the influence of the perceived value on large-scale hog farms’ participation in the household biogas CCER project by the Heckman selection model and explored the possible ways to reduce agricultural carbon emission and to increase farmers’ income. Results show that the market value perception of large-scale hog farms needs to be strengthened, while approximately 93.21% of the sample are willing to participate in the household biogas CCER project, and their average expected carbon price is 15.26 RMB/t. Further empirical analysis shows that market value perception contributes to improving the large-scale hog farms’ willingness of participation, while non-market value perception increases the expected carbon price of large-scale hog farms after their participation in the agricultural carbon trading project. Large-scale hog farms intended to expand their production and operation scales in the future, with internet access to home or with higher village identification are more likely to be influenced by the market value perception, and thus show a stronger willingness to participate in the agricultural carbon trading project. While hog farms intended to expand their hog production scale in the future and with a lower degree of village identification are more likely to be influenced by non-market value perceptions, and thus show a higher degree of expected carbon price. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the important role of value perception and the targeted advocacy of the value of the agricultural carbon trading project in a targeted manner to ensure better promotion of the project in rural areas.
Abstract: Pest control is one of the most necessary links in rice production. Scientific and correct technological information has played an important role in improving farmers’ pest control capability and ensuring the national grain security. Based on a survey data of 963 rice farmers in 3 provinces in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin, this study analyzed the current situation of pest occurrence and farmers’ pest control behaviors by the Probit and Tobit models and discussed the effects of different technological information sources on farmers’ pest control behaviors. Results show that there were total of 10 003 observations regarding pest occurrence for rice farmers, of which only 34.29% of them were controlled by farmers at the pest observation level. In addition, the average pest control rate per farmer is only 35.20% at the farm level. A diversified rural social service system has been gradually established in China. In addition to personal experience, agricultural extension agents and pesticide retailers are the main technological information sources for farmers. Compared with that from pesticide retailers, technological information from agricultural extension agents has significantly positive effect on the probability and the rate of pest control. However, the technological service effects of agricultural extension agents have not reached a consistent level in the control of different types of pests. Therefore, the government should establish a monitoring system for pests, deepen the reform of the agricultural extension system, strengthen technological guidance and training for pesticide retailers, and encourage the development of commercial service systems for the pest control such as specialized and unified prevention.
Abstract: Chinese society is entering into the information age, characterized by internet and informatization, which has profoundly changed the behaviors of farmers. Based on a micro data of the CLDS in 2016, this paper analyzes the influencing factors of farmers’ internet use and the impacts of internet use on farmers’ willingness to adopt sorting treatment of daily waste by the propensity score matching method and furtherly explores the heterogeneity of the influence effect among internet access and rural households. Results show that the overall proportion of farmers using internet is not high, the willingness to adopt sorting treatment of daily waste is high, and the participation rate of daily waste sorting of farmers with internet use is up to 82.9%. The age of the household head, the average age of the household members, and the distance from city center have some negative impacts on internet use. While the educational background of the household head, the average educational background of the household members, household income, the proportion of well paved road miles, and the location of the local town government have some positive impacts on farmers’ internet use. Internet use can effectively enhance farmers’ willingness to adopt sorting treatment of daily waste, but the effect of different internet access is heterogeneous. The net effects of mobile internet access and mixed internet access on farmers’ willingness to adopt sorting treatment of daily waste are 5.2% and 3.1%, respectively. While computer internet access has no significant effects. There are some group differences in the impacts of internet use on farmers’ willingness to adopt sorting treatment of daily waste which is only applicable to the older generation of farmers, non-agricultural farmers, and male headed households. Therefore, this paper suggests: to strengthen the construction of rural internet software and hardware, to promote online public activities of sorting treatment of daily waste, and to formulate diversified public strategies for rural sorting treatment of daily waste.
