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    2021,42(1):1-9, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0022
    Abstract:
    The future development of pig breeding is to carry out intelligent breeding models, which is based on the dynamic collection of the scale information of the pig breeding industry chain. The intelligent control of pig breeding process, which is the central link of pig industrial chain, is the short board that urgently needs to be strengthened in the transformation and upgrading of pig breeding in China. Pig behaviors are the most informative carrier in the breeding process, and it is an important evaluation basis for the sports function, health state and mental state of pigs. In this review, the detailed classification of pig behaviors are comprehensively sorts out. The effects on pig behaviors from heredity, nutritional status, dietary composition, breeding environment, breeding management and pig’s health status were analyzed. The pig behaviors monitoring methods based on sensors, machine vision and sound are summarized. The challenge of pig behaviors monitoring technology development is also pointed out. The monitoring of pig behavior provides another powerful data grasp for intelligent pig breeding, which can be used to real-time monitor the health and welfare status of pigs in the breeding process and will promote the development of pig breeding process intelligent control.
    2021,42(1):10-17, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0001
    Abstract:
    The development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt is one of the major regional coordinated development strategies being implemented in China. The Yangtze River Economic Belt occupies an extremely important strategic position in the overall situation of national agriculture and even the entire economic development. The rice farming cultural heritage in the Yangtze River Economic Belt is an important agricultural and cultural heritage in China and the world. The cultural heritage of rice farming in the Yangtze River Economic Belt has the characteristics of large quantity, wide distribution, and long history. The cultural heritage of rice farming in the Yangtze River Economic Belt has social value, economic value, ecological value, cultural value, scientific and technological value, and global value. In the future, in order to realize the inheritance value and sustainable development of the cultural heritage of rice farming in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, this paper suggests raising awareness, increasing investment, strengthening research and development, and carrying out cooperation, strict protection and strict management of the Yangtze River Economic Belt.
    2021,42(1):18-29, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0095
    Abstract:
    Implementing the rural revitalization strategy and promoting the development of urban-rural integration are important national strategic deployment goals in the new era. Rural green development has become the basic principle and inevitable requirement, which is related to the well-beings of urban and rural residents. Based on the concept of green development, rural realities and new urban-rural relationship, this paper systematically discussed the scientific connotation of rural green development from three levels of essence, process, and results, clarified the goals and theoretical basis of rural green development, and constructed a framework for designing rural green development paths. Results show that rural green development mainly focuses on the unity and sublimation of sustainable utilization of resources, green development of agriculture, coordination of urban and rural relations, renovation of rural living environment and remodeling of local complex. Continuity, economy, suitability, coordination, and accessibility are the basic requirements. Rural green development takes the rural quadrant space and a pair of relationships as the basic path, in which ecological conservation is the foundation, green production is the focus, good life is the foothold, cultural remodeling is cohesion, and urban-rural integration is an external thrust. To promote the real conversion of “green” into development in rural areas, this paper provides following policy suggestions: to identify and manage the spatial distribution of the quantity and quality of rural resources, to rationally control the direct and indirect squeeze of urbanization on rural space, to jointly promote rural governance of modernization with local cultural conditions, to evaluate the rural ecological value scientifically, and to explore the conversion path of ecological value into human value, economic value, life value and cultural value.
    2021,42(1):30-38, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0002
    Abstract:
    It is significant for China’s rural vitalization strategy to improve the strength and the guiding role of rural collective economic organizations. In the past, the collectivization ended with failures, and currently there are still some problems in the reform of the rural collective property right system and the development of new collective economic organizations. Therefore, the experiences from foreign countries can provide some implications for China. Beginning with the institutions of the Kibbutzim and the backgrounds of the reform, this paper tried to uncover the nature of the reform through a detailed analysis of the contents, the route and the impacts of the reform based on a literature review and an on-site survey in Israel. Results show that the Kibbutzim’s reform, in nature, is the process of bettering the organization by the separation of ownership and management rights and also a process of reducing the cost by limiting welfare distributions. Furthermore, the reform has been aimed at improving the operational efficiency rather than abolishing the collective ownership system. Meanwhile, the experiences and lessons are obtained from the Kibbutzim’s reform, which is in relation to pushing forward the rural collective economy. The study also implies that the healthy development of the new rural collective economy depends on the members’ devotion to communalism, the independence of the new collective economic organizations and the completeness of the collective economic organization system.
    2021,42(1):39-48, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0006
    Abstract:
    Promoting the high-quality development of rural towns with agricultural characteristics is of great significance for boosting rural revitalization and modernization, and it will usher in new opportunities in the 14th five-year period. Taking the Northern International Seed and Seedling Town as an example, this paper analyzed its industrial development foundation, explored its development strategies from the construction of the whole industrial chain, linkage of functional systems, integration of industry and city, and other fields, and summarized its implementation path from the aspects of industrial decision making, policy support, system planning, operation mode, and project implementation. Results show that rural town’s agricultural features can build the whole industry chain wisdom circulation, identify key industries, promote the coordinated development of tertiary industry, promote the construction of the depth of fusion system of the cities, and incorporate some new elements into the system, including the ecological+, wisdom+, health+, and culture+ industries. However, during the development process, some problems should be avoided, including uniformed functions and town homogeneity. To promote the sustainable development and modernization of rural towns with agricultural characteristics, this paper suggests to upgrade the core support policy, to build more integrated “1+N” models, to enhance multilateral collaborations, and to create a stage by stage development plan.
