我国农村水体面源污染问题解析与综合防控技术及实施路径
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中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所

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基金项目:

国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0800103);中国科学院科技服务网络计划项目(KFT-STS-QYZX-088)


Analysis of agricultural non-point source pollution issue in waters and technical strategy of comprehensive prevention and control in rural area of China
Author:
Affiliation:

Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Fund Project:

National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFD0800103); Project of Science and Technology Service Network of Chinese Academy of Sciences (KFT-STS-QYZX-088).

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    摘要:

    我国农村水体面源污染来源复杂,治理难度大,系统考虑农业面源污染物产生的来源,从产业布局、资源利用和治理工程后续运行等方面探讨我国农业面源污染问题的综合解决方案显得尤为紧迫。研究表明,我国农村水体污染物的来源主要包括畜禽养殖粪污水、水产养殖排水、农田排水、农村生活污水和村域地表径流5个方面。针对我国农村水体面源污染来源特征及各地农村的实际情况,遵循“以防为主,防治并重”的治理方针,基于污染物产生、迁移和去向的基本路径来确定综合防控的技术路线,即源头减量、过程拦截、末端消纳与资源循环利用。因此,提出适合于我国农村地区的农村水体面源污染防控实施路径,具体可概括为:1)坚持以小流域或集水区为基本单元开展综合防控措施的总体布局;2)坚持应用以低成本、无动力和生态化为主的农村污染治理技术;3)坚持农村污染物资源循环利用和强化工程后续管理的运行维护模式。

    Abstract:

    The sources of agricultural non-point source pollution in rural water bodies in China are complicated and difficult to control. It is particularly urgent to investigate comprehensive solution of agricultural non-point source pollution issues in terms of production distribution, resource utilization, and the follow-up operation of the treatment projects. Results showed that the pollutant sources in rural waters mainly include five aspects, i.e. fecal and waste water derived