Abstract: Rural residents’ willingness to shop online for agricultural inputs is an important basis for our country to guide the rational and orderly development of e-commerce market for rural agricultural input, which plays a significant role in the construction of agricultural modernization. Based on the theory of technology acceptance model and a survey data of rural residents in 17 provinces, this paper adopted the structural equation model and the hierarchical regression method to analyze rural residents’ willingness to shop online for agricultural inputs and the driving factors. Results show that 47.9% of rural residents do not know much about the forms of agricultural inputs online shopping, and only 18.7% of rural residents have strong willingness of online shopping. Perceived risks have significant inhibitory impacts on rural residents’ willingness to shop online for agricultural inputs. This is because rural residents have little experience of online shopping, leading to their resistance of online shopping. In addition, website service quality and subjective norms play significant roles in promoting rural residents’ willingness to shop online. Initial trust plays a mediating role in the relationship among perceived risks, website service quality, subjective norms, and rural residents’ online shopping intention of agricultural inputs. Initial trust could enhance the willingness of rural residents to shop online for agricultural inputs. In addition, farm scale and farming experience play a moderating role in the above relationship. In conclusion, this paper provides the following suggestions for those e-commerce enterprises: expanding the rural e-commerce market at different levels, reducing the perceived risks for rural residents’ online shopping for agricultural inputs, improving the quality of website services, establishing a good reputation, and enhancing rural residents’ willingness to shop online for agricultural inputs.
Abstract: Cooperative participation is one of the important ways to increase farmers’ social capital accumulation, to enhance the executive ability of the rural poor, and to alleviate relative poverty. Based on the feasibility theory and a micro-survey data of farmers in Henan Province, this paper constructs a multi-dimensional relative poverty index system, analyzes farmers’ participation rate of professional cooperatives and the relative poverty level of farmers, and discusses the alleviation effects of cooperative participation on farmers’ relative poverty and its mechanism by the binary Probit model and the intermediary effect model. Results show that farmers’ participation rate of professional cooperatives in sample areas is low, only 17.6% and 63.6% of farmers are deprived in three or more relative poverty indicators and the relative poverty level is relatively high. Cooperative participation has a significant positive effect on alleviating the relative poverty of farmers. Controlling other variables, the probability of relative poverty of farmers’ participation in professional cooperatives will be reduced by 22.9%. After the robustness test and considering the endogeneity, the conclusion is still valid. Cooperative participation can alleviate farmers’ relative poverty by increasing social capital accumulation, while social network and social trust are the main transmission mechanism. Simultaneously, age, gender, political status of the household and family members’ working experiences have significant impacts on the relative poverty alleviation of farmers. Therefore, to alleviate relative poverty and to achieve common prosperity, this paper provides the following suggestions: strengthening and completing the construction of rural cooperative organizations, enhancing farmers’ confidence in poverty reduction through cooperative organizations, and giving a full play to the poverty-benefiting function of rural cooperative organizations.
Abstract: Farmers’ livelihood strategies are changing and these changes will continue in the process of rural revitalization. Understanding the change of farmers’ livelihood strategies is critical to effectively guide farmers’ livelihood behaviors and to break the resistance of rural construction. Based on the four periods of the CFPS tracking data and the sustainable livelihood theory, and applying the transition probability matrix and the logit regression model, this paper analyzed the changes of farmers’ livelihood strategies and its influencing factors, and examined its robustness by the quantile regression method. Results show that a big difference exists among the livelihood capital structures of farmers with different types of livelihood strategies. Among the five types of capitals, human capital is the largest, no matter what kind of livelihood strategy is. Most farmers choose to maintain the original livelihood strategy in the short term with slow dynamic adjustment. Farmers with land transfer tend to adopt a livelihood strategy of no off-farm employment. Social capital, accompanied by farmers’ years of schooling and health status, has a significant positive impact on farmers’ adoption of opt for off-farm employment strategy. Compared with farmers in the eastern region, farmers in the central and western regions are more inclined to adopt the work-oriented livelihood strategy. Therefore, the government should increase the investment in diversifying rural industries to promote the speed of transformation of farmers’ strategies and encourage farmers to participate in land transfer. In addition, to promote farmers’ social capital accumulation, the government should establish and improve farmers’ participation in rural grassroots social governance mechanism and expand the investment in rural education and medical care systems.
Abstract: Transport infrastructure is a basic requirement for tourism development, and it becomes one of the vital components in the “six elements” of tourism. According to the literature review, this paper further explores the interaction mechanism between traffic infrastructure construction and development of China’s forest park tourism based on a provincial panel data in China from 1998 to 2017. The simultaneous equation system model was used to empirically demonstrate the hypothesis of the interaction between traffic infrastructure construction and development of China’s forest park tourism. Estimation results show that 1) generally speaking, the construction of transport infrastructure has a strong promotion effect on the development of forest parks and forest tourism, but the reverse effect was weak; 2) in terms of patterns of forest parks, the construction of traffic infrastructure had a significant interactive relationship with the development of forest park tourism in medium-utilized with comparative advantages and under-utilized areas respectively; 3) from the perspective of forms of transport infrastructure, only highway construction had a significant positive interaction with the development of forest park tourism; from 1998 to 2007, the construction of transportation infrastructure had a significant impact on the development of forest park tourism, but the reverse effect was not significant; and 4) from the view of the cross combination of varieties of transportation infrastructure and forest parks, only railway construction had a significant positive impact on tourism development in the high-utilized areas of forest parks with comparative advantages; highway construction had a significant positive impact on the tourism development of forest parks, specifically for systemized highways. In this regard, this paper suggests to further improve the construction of transport infrastructure and to innovate the tourism formats of forest parks in accordance with local conditions.