    2021,42(1):49-56, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0098
    Abstract:
    The visual identification system (VIS), as a modern scientific method to implement the visual communications efficiently and accurately, is an effective technology to build the distinctive influence and image of the enterprises, public institutions, organizations, and groups. Based on the supporting role that the VIS played in rural revitalization planning and taking the industrial revitalization planning of ecological organic agriculture industry and rural cultural tourism industry in Zixi County, Jiangxi Province as examples, this paper analyzed the methods of the research and the construction of rural revitalization planning, the VIS, and the related issues in rural areas. Results show that the VIS played a unique role in industrial upgrading, social governance, and ecological civilization construction during the process of promoting rural economic development and rural modernization. Therefore, this paper suggests that the VIS construction in rural areas should be combined with rural revitalization planning, especially the needs of industrial revitalization and governance system construction. And the design of the VIS also should consider the comprehensive location advantage of rural industry development, natural resource characteristics, and the features of industry and products. In addition, through this case study, this paper conducted a thorough analysis of the overall VIS design and industry planning in Zixi, which includes two key components: 1) the primary basis, integrating the rural characteristics, the connotations, and the reputation image into the rural revitalization plan together; and 2) the application component, systematically connecting all the different sections of the rural revitalization strategy to utilize their directional, practical, and integral functions reasonably and respectively. In summary, this paper suggests to require a thorough study of the characteristics and methods of the VIS design and construction and to make it an effective tool for promoting rural revitalization and agricultural modernization.
    2021,42(1):57-66, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0005
    Abstract:
    As an effective form of industrial poverty alleviation, rural tourism plays an important role in driving rural economic development, promoting agricultural transformation, and upgrading and increasing farmers’ income and wealth. Taking Leiyingzi village in Chifeng City as an example and applying the Actor Network Theory, this paper analyzes the composition and translation process of the actor network of poverty alleviation of rural tourism, and discusses the mode and mechanism of poverty alleviation through rural tourism. Results show that: poverty alleviation through rural tourism in Leiyingzi village is an actor network composed of heterogeneous actors such as the government, village committee, local cooperatives, tourism companies, tourists, natural environment, and tourism resources. Among these actors, the village committee, cooperatives, and tourism companies play as the key role actors. Within the framework of the actor network, Leiyingzi village has built a model of poverty alleviation through rural tourism as “leading by the village committee, cooperative operation, collective income and increasing income for poor households”. Leiyingzi village has formed the mechanism of “three help and two alleviation”, namely industry, companies, and rich families helping alleviate poverty, additionally, poverty alleviation by employment and by service. The poor villagers have been lifted out of poverty through asset transfer, entrepreneurship, employment, and dividends. However, there are many challenges in the process of rural tourism poverty alleviation in Leiyingzi, including the villagers’ weak right of speech, the lack of rural tourism talents, the inadequate supervision of cooperatives and tourism companies, and the poor villagers’ low participation. Therefore, to promote the sustainable development of rural tourism and the improvement of tourism poverty alleviation efficiency, this paper suggests that the grassroots party organizations should further play the leading role, more new actors should be included, and farmers’ rights should be protected and strengthened.
    2021,42(1):67-77, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2014.00
    Abstract:
    The growth path of China’s grain production is determined by agricultural factor endowment change and induced technology change. Based on the 1978—2018 provincal panel data of corn production, this paper studies the changes of factors’ substitution elasticities and identifies whether it has happened labour-saving induced technological change by a logarithm production function. Furtherly, this paper aalso explores the growth path of China’s corn production by the method of single factor productivity and two-dimensional phase diagram. China’s corn production appears to have an obvious tendency of labor saving with regional difference of elasticities of mechanical-labor substitution among Northeast China, Huang-Huai-Hai region, and Western China; while the development trend of its elasticity is cornverging. The growth path of China’s corn production has undergone a historic transformation from land productivity orientation to labor productivity orientation since the 21st century. It is consistant with the third path of replying on improving land productivity to promote labor productivity growth. The implications of the conclusion lie in that it is necessary to promote agricultural mechanization according to local conditions, including strengthening the research of agricultural machinery suitable for mountainous areas, promoting cultivated land suitable for mechanization in hilly and mountainous areas, and developing socialized services of agricultural machinery. At the same time, it is necessary to develop land-saving technologies, including improved seed cultivation, green control of diseases and pests, fertilizer and pestcide reduction, and other biochemical technological progress.
    2021,42(1):78-84, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0011
    Abstract:
    Grain security is an important foundation of national security. With the strengthening of the trend of farmers’ part-time employment, the rural labor force is constantly losing, and the production outsourcing service market is developing continuously. In this context, the influence of the farmers’ part-time employment and production outsourcing on the “grain-oriented planting structure” has attracted the attention of all sectors of the society. Based on a survey data of nine provinces in China, this paper investigates the logic and causal relationship among farmers’ part-time employment, production outsourcing and “grain-oriented planting structure” by constructing a mediating effect test model. Results show that: both farmers’ part-time employment and production outsourcing can induce farmers to grow grain crops, and farmers’ part-time employment can not only directly affect the adjustment of agricultural planting structure, but also partially and indirectly affect the “grain-oriented planting structure” through production outsourcing. In addition, gender, age, total household income, village topography and transportation facilities also have significant effects on the adjustment of grain planting structure. Therefore, in order to guide the “grain trend” of farmers’ planting structure and ensure national grain security, this paper suggests to reasonably guide the outflow of rural labor force to coordinate urban and rural development, to promote the development and improvement of agricultural production outsourcing market to improve the outsourcing service rate in the process of agricultural production, and to formulate reasonable price support policies to protect farmers’ enthusiasm for growing grains.