Abstract: As one of the innovative agricultural modes of Compound Management of Forest and Poultry, forests ecological chicken brood has high ecological and economic benefits. However, in pursuit of maximum economic benefits, farmers often ignore ecological environmental protection, resulting in a negative impact on karst region with fragile ecological environment. Therefore, this study analyzed the effects of 600 chickens / hm2 (T1), 1200 chickens / hm2 (T2) and 2400 chickens / hm2 (T3) on the surface soil and vegetation under the forest, and comprehensively considered the ecological and economic value to determine the reasonable poultry-raising density of under-forest economy in karst mountain area. After four months of poultry-raising experiment, the results showed that：1) Under T1 and T2 poultry-raising conditions, saturated hydraulic conductivity and maximum moisture capacity of the soil increased, but the change of soil bulk density and porosity is not obvious. Under T3 condition, the saturated hydraulic conductivity and porosity of soil decreased, and the soil appeared obvious hardening phenomenon. 2) The contents of soil total nitrogen and soil organic carbon in all conditions increased compared with those before poultry-raising, with the largest increment at T2 condition, increased by 69.0% and 89.3% respectively. The contents of total phosphorus and total potassium in soil increased with the poultry-raising density, which increased by 29.3 % and 36.8 % respectively under T3. 3) The biomass of herbaceous vegetation decreased by more than 95% under all conditions. Four months after stopping poultry-raising, the biomass of herbaceous vegetation in T1 T2 and T3 conditions recovered to 41.2%, 3.5% and 1.5% of that before poultry-raising, respectively. 4) The chicken raising income of T1, T2 and T3 conditions were 72000, 144000 and 288000 RMB per hectare respectively. Based on the above results, the density of forests ecological chicken brood in karst mountainous area should be controlled within 600 chickens / hm2, and the forbidden grazing area and rotational grazing area should be divided, which can improve soil quality and protect vegetation diversity, take into account economic and ecological benefits, and achieve sustainable green development of mountain agriculture.
Abstract: The coupling and coordination of agricultural modernization and urban-rural integration can promote the two-way flows of urban and rural elements and build a new urban-rural relationship. Based on the indicator system of agricultural modernization and urban-rural integration and the combined weighting method, this paper calculated agricultural modernization and urban-rural integration indexes of 31 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) from 2004 to 2018 in China, and quantitatively analyzed the coupling relationship of the two systems by the coupling coordination degree model. In addition, this paper further explored the dominant and interaction factors driving the coupling and coordination of two systems by Geodetector. Results show that the spatial layout of provincial agricultural modernization presents the characteristics of “declining echelon, east-west differentiation, and central polarization”, and the spatial layout of provincial urban-rural integration presents the characteristics of “three-pole driving, discontinuously differentiation, and overall low”. The degree of the coupling and coordination between the two systems has been improved from a mild imbalance to a barely coordination, showing a declining characteristic of “high in the east and low in the southwest” in space. Leading factors like the dual contrast coefficient, urbanization rate, urban-rural compulsory education investment ratio, urban-rural unemployment insurance rate, urban-rural income ratio, non-agricultural and agricultural employment ratio, and agricultural electrification are driving the coupling and coordination of agricultural modernization and urban-rural integration. The interaction between industrial structure optimization and other sub-systems will enhance the coupling and coordination as well as the construction of modern agricultural economic system, but the leading factors that promote the coupling and coordination of agricultural modernization and urban-rural integration in the eastern, central, western and northeastern regions show heterogeneous and periodic changes. Therefore, to enhance the coupling and coordination of regional agricultural modernization and urban-rural integration, this paper provides the following suggestions: optimizing the industrial structure, building a modern agricultural economic system, and promoting the equalization of urban and rural public services.
Abstract: With the elimination of absolute poverty, China is facing the challenge of alleviating relative poverty. It is crucial to develop digital inclusive finance to help reduce relative poverty. Based on a field survey data of 426 households in 3 counties and 9 villages in Ningxia and applying the entropy method and the A-F method, this paper analyzed the impacts of digital inclusive finance on multidimensional relative poverty of rural households and its influential mechanism by the Logit model and the mediation effect model. Results show that: Ningxia has basically eliminated the poverty (pin) on economic dimension, but there were serious relative poverty problems (kun), including health, education, drinking water safety, and toilets. Rural households have been partly involved in the settlement, savings, and credit services of digital inclusive finance, but their participation in deep financial services, such as Internet investment and Internet insurance, was still relatively low. Digital inclusive finance had a significant alleviating effect on relative poverty under different weights, and its poverty reduction effect was increasing with the improvement of deprivation dimension. Digital inclusive finance can alleviate relative poverty by improving farmers’ e-commerce willingness and behaviors, enhancing health awareness and promoting consumption. Therefore, to alleviate the relative poverty of rural households in Ningxia, this paper suggests: to pay attention to the improvement of farmers’ self-development ability and rural living standards, to deepen the depth of digital inclusive finance, and to give a full play to the role of digital inclusive finance in poverty reduction and agricultural assistance.
Abstract: The development of rural non-agricultural entrepreneurship not only improves rural household income and living standards, but also promotes the allocation and utilization of land resources, which has an impact on farmland transfer. Based on the data of China Household Finance Survey (CHFS) in 2015, this paper analyzed the impact of household’s non-agricultural entrepreneurship on farmland transfer-out by the Probit model and the Tobit model and further discussed the intermediary role of family insurance programs by constructing an intermediary effect model. Research results show that the proportion of non-agricultural entrepreneurship is 14.6%, not very high, and the participation rates of farmland transfer-out behavior and the average proportion of transfer-out scale are 17.4% and 14.4% respectively, at relatively low levels. Non-agricultural entrepreneurship has a significant role in promoting farmers’ farmland transfer-out behavior and scale. In addition, the analysis of heterogeneity shows that the impact intensity of non-agricultural entrepreneurship of young farmers is significantly higher than that of elderly farmers. Furthermore, non-agricultural entrepreneurship further promotes farmers’ farmland transfer-out behavior and scale by promoting their family participation in insurance programs. Family insurance participation plays a partial mediating role in the process of the impact of non-agricultural entrepreneurship on farmland transfer-out. Therefore, this paper suggests: to promote the transfer of agricultural labor force to non-agricultural work, to implement differentiated policy support and employment guidance based on the development characteristics of farmers and to improve farmers’ insurance participation rate by optimizing the rural security system.
Abstract: As a typical ecological planting and breeding technology, integrated rice-crayfish farming technology can relieve the pressure on resources and environment and effectively increase farm income. Its popularization and sustainable development are important means to promote the transformation of green agricultural development in China. Based on a micro survey data of farmers in Hubei, Hunan and Anhui provinces, this paper analyzed the influences of government intervention and neighborhood effect on farmers’ willingness to continuously adopt integrated rice-crayfish farming technology and explored the interaction effect between the two by the Heckman two-stage model. Results show that farmers’ adoption rate of the integrated rice-crayfish farming technology is high, 86.67% of farmers with clear intention of continuous adoption. Research also finds that technology subsidies have significant positive impacts on farmers’ adoption behaviors, while propaganda policy and punishment measures have significant positive impacts on farmers’ willingness to continuous adoption of the technology. For the neighborhood effect, result shows that neighborhood communication has a significantly positive impact on farmers’ continuous adoption willingness and neighborhood demonstration has a significantly positive impact on farmers’ adoption behaviors. In terms of the impact on farmers’ sustainable adoption intention, the propaganda policy and neighborhood communication have a substitution effect between each other, and the punishment measures and neighborhood communication have a complementary effect. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the government intervention mechanism, to strengthen the communication and interaction between farmers, and to promote the continuous spread of the integrated rice-crayfish farming technology.