    2021,42(1):85-93, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0099
    Abstract:
    In 2019, the No. 1 Document of China’s Central Government pointed out to explore subsidies by rewards to local governments who carried out agricultural insurance premium subsidy policies for agricultural products with advantages and characteristics. Taking Wuhan vegetable market as an example, this study seeks to investigate whether local agricultural insurance premium subsidy policies reduce agricultural product market risks by the GARCH model. Results show that after the implementation of the vegetable insurance policy, among the 20 vegetable varieties studied, the price volatility of 14 vegetable varieties has been significantly reduced. This means that the implementation of vegetable insurance premium subsidy policies of the Wuhan Government reduced most kinds of vegetable price volatility. The implementation of Wuhan vegetable agricultural insurance premium subsidy policy shows that the implementation of local agricultural insurance can not only protect the interests of agricultural producers, but also stabilize the vegetable market and reduce the fluctuation of vegetable prices. This paper provided some empirical evidence for the effectiveness of the implementation of vegetable insurance premium subsidy policies in Wuhan and also confirmed the role and functions of local agricultural insurance policies. In addition, this study also identified a successful example for alleviating the price fluctuations of other agricultural products. Currently, there are no uniform vegetable insurance premium subsidy measures at the provincial level in Hubei Province. To stabilize vegetable production in Hubei Province, relevant departments may consider gradually developing vegetable policy agricultural insurance across the province.
    2021,42(1):94-102, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0012
    Abstract:
    To realize the development of agricultural modernization, it is necessary to promote the moderate scale operation of agriculture. The practice showed that the implementation of agricultural scale operation was to obtain the benefits not only from the returns to scale effect, but also from the market power effect. Applying a Cobb-Douglas function, this paper established an functional relationship between yield and price increment, developed a concept of yield elasticity coefficient of price increment, and constructed a theoretical model of agricultural scale economies with market power effect by dividing agricultural scale economies into three stages, including “returns to scale effect stage”, “returns to scale effect + market power effect stage”, and “market power effect stage”. Furthermore, this paper also tested the market power effect of agricultural scale based on a survey data. Results showed that: 1) Compared with labor force, land and capital have more significant effects on agricultural scale economies; and 2) The market power effect of ordinary farms was weak, which was in the stage of “returns to scale effect”, while the market power effect of large scale farms was strong because the returns to scale effect was still positive and it was in the stage of “returns to scale effect + market power effect”.
    2021,42(1):103-111, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0009
    Abstract:
    Based on an unbalanced panel data of beef cattle breeding costs and benefits in 15 provinces from 2013 to 2018, and applying the Metafrontier-Malmquist index in the non-parametric Metafrontier analysis method, this paper empirically studied the spatio-temporal differentiation characteristics of the total factor productivity (TFP) and its decomposition of beef cattle in eastern, central and western China. Results show that the technical efficiency level in the east is the highest, reaching 0.8453, followed by the middle with the value of 0.7709, and the lowest in the west with the value of 0.7271. The technical efficiency in the central region is catching up with that in the eastern region, and the gap between the two is decreasing gradually. The gap between the technical efficiencies in the western region and the eastern and central regions is gradually expanding, and the technical efficiency level in the western region continues to decline. The growth rate of the TFP in the Metafrontier of beef cattle production in the east is lower than that in the west but higher than that in the central region. The average annual growth rate of the TFP in the Metafrontier of beef cattle production in western China is the only region that grows, mainly due to the technological progress. The annual growth rate of central China is at the lowest level, because the decrease of the technical efficiency leads to the decrease of the TFP directly. In the summary, this paper provides the following suggestions to promote the rapid development of the national beef industry: increasing the investment and promotion of beef cattle industry technology, focusing on supporting the beef cattle industry in the western region, deeply exploring and stimulating the potential of beef cattle breeding in the western region, giving a full play to the industrial advantages of the eastern and central regions, and showing the exemplary leadership role of the advantageous regions.
    2021,42(1):112-122, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0100
    Abstract:
    Understanding the preference and the willingness to pay (WTP) of urban consumers for low-carbon agricultural products and the sources of preference heterogeneity is of great significance for reducing carbon emissions and promoting sustainable agricultural development. Based on a data of 786 urban milk consumers in Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou, this paper adopted the choice experiment method to explore the preference and WTP of two types of consumer groups that usually buy long-shelf-life milk or fresh milk for carbon footprint labeled milk by the mixed Logit model. Results indicate that: when consumers understand the basic meaning of carbon footprint label both types of consumer groups have a significant positive preference for milk with low-carbon and medium-carbon footprint label with a complementary relationship between low-carbon footprint label and whole milk label. In addition, the average WTPs for milk with low-carbon footprint label from consumer group that usually buys long-shelf-life milk and from consumer group that usually buys fresh milk were 4.13 yuan/box and 5.63 yuan/box respectively. Furtherly, the preferences of two consumer groups for milk with carbon footprint label are heterogeneous and the sources of preference heterogeneity were different: the long-shelf-life milk consumers with younger age, higher monthly income, more frequent purchase, and more knowledge about carbon footprint label prefer to buy milk with a low-carbon footprint label; while fresh milk consumers with being a male, younger age, higher education, and being more concerned about low-carbon information prefer to buy milk with low-carbon footprint label. Finally, consumers’ perception of the role of low-carbon agricultural products positively influences their low-carbon preference in both consumer groups. Therefore, this paper suggests that the government and relevant institutions should improve the low-carbon product certification system, strengthen the promotion of carbon footprint label and popularize knowledge about low-carbon agricultural products to consumers. From the business perspective, they should focus on low-carbon market segmentation.