Abstract: Studying the vulnerability of rural industrial development from the perspective of farmers is different from traditional studies. Based on relevant vulnerability theories and combining farmers’ subjective feelings towards industrial development with various influencing factors of their livelihood, this paper developed a vulnerability assessment index system incorporating three aspects of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptability to assess the vulnerability of five villages in Qingyuan County of Liaoning Province and discussed its influencing factors. Results show that the overall vulnerability of rural industrial development in Qingyuan County is at the moderately vulnerable level (0.479). Different villages show different levels of vulnerability. The vulnerability in Chuanzigou is the lowest (0.397) because of its strong adaptability and low exposure. In terms of factor analysis, the difference of income security factor among villages is the most obvious: Chuanzigou village has the lowest income security among all the villages. Per capita income of rural households has the greatest impact on the vulnerability. Environmental risk and aging rate also have great impacts on vulnerability. Among different industries, cash crop planting has the most obvious pulling effect on farmers per capita income, which can reduce vulnerability of rural industrial development in Qingyuan County. To reduce the vulnerability, this paper suggests: expanding Chinese herbal medicine industry to promote farmers’ income, focusing on environmental protection practices to retain the “lucid waters and lush mountains”, and addressing human capital shortage problems to promote human capital.
Abstract: Socialized service is an important way to promote the organic connection between farmers and modern agriculture. Based on the data of the Survey on the development index of the New Type of Agricultural Business Entity in China, the paper examines the level of socialized service acquisition by farmers and the level of product quality-safety certification and analyzes the influence of socialized services on farmers’ behavior of quality-safety certification by the IVProbit model. Results show that the average number of social services that farmers obtain is 1.424, and the proportion of farmers who have passed at least one quality-safety certification is 8.5%. Farmers’ behaviors of certification are significantly promoted by socialized services with heterogeneity. Among different parts of socialized services, post-production services have the greatest impact, followed by the pre-production services and in-production services. For different types of farmers, the promotion of small-scale farms is greater than large-scale farms. Research also shows that it is an effective route for farmers’ certification behaviors promoted by socialized services to release constraints on household resource endowment with expand product markets. Therefore, this paper suggests: to promote the supply-side structural reform of socialized services, to implement the incentive policies for small-scale farms to obtain socialized services, and to perfect the influencing path of socialized services on farmers’ certification behaviors.
Abstract: High-quality development of agriculture is an important goal of agricultural supply-side reform. Based on a provincial panel data from 2000 to 2018, this paper constructed an evaluation index system of the high-quality development of agriculture from four dimensions of economic benefit, ecological environment, agricultural modernization level, and rural development level to analyze the high-quality development of agriculture. In addition, this paper also examined the relationship between rural infrastructure and the high-quality development of agriculture by a system generalized method of moments. Results show that the level of high-quality development of agriculture in various provinces and cities from 2000 to 2018 has been steadily improved. And the effects of different rural infrastructure on the high-quality development of agriculture were obviously different. Among them, water conservancy and communication infrastructure had some significant positive effects on the high-quality development of agriculture and rural power and medical infrastructure significantly inhibited the high-quality development of agriculture. While transportation infrastructure had no impacts on it. Therefore, this paper provides the following suggestions to ensure the high-quality development of agriculture in China: strengthening the construction of water conservancy and communication infrastructure, enhancing the maintenance of electric power and medical infrastructure, and increasing investment in transportation infrastructure, especially in the central and western regions.
Abstract: The fluctuation of the small-scale agricultural products price has a great impact on the development of agricultural economy and the improvement of people's living standard. The paper summarizes the causes of price fluctuating of the small-scale agricultural products and brings forward the question that we should strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market. Some methods and recommendations are proposed to strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market: promoting purchasing market, standardizing wholesale market, discovering futures market, and promoting information, nurturing broker, establishing co-operatives, increasing reserves, enacting transactions act, and so on.
Abstract: Using ESDA spatial analysis, this paper researches the spatial pattern evolution and characteristics of per capita net income of farmers in the Yangtze River Delta counties since 1989. The results show that: (1) the absolute difference in per capita net income of farmers is gradually widening, while the relative difference is decreasing with periodic fluctuations; (2)the level of per capita net income of farmers has a strong positive spatial correlation, and the regions with similar income levels have a spatial agglomeration; (3)the growth pattern of per capita net income is proved to be more instable, where its growth hot spots and cold spots switch frequently in their geographical locations, showing the existence of transition phenomenon. Apart from subordinate revenue growth cold spots, trend of spatial concentration enhanced while tendency of random distribution weakened in other growth type areas. Finally, this paper reaches some conclusions and conducts some corresponding discussions. Besides, related suggestions are given to narrow regional differences in Yangtze River Delta counties and promote the regional coordinated development.
Abstract: The revitalization of rural talents is the foundation of rural revitalization. In order to deal with the shortage of rural talents, and make sure that rural talents can play the supporting role in rural revitalization, this paper, taking Qingdao City as an example, summarized and analyzed two ways to promote rural revitalization through rural talent revitalization, which include attracting urban talents and cultivating local talents. Results show that from the perspectives of the shortage of agricultural and rural talents, relative low quality level of talents, the lack of attraction of talents in rural areas, under-optimized rural talent cultivation mechanism, and some other problems, Qingdao City adopted the following measures: increasing the number of talents and improving the talent structure through bringing in, sinking and retaining urban talents in rural areas, constructing the attraction system of urban talents and trying to retain them. At the same time, Qingdao City has built a complete system of local talent cultivation network from the aspects of discovering local talents and training and supporting local talents. In conclusion, Qingdao City has set up a mechanism of encouraging and attracting urban talents with prominent focus, comprehensive coverage and perfect measures, and has set up a mechanism of the cultivation of local talent with integration, cooperation and incentives called “the Qingdao experience”, which is enlightening and worth spreading.
Abstract: Based on the research review, the wine industry has been around all round the world, not only limited in developed counties and western countries. Nowadays, wine consumption in China presents the trend of rapid growing, China’s wine industry cluster develops in a higher level; nonetheless this industry is facing some challenges in China. As such, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the status and developing trends of China’s wine industry from the various aspects namely regional planting, yield, market consumption, and the investment. Data and information from current literatures are used to investigate the conditions of China’s wine industry. It was found that numerous problems impede the development of China’s wine industry including lack of overall planning of the construction of exist producing region, imbalance development between eastern and western areas, poor and lag behind of product quality management and pre-maturation of the marketing system. The article eventually points out some developing strategies involving reasonable layout and enhance competitiveness in overall producing area; set up the wine industry chain management; strengthen origin protection, and improve the quality certification system; use the new marketing and promoting model, to spread wine culture and to promote the sustainable development of China’s wine industry.
Abstract: From the angle of urban and rural aging population inversion phenomenon in China and the challenges brought by it, this paper analyzes the relationship between urbanization and aging population inversion in urban and rural areas in China. In the long term of traditional process of urbanization, population transfer is mainly labor transfer, and the elderly population transfer has been driven by the transfer is limited, thus improve the degree of aging of the rural population and have an impact on the balanced urban and rural development. This population transfer mode is the main reason for the formation of urban and rural aging population inversion. Meanwhile, urban and rural aging population inversion have an impact on urbanization, it not only affects the level and pace of urbanization, but also affects the quality of urbanization. To alleviate this condition, we must take a new urbanizing road, change the urban and rural population transfer mode, and integrate urban and rural social security system.
Abstract: Using grain production panel data in 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2010, this paper adopts a DEA-based Malmquist productivity index method to measure and decompose grain TFP (Total Factor Productivity) growth index of the nation’s main grain production areas, main grain sales areas, and balancing areas. This paper also analyzes the spatial and temporal disparities and the underlying mechanism of dynamic TFP index. On this basis, it continues to explore TFP and its decomposition value - exogenous influencing factor of technical efficiency index and technical progress index. Our results show that the TFP index of main production areas have realized an average annual increase of 0.28% within 10 years, which has benefited from technical improvement and efficiency enhancement. However, main sales areas have suffered from a duel loss in the technical progress and technical efficiency. As a result, TFP has an average annual decrease of 0.35%. TFP in balancing areas also has an average decrease of 0.69%, influenced by deterioration of technical progress. We also find that the implementation of the central government’s favorable policies to farmers has significant influence on improving grain TFP level in main production areas. However, these policies have a lagging influence on main sales areas and balancing areas. In addition, per capital grain production scale and mechanization level have negative influence on TFP growth in main grain production area, but positive influence on TFP in main grain sales areas. As for the grain production-sales balancing areas, expansion of the per capita production scale can improve the technical efficiency, but has a reverse inhibiting impact on TFP and technical progress. Finally, based on the research results, this paper proposes measures and suggestions to improve grain productivity more effectively.
Abstract: This paper analyses the current status of agricultural pollution resulting from overuse of agricultural chemical inputs since the reform and open-up. It turns out that the formation of agricultural pollution is related to agricultural industrial policies, rural-urban economic structure, pollution controlling fund, environmental general management, “agri-environmental” policies, pollution controlling law and farmer’s environmental awareness. In order to cope with agricultural pollution effectively, some measures that have to be taken are as follows: integration of agricultural and environmental policies, establishment of environmental friendly agricultural technology system, implementation of valley comprehensive management, enhancement of environmental management capabilities of agricultural pollution, strengthening of peasants’ environmental education and establishment of agricultural environmental protection law.