    2021,42(1):123-131, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0004
    Abstract:
    Soil testing and formula fertilization technology is not only conducive to reduce the application of chemical fertilizers, but also conducive to control agricultural non-point source pollution and to help farmers reduce costs and increase income, which is an important way to achieve sustainable development of agriculture. Based on the rational smallholder theory and a survey data of planting family farms in northeast China, this paper examined the influences of the adoption behaviors of soil testing and formula fertilizer technology by family farms, and explored the income effect of the adoption of the technology by the endogenous switching regression model. Results show that the adoption rate of soil testing and formula fertilization technology is low, only 44.62% of the surveyed farms. Research also finds that the age of the household head has a negative impact on the adoption of this technology, and education level, agricultural technology training, risk preference, business scale, land transfer period, and demonstration farms have significant positive impacts on family farm’s adoption of this technology. In addition, education level, training in agricultural technology, risk preference, and demonstration farms have significant influences on farm income. Large scale family farms have the best income increase by adopting this technology. The study further confirms that the soil testing and formula fertilization technology has a significant positive income effect, which can significantly improve farm income. Therefore, this paper suggests to enhance the promotion mechanism of the soil testing and fertilizer technology, to increase the accumulation of human capital level of family farms, to improve the constraint conditions of the application of soil testing and formula fertilization technology, to improve the risk compensation mechanism, and to advocate the family farm moderate scale management.
    2021,42(1):132-141, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0014
    Abstract:
    The Dongting Lake region is the transitional zone and important node between the Yangtze River Economic Belt and the South China Economic Circle, and its ecological security plays an important strategic role in the socioeconomic development of the Yangtze River Basin and even the whole country. Taking the city of Changde in the Dongting Lake as an example in this paper, the ecological security of the region is comprehensively evaluated, through the improved Pressure-State-Response model based on AHP and entropy weight method to determine the index weight, and the main factors of impacting ecological security are analyzed by grey relational grade method. The results show that: 1) the whole ecological security in Dongting Lake region has been improved, the level of ecological security has increased from the level ofless secure to more secure during 2013-2018, and the comprehensive index of ecological security has increased from 0.301 to 0.603. The pressure index of ecological security in this study region was slightly decreased, whereas the state index and the response index of ecological security increased. 2) The ecological security of Dongting Lake is mainly affected by industrial wastewater discharge, proportion of protected area, excellent rate of air quality index, population density and other factors. The main problems in Dongting Lake are water shortage, serious water pollution and unreasonable industrial structure. For further ecological security improvement in Donting Lake, it is suggested to follow the principle of harmony between human and nature and should control the wastewater discharge strictly, limit the scale of high-water-consumption industry, optimize the ecological security pattern, and explore the mechanisms and pathways to realize the value of ecological products for Dongting Lake wetlands.
    2021,42(1):142-152, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0003
    Abstract:
    China’s rural reforms have eliminated barriers to labor mobility, and migrant labors continue to move to cities. Understanding the decision-making mechanism of migrant labors’ choice of working location helps to understand the migration tendency of rural labors and the internal reasons at the micro level. Based on the 2014 and 2016 China labor dynamics survey (CLDS) data and applying the ordinary least square and two-stage least square models, this study systematically examined the impacts of children’s gender on the choice of working place by migrant labors. Results show that the income of migrant workers who working away from home are relatively higher, and they are more likely to choose to work away from home when they have a boy. If the first child is a boy, migrant workers are more likely to work away from home. From the perspective of children’s growth stage, when the child is in the infant stage and compulsory education stage, children’s gender has almost no effect on migrant labors. However, when the child is in the marriage stage, boy will significantly increase the possibility of working away from home and after the child’s family stabilizes, the effect of children’s gender is no longer significant. In particular, this study confirms that the synergistic effects of boy preference on children’s gender and when the child is in the marring stage, purchasing or building a house will increase the possibility of migrant labors working away from home. Therefore, this paper suggests to create an equal social environment between men and women, actively implement the supporting policies related to the two-child policy, and further promote the integration of urban and rural development.
    2021,42(1):153-164, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0016
    Abstract:
    Climate change affects the comparative advantage of crops by changing the environmental endowment. In the context of the “soybean revitalization plan” proposed by the “No. 1 document” of the Central Government in 2019, will farmers adjust the planting structure or the input of means of production according to climate? How will it affect soybean planting acreage? What is the mechanism of reactions? Based on 3 560 samples of 178 cities from 1998 to 2017, this paper investigated the effects of climate change on soybean planting acreage by the Dynamic Panel Differential Generalized Moment Model (DIF-GMM). Results show that sunshine duration, temperature and precipitation affect the proportion of soybean planting acreage. Further analysis of the mechanism shows that climate change mainly affects the proportion of soybean planting acreage by affecting soybean yield per unit area. Farmers’ adaptive behaviors play a regulatory role in the impact of climate change on the proportion of soybean acreage. Among them, irrigation, plastic film, and chemical fertilizer have some positive regulatory effects on the impact of temperature on soybean acreage, and irrigation is the main factor to adjust the change of precipitation. At the same time, the import volume, relative income, and production costs are also the important factors affecting the proportion of soybean planting acreage. On this basis, this paper also uses the Panel Vector Autoregressive Model (PVAR) to predict the path and the extent of the dynamic impact of climate change and farmers’ adaptive behaviors on the proportion of soybean acreage in the next decade. Results show that in the short term, the amount of chemical fertilizer and plastic film will affect the proportion of soybean acreage through the adjustment of climate change. Sunshine duration, precipitation, irrigation and the use of plastic film will have a long-term impact on the proportion of soybean acreage.
    2021,42(1):165-174, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0017
    Abstract:
    Guangxi is the largest sugarcane planting area and sucrose industry base in China, but its production has been seriously lost due to natural disasters for years. Therefore, timely and accurate acquisition of phenological dynamics of sugarcane can provide scientific support for the optimization of regional sugarcane planting structure, and disaster risk management. In this paper, the time-series reconstruction of MODIS-LAI data of inversed sugarcane in Guangxi from 2014 to 2018 was carried out by Savitzky-Golay filtering, Asymmetric Gauss fitting, and Double Logistic fitting methods, respectively. The spatio-temporal variation characteristics of key phenological features of sugarcane were identified by the dynamic threshold method. The results showed that: 1) The above mentioned methods could effectively eliminate unstable fluctuations and singular values of time-series LAI of sugarcane in Guangxi. The Asymmetric Gauss and Double fitting results of logistical method made up the disadvantage of local curve value fluctuation in S-G filtering process and could more accurately identify the growth processes of sugarcane; 2) The RMSE and average error for identification of the seeding-germination, stem elongation and the beginning of maturity period of sugarcane in Guangxi by the proposed three methods were within ±15d, whereas Asymmetric Gauss method was the best method to extract phenological period of sugarcane. This study indicated that the time series curve reconstruction method has good anti-interference performance, which can make up for the time-series LAI caused by cloudy, rainy, and complex terrain conditions. Our proposed method, to a certain extent, and ensure the accuracy of sugarcane phenological inversion in Guangxi.
    2021,42(1):175-183, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0008
    Abstract:
    The combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers in farmland promotes the recycling of organic waste, and has also effects on improving soil properties and increasing nutrient utilization efficiency. In this study, a field experiment with four treatments, that is no nitrogen fertilizer (N0), half of the nitrogen fertilizer (1/2N), 100% of the nitrogen fertilizer (N) and pig manure substituting 50% of the chemical nitrogen fertilizer (1/2N+M), was conducted to explore the effects of combined application of chemical fertilizers and pig manure on soil nitrogen contents and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in the double rice cropping system in Changsha county, Hunan Province, so as to provide theoretical support for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers. The soil total nitrogen (STN), available nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N), microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN), rice yield and rice nitrogen contents were measured in four rice seasons in the 5 and 6 years after the beginning of the field experiment. The results showed that STN increased significantly by 19% in the 1/2N+M treatment as compared with the N treatment, while STN decreased significantly by 20% in the N0 treatment. Soil NH4+-N contents significantly increased in the late rice season in the 1/2N+M treatment as compared with the N treatment. Rice nitrogen uptake was mainly positively correlated with nitrogen application rate, STN, soil NH4+-N and SMBN contents. In the two-year experiment, the rice nitrogen uptake and NUE in the late rice season for the 1/2N+M treatment increased significantly by 9.2%~18.0% and 19.6%~43.0%, respectively, as compared with the N treatment. However, there were no significant increase or decrease of these parameters in the early rice season. This study indicates that combined application of chemical fertilizers and pig manure can increase soil nitrogen availability, reducing chemical fertilizers application, and increasing nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency in the late rice season in the double rice cropping system.
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    Available online:  January 08, 2021 , DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2021.0007
    Abstract:
    Agricultural mechanization is an important driving force for the transformation from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture, while farmers’ adoption behavior of agricultural machinery determines the level of agricultural mechanization. Based on the survey data of highland barley planting farmers in Tibet, this paper analyses the relationship among market participation, off-farm employment, and farmers’ adoption behavior of agricultural machinery from the perspective of income effect and substitution effect by a Multivariate Ordered Probit model. Results show that, 32.89% of highland barley planting farmers are non-mechanized, and agricultural machinery used by farmers in underdeveloped areas is insufficient. Market participation and off-farm employment have a significant positive influence on farmers’ adoption behavior of agricultural machinery, and off-farm employment has a positive moderating effect between market participation and adoption behavior of agricultural machinery. Improving farmers’ ability and behavior of market participation can directly affect farmers’ adoption behavior of agricultural machinery, and it can also indirectly affect farmers’ adoption behavior of agricultural machinery by off-farm employment. Therefore, this paper suggests to improve the degree of market participation, to promote the off-farm employment of farmers, to develop the rural market economy, to consummate the agricultural machinery service market, and to improve the level of agricultural mechanization in underdeveloped areas.
    Available online:  January 08, 2021 , DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0083
    Abstract:
    Increasing the willingness of migrant workers to settle down in cities is an important way to promote the urbanization development of the registered population. However, the current enthusiasm of migrant workers to settle down in cities is not very high and it is not optimistic to improve the urbanization rate of the registered population. Based on the dynamic monitoring survey data of the national floating population (CMDS) and the push-pull theory, this paper investigated the influencing mechanism of land resource endowment on the willingness of migrant workers to settle down in cities by the binary Logit model and the mediating effect model. Results show that: the willingness of migrant workers to settle down in cities is low, accounting for only 48.91%. The proportions of migrant workers owning contracted land and homestead are 61.40% and 71.71%, respectively. The land resource endowment significantly inhibits the willingness of migrant workers to settle down in cities. The identity and social interaction have significant impacts and the social security plays a significant negative regulating role. In addition, this research also finds that land transfer can increase the willingness of migrant workers to settle down in cities. Therefore, this paper provides the following policy suggestions: to remove the institutional obstacles for migrant workers to settle down in cities and to create a way out for migrant workers through land transfer to enhance the flexibility of China’s social structure and to maintain social stability.