Abstract: Large scale is the direction of pig- producing development of China in future, but does not mean breeding
scale the bigger the better. The rationality, scientificalness and suitability of each region pig- producing scale has
determined the effectiveness of pig-producing to a large extent. This paper shows that, from the national average level
to see, the moderate scale has the strongest profitability. Specific to major pig producing provinces, the strongest
profitability of farming was difference in different province. The current pig scale cultivation exist such problems as the
disease prevention and control status not optimum, production cost and the scales price has no advantage and the
standardization level need to improve. Finally, combine the current national and provincial pig scale development
situation and problems, this paper proposed the corresponding countermeasure to promote the healthy development of
Abstract: Clearing up rural poverty, realizing city and country correspond development is long striving aim of Chinese Government. Currently, the quantity of rural poverty population in China has taken on a sharp decline, comparative poverty standing out, returning poverty severity, and overspread to city. This article from economic rising, income distributing, trade freedom, rural labor mobility and finance support agriculture, puts up economics explaining about currently Chinese rural poverty status, Lastly, puts forward relevant policy suggestion of enlarging domestic demand, adjusting income distribution, strengthening education train, adjusting agriculture production structure and method of supporting agriculture.
Abstract: With the increase of the importation scale, the quality and safety of imported whey powder has become the
hot issue which arise a lot of attentions and should be solved urgently. This thesis analyzes the necessities of
establishing the quality and safety risk warning mechanism of imported whey powder, based on the current conditions
of whey powder importation, using the method of warning method based on case study ratiocination, sets up the
imported whey powder quality and safety risk warning mechanism from three aspects, including warning information
gathering, warning model building and fast response system, and puts forwards the countermeasures of consummating
the warning system
Abstract: From the perspectives of nature, human, and carrying capacity and applying the entropy and linear weighted comprehensive methods, this paper constructed an evaluation system to assess the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province from 2001 to 2016. In addition, this paper also examined the main obstacles affecting the vulnerability. Results show that the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in 9 cities in Henan Province decreased from 2001 to 2016, while it increased in the other 9 cities; and the vulnerability growth rate varied significantly. The evolution trend of vulnerability could be divided into four types: increasing first and then decreasing, decreasing first and then increasing, increasing with some fluctuations, and decreasing with some fluctuations. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province illustrated a concentrating characteristic in its spatial distribution with the decreasing order as follows: Northern Henan, Eastern Henan, Southern Henan, Central Henan, and Western Henan. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in municipalities was mainly affected by human and carrying capacity, and the main obstacle factors were different. In order to achieve the coordinated development of agricultural production and water resource utilization in Henan Province, this paper suggests that human intervention in water resource system should be positively strengthened by increasing investment in agricultural funds, improving the level of farmland water conservancy construction, and promoting agricultural water use efficiency.
Abstract: This paper try to comparative multi-function of urban modern agriculture of Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou for example, and use the method of combing static and dynamic and of combing qualitative and quantitative to comparative and analyze the urban modern agriculture functions of economy, ecology and society. It can be seen that the differences on economic mainly in the difference of structure of agricultural land only for the difference of types of terrain of three cities, which affect the structure of agriculture industry. Ratio of agro-structural change decreases gradually. Advantage indexes of animal husbandry and fisheries of Shanghai are higher, farming, fisheries and agricultural services of Nanjing, forestry and animal husbandry of Hangzhou are higher as well. The production capacity of vegetables of Shanghai and the production capacity of grain of Nanjing and the production capacity of fruit of Hangzhou is higher than that of others separately in 2010. Secondly, the value of farmland ecosystem carbon sequestration and oxygen releasing of Nanjing is lowest in 2010. Optimal adjustment of the agricultural space layout maintains the ecological environment. The pesticide and chemical fertilizer excessive remains a serious problem. Lastly, agricultural tourism of three cities is in the leisure stage towards the holiday stage. Meanwhile, the three cities take different leisure agriculture development models, and achieve results in employment and economic benefits.