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    2011,32(2):184-187, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1222) [HTML] (0) [PDF 667.68 K] (12788)
    Abstract:
    The fluctuation of the small-scale agricultural products price has a great impact on the development of agricultural economy and the improvement of people's living standard. The paper summarizes the causes of price fluctuating of the small-scale agricultural products and brings forward the question that we should strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market. Some methods and recommendations are proposed to strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market: promoting purchasing market, standardizing wholesale market, discovering futures market, and promoting information, nurturing broker, establishing co-operatives, increasing reserves, enacting transactions act, and so on.
    2014,35(3):308-312, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1500) [HTML] (0) [PDF 18.14 M] (5651)
    Abstract:
    Using ESDA spatial analysis, this paper researches the spatial pattern evolution and characteristics of per capita net income of farmers in the Yangtze River Delta counties since 1989. The results show that: (1) the absolute difference in per capita net income of farmers is gradually widening, while the relative difference is decreasing with periodic fluctuations; (2)the level of per capita net income of farmers has a strong positive spatial correlation, and the regions with similar income levels have a spatial agglomeration; (3)the growth pattern of per capita net income is proved to be more instable, where its growth hot spots and cold spots switch frequently in their geographical locations, showing the existence of transition phenomenon. Apart from subordinate revenue growth cold spots, trend of spatial concentration enhanced while tendency of random distribution weakened in other growth type areas. Finally, this paper reaches some conclusions and conducts some corresponding discussions. Besides, related suggestions are given to narrow regional differences in Yangtze River Delta counties and promote the regional coordinated development.
    2014,35(2):183-187, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1309) [HTML] (0) [PDF 970.61 K] (3902)
    Abstract:
    Based on the research review, the wine industry has been around all round the world, not only limited in developed counties and western countries. Nowadays, wine consumption in China presents the trend of rapid growing, China’s wine industry cluster develops in a higher level; nonetheless this industry is facing some challenges in China. As such, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the status and developing trends of China’s wine industry from the various aspects namely regional planting, yield, market consumption, and the investment. Data and information from current literatures are used to investigate the conditions of China’s wine industry. It was found that numerous problems impede the development of China’s wine industry including lack of overall planning of the construction of exist producing region, imbalance development between eastern and western areas, poor and lag behind of product quality management and pre-maturation of the marketing system. The article eventually points out some developing strategies involving reasonable layout and enhance competitiveness in overall producing area; set up the wine industry chain management; strengthen origin protection, and improve the quality certification system; use the new marketing and promoting model, to spread wine culture and to promote the sustainable development of China’s wine industry.
    2020,41(2):181-189, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0019
    [Abstract] (551) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.20 M] (3866)
    Abstract:
    The revitalization of rural talents is the foundation of rural revitalization. In order to deal with the shortage of rural talents, and make sure that rural talents can play the supporting role in rural revitalization, this paper, taking Qingdao City as an example, summarized and analyzed two ways to promote rural revitalization through rural talent revitalization, which include attracting urban talents and cultivating local talents. Results show that from the perspectives of the shortage of agricultural and rural talents, relative low quality level of talents, the lack of attraction of talents in rural areas, under-optimized rural talent cultivation mechanism, and some other problems, Qingdao City adopted the following measures: increasing the number of talents and improving the talent structure through bringing in, sinking and retaining urban talents in rural areas, constructing the attraction system of urban talents and trying to retain them. At the same time, Qingdao City has built a complete system of local talent cultivation network from the aspects of discovering local talents and training and supporting local talents. In conclusion, Qingdao City has set up a mechanism of encouraging and attracting urban talents with prominent focus, comprehensive coverage and perfect measures, and has set up a mechanism of the cultivation of local talent with integration, cooperation and incentives called “the Qingdao experience”, which is enlightening and worth spreading.
    2013,34(1):90-94, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1344) [HTML] (0) [PDF 842.49 K] (2907)
    Abstract:
    This paper analyses the current status of agricultural pollution resulting from overuse of agricultural chemical inputs since the reform and open-up. It turns out that the formation of agricultural pollution is related to agricultural industrial policies, rural-urban economic structure, pollution controlling fund, environmental general management, “agri-environmental” policies, pollution controlling law and farmer’s environmental awareness. In order to cope with agricultural pollution effectively, some measures that have to be taken are as follows: integration of agricultural and environmental policies, establishment of environmental friendly agricultural technology system, implementation of valley comprehensive management, enhancement of environmental management capabilities of agricultural pollution, strengthening of peasants’ environmental education and establishment of agricultural environmental protection law.
    2013,34(3):284-287, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1196) [HTML] (0) [PDF 632.25 K] (2894)
    Abstract:
    Clearing up rural poverty, realizing city and country correspond development is long striving aim of Chinese Government. Currently, the quantity of rural poverty population in China has taken on a sharp decline, comparative poverty standing out, returning poverty severity, and overspread to city. This article from economic rising, income distributing, trade freedom, rural labor mobility and finance support agriculture, puts up economics explaining about currently Chinese rural poverty status, Lastly, puts forward relevant policy suggestion of enlarging domestic demand, adjusting income distribution, strengthening education train, adjusting agriculture production structure and method of supporting agriculture.
    2012,33(1):13-18, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1382) [HTML] (0) [PDF 844.25 K] (2844)
    Abstract:
    Large scale is the direction of pig- producing development of China in future, but does not mean breeding scale the bigger the better. The rationality, scientificalness and suitability of each region pig- producing scale has determined the effectiveness of pig-producing to a large extent. This paper shows that, from the national average level to see, the moderate scale has the strongest profitability. Specific to major pig producing provinces, the strongest profitability of farming was difference in different province. The current pig scale cultivation exist such problems as the disease prevention and control status not optimum, production cost and the scales price has no advantage and the standardization level need to improve. Finally, combine the current national and provincial pig scale development situation and problems, this paper proposed the corresponding countermeasure to promote the healthy development of
    2012,33(1):23-26, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1334) [HTML] (0) [PDF 675.25 K] (2844)
    Abstract:
    With the increase of the importation scale, the quality and safety of imported whey powder has become the hot issue which arise a lot of attentions and should be solved urgently. This thesis analyzes the necessities of establishing the quality and safety risk warning mechanism of imported whey powder, based on the current conditions of whey powder importation, using the method of warning method based on case study ratiocination, sets up the imported whey powder quality and safety risk warning mechanism from three aspects, including warning information gathering, warning model building and fast response system, and puts forwards the countermeasures of consummating the warning system
    2014,35(2):134-139, DOI:
    [Abstract] (2140) [HTML] (0) [PDF 902.08 K] (2712)
    Abstract:
    From the angle of urban and rural aging population inversion phenomenon in China and the challenges brought by it, this paper analyzes the relationship between urbanization and aging population inversion in urban and rural areas in China. In the long term of traditional process of urbanization, population transfer is mainly labor transfer, and the elderly population transfer has been driven by the transfer is limited, thus improve the degree of aging of the rural population and have an impact on the balanced urban and rural development. This population transfer mode is the main reason for the formation of urban and rural aging population inversion. Meanwhile, urban and rural aging population inversion have an impact on urbanization, it not only affects the level and pace of urbanization, but also affects the quality of urbanization. To alleviate this condition, we must take a new urbanizing road, change the urban and rural population transfer mode, and integrate urban and rural social security system.
    2014,35(4):385-391, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2014.0019
    [Abstract] (1730) [HTML] (0) [PDF 6.04 M] (2669)
    Abstract:
    Using grain production panel data in 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2010, this paper adopts a DEA-based Malmquist productivity index method to measure and decompose grain TFP (Total Factor Productivity) growth index of the nation’s main grain production areas, main grain sales areas, and balancing areas. This paper also analyzes the spatial and temporal disparities and the underlying mechanism of dynamic TFP index. On this basis, it continues to explore TFP and its decomposition value - exogenous influencing factor of technical efficiency index and technical progress index. Our results show that the TFP index of main production areas have realized an average annual increase of 0.28% within 10 years, which has benefited from technical improvement and efficiency enhancement. However, main sales areas have suffered from a duel loss in the technical progress and technical efficiency. As a result, TFP has an average annual decrease of 0.35%. TFP in balancing areas also has an average decrease of 0.69%, influenced by deterioration of technical progress. We also find that the implementation of the central government’s favorable policies to farmers has significant influence on improving grain TFP level in main production areas. However, these policies have a lagging influence on main sales areas and balancing areas. In addition, per capital grain production scale and mechanization level have negative influence on TFP growth in main grain production area, but positive influence on TFP in main grain sales areas. As for the grain production-sales balancing areas, expansion of the per capita production scale can improve the technical efficiency, but has a reverse inhibiting impact on TFP and technical progress. Finally, based on the research results, this paper proposes measures and suggestions to improve grain productivity more effectively.
    2010,31(5):525-528, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1299) [HTML] (0) [PDF 620.82 K] (2665)
    Abstract:
    本文从水稻生产、市场、贸易等方面,分析了世界水稻产业发展现状,以及世界水稻产业发展面临着人口持续增加,消费量稳定增长;资源约束性增强,水稻生产增速放缓;全球气候变暖,灾害性气候和病虫害多发;比较效益偏低,增产与增收矛盾突出等严峻形势。指出今后世界水稻产业发展的趋势是水稻产量总量增加,增速减缓;稻米人均消费量稳定,总量增加;各国自给率提高,贸易量减少。提出要立足国内稻米生产基本自给、利用国际市场满足国内需求不现实,要大力提高水稻产业化水平。
    2020,41(2):312-320, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0030
    [Abstract] (325) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.91 M] (2655)
    Abstract:
    From the perspectives of nature, human, and carrying capacity and applying the entropy and linear weighted comprehensive methods, this paper constructed an evaluation system to assess the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province from 2001 to 2016. In addition, this paper also examined the main obstacles affecting the vulnerability. Results show that the vulnerability of agricultural water resource in 9 cities in Henan Province decreased from 2001 to 2016, while it increased in the other 9 cities; and the vulnerability growth rate varied significantly. The evolution trend of vulnerability could be divided into four types: increasing first and then decreasing, decreasing first and then increasing, increasing with some fluctuations, and decreasing with some fluctuations. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in Henan Province illustrated a concentrating characteristic in its spatial distribution with the decreasing order as follows: Northern Henan, Eastern Henan, Southern Henan, Central Henan, and Western Henan. The vulnerability of agricultural water resource in municipalities was mainly affected by human and carrying capacity, and the main obstacle factors were different. In order to achieve the coordinated development of agricultural production and water resource utilization in Henan Province, this paper suggests that human intervention in water resource system should be positively strengthened by increasing investment in agricultural funds, improving the level of farmland water conservancy construction, and promoting agricultural water use efficiency.