Abstract: The paper applies the model of Stochastic Dominance in analyzing the regional advantages of feeding dairy
cows, studies show that the coast region in north of China and the Yellow River region have the advantages of feeding
dairy cows, including Tianjin and Hebei, the most significant comparative advantage, followed by Shandong, Henan
and Shaanxi. The factors of cost advantages of feeding dairy cows are analyzed from the perspectives of technical level,
elements of cost and natural resource endowment, results showed that: the factors of cost advantages are
comprehensive. Some suggestions put forward, that including accelerating construction and layout of dairy farming
regions to develop the model with regional comparative advantages; through supporting and promoting the development
of dairy cooperatives to improve the degree of organization
Abstract: Along with the intelligence and automation improving in agricultural machinery, the application of steering-by-wire technology in agricultural vehicles such as tractors has received concerns and researches. In order to guide the study of hydraulic steering-by-wire of tractor and to shorten the development cycle, a co-simulation model was built based on the analysis of hydraulic steering-by-wire system control algorithm and structure. The hydraulic system and full vehicle model were built on AMESim software platform. Meantime, PID, fuzzy PID and fuzzy immune PID control modeling were constructed by using Simulink software. While Visual C++ 6.0 was chosen to realize interface communication, the angle response and angle following co-simulation were completed with angle transmission ratio 1; as well as the co-simulation of yawing angular velocity response and centroid side-slip angle response under the speed of 15 km/h, the steering wheel Angle 180°, angle transmission ratio 9. The experimental results show that step response time achieves 0.272 s with fuzzy immune PID control, following error of 1.182°, 3% overshoot amount of the yawing angular velocity response, and 0.85°/s steady-state value of centroid side-slip angle response, they both prevail over the performance of common PID and fuzzy PID. In conclusion, co-simulation maintains a strong reference value, and an ideal control effect is able to achieve while fuzzy immune PID control are applied into hydraulic steering-by-wire system.
Abstract: The industrial base of rice such as enrichment of rice resources, preferable processing industry foundation and high quality and massive market demand in Heilongjiang Province were analyzed. Some advantages such as good ecological environment, less chemical pollution and larger quantity of high quality rice were also analyzed. The problems such as serious degradation of rice, lack of alternative rice, inadequate processing enterprises, severe losses of processing enterprises, inefficient logistics and lack of policy support and financial support from relevant government and financial department were also analyzed. Some countermeasures such as increasing investment in seed research, speeding up the seed base construction, introducing the market access system, gradually dissolving the backward production capacity, developing the food logistics and intensifying policy support etc were put forward for promoting the development of rice industry.
Abstract: Compared with the traditional sieve-pipette method, the laser diffraction method is a new technology for determination of soil particle size distribution, which has obvious advantages in measurement efficiency and operation error reducing. However, the laser diffraction method always underestimates the clay content. In order to set up the conversion models, 70 soil samples selected from karst areas of Northwest Guangxi were measured by Mastersize2000 laser diffraction and the sieve-pipette method. The results showed that based on the classification criteria of USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), the clay volume content (< 0.002 mm) using the laser diffraction method was lower than that using the sieve-pipette method, while the silt volume content (0.002 mm - 0.05 mm) was higher. The relative errors of the clay and silt contents increased with the increase of clay content measured by sieve-pipette. The sand content was sometimes higher and sometimes lower with the lowest relative error. Significant relationships were found between the clay and sand contents determined by the two methods, but not between the silt content. However, the < 0.02 mm content measured by the two methods was significantly correlated. The laser diffraction measured results of soil particle size distribution could be converted by the linear regression equation of the following four particles grades including < 0.002 mm, < 0.02 mm, 0.02 mm- 0.05 mm and > 0.05 mm.
Abstract: The federal government of United States will manage the risk of farm production and farm business through a range of support programs, which are collectively known as the farm safety net including commodity programs mainly for the market risk, crop insurance programs mainly for the natural risk and agricultural disaster assistance programs for the risk not covered by the above two plans. 2014 United States farm bill adjusted the content and structure of the farm safety net, trying to build an organic combination among commodity programs ,crop insurance programs and agricultural disaster assistance programs, focus on subsidies efficiency and strengthen risk management. The new farm safety net could make AMS no more against American reduction commitments, increase American potential range of agricultural products trade disputes, and reduce the willingness of the USA to cut “yellow box policy” subsidies in the new WTO agreement, which have an important impact on world trade of agricultural products. The new farm safety net will aggravate the pressure of imports of agricultural products for China, and have the following enlightenment to agricultural subsidy policy reform of China: continue to intensify protection of support; adhere to the market-oriented reform direction; improve the agricultural insurance system.
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