    2012,33(2):150-154, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1165) [HTML] (0) [PDF 804.46 K] (2518)
    Abstract:
    The paper applies the model of Stochastic Dominance in analyzing the regional advantages of feeding dairy cows, studies show that the coast region in north of China and the Yellow River region have the advantages of feeding dairy cows, including Tianjin and Hebei, the most significant comparative advantage, followed by Shandong, Henan and Shaanxi. The factors of cost advantages of feeding dairy cows are analyzed from the perspectives of technical level, elements of cost and natural resource endowment, results showed that: the factors of cost advantages are comprehensive. Some suggestions put forward, that including accelerating construction and layout of dairy farming regions to develop the model with regional comparative advantages; through supporting and promoting the development of dairy cooperatives to improve the degree of organization
    2013,34(1):25-29, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1965) [HTML] (0) [PDF 768.89 K] (2515)
    Abstract:
    This paper try to comparative multi-function of urban modern agriculture of Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou for example, and use the method of combing static and dynamic and of combing qualitative and quantitative to comparative and analyze the urban modern agriculture functions of economy, ecology and society. It can be seen that the differences on economic mainly in the difference of structure of agricultural land only for the difference of types of terrain of three cities, which affect the structure of agriculture industry. Ratio of agro-structural change decreases gradually. Advantage indexes of animal husbandry and fisheries of Shanghai are higher, farming, fisheries and agricultural services of Nanjing, forestry and animal husbandry of Hangzhou are higher as well. The production capacity of vegetables of Shanghai and the production capacity of grain of Nanjing and the production capacity of fruit of Hangzhou is higher than that of others separately in 2010. Secondly, the value of farmland ecosystem carbon sequestration and oxygen releasing of Nanjing is lowest in 2010. Optimal adjustment of the agricultural space layout maintains the ecological environment. The pesticide and chemical fertilizer excessive remains a serious problem. Lastly, agricultural tourism of three cities is in the leisure stage towards the holiday stage. Meanwhile, the three cities take different leisure agriculture development models, and achieve results in employment and economic benefits.
    2015,36(2):315-320, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2015.0011
    [Abstract] (1152) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.39 M] (2410)
    Abstract:
    Along with the intelligence and automation improving in agricultural machinery, the application of steering-by-wire technology in agricultural vehicles such as tractors has received concerns and researches. In order to guide the study of hydraulic steering-by-wire of tractor and to shorten the development cycle, a co-simulation model was built based on the analysis of hydraulic steering-by-wire system control algorithm and structure. The hydraulic system and full vehicle model were built on AMESim software platform. Meantime, PID, fuzzy PID and fuzzy immune PID control modeling were constructed by using Simulink software. While Visual C++ 6.0 was chosen to realize interface communication, the angle response and angle following co-simulation were completed with angle transmission ratio 1; as well as the co-simulation of yawing angular velocity response and centroid side-slip angle response under the speed of 15 km/h, the steering wheel Angle 180°, angle transmission ratio 9. The experimental results show that step response time achieves 0.272 s with fuzzy immune PID control, following error of 1.182°, 3% overshoot amount of the yawing angular velocity response, and 0.85°/s steady-state value of centroid side-slip angle response, they both prevail over the performance of common PID and fuzzy PID. In conclusion, co-simulation maintains a strong reference value, and an ideal control effect is able to achieve while fuzzy immune PID control are applied into hydraulic steering-by-wire system.
    2014,35(2):158-162, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1448) [HTML] (0) [PDF 954.44 K] (2352)
    Abstract:
    The industrial base of rice such as enrichment of rice resources, preferable processing industry foundation and high quality and massive market demand in Heilongjiang Province were analyzed. Some advantages such as good ecological environment, less chemical pollution and larger quantity of high quality rice were also analyzed. The problems such as serious degradation of rice, lack of alternative rice, inadequate processing enterprises, severe losses of processing enterprises, inefficient logistics and lack of policy support and financial support from relevant government and financial department were also analyzed. Some countermeasures such as increasing investment in seed research, speeding up the seed base construction, introducing the market access system, gradually dissolving the backward production capacity, developing the food logistics and intensifying policy support etc were put forward for promoting the development of rice industry.
    2013,34(1):100-103, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1389) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.10 M] (2259)
    Abstract:
    Compared with the traditional sieve-pipette method, the laser diffraction method is a new technology for determination of soil particle size distribution, which has obvious advantages in measurement efficiency and operation error reducing. However, the laser diffraction method always underestimates the clay content. In order to set up the conversion models, 70 soil samples selected from karst areas of Northwest Guangxi were measured by Mastersize2000 laser diffraction and the sieve-pipette method. The results showed that based on the classification criteria of USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), the clay volume content (< 0.002 mm) using the laser diffraction method was lower than that using the sieve-pipette method, while the silt volume content (0.002 mm - 0.05 mm) was higher. The relative errors of the clay and silt contents increased with the increase of clay content measured by sieve-pipette. The sand content was sometimes higher and sometimes lower with the lowest relative error. Significant relationships were found between the clay and sand contents determined by the two methods, but not between the silt content. However, the < 0.02 mm content measured by the two methods was significantly correlated. The laser diffraction measured results of soil particle size distribution could be converted by the linear regression equation of the following four particles grades including < 0.002 mm, < 0.02 mm, 0.02 mm- 0.05 mm and > 0.05 mm.
    2010,31(2):142-146,170, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1193) [HTML] (0) [PDF 924.73 K] (2194)
    Abstract:
    边缘效应能使边缘区汇聚城乡的经济优势,并且能够产生整合增殖效益,促进城乡综合效益的实现,有利于生态环境资源保护、提高资源开发的适宜度和城乡布局的统筹优化。负熵是边缘区作为耗散结构系统与外界进行物流、能流交换,产生边缘效应的基础。协同能够使边缘区各子系统之间彼此协调,同步作用,这是边缘效应产生的根本。要充分发挥长株潭城市群的边缘效应,有力地促进"两型农业"建设,措施如下:对生态环境优化进行总体规划、保护生态资源,建立资源节约体系;建立健全土地利用的有关法律和土地市场,宏观调控土地规划;大力发展城镇网络、优化总体布局、实现城乡统筹等。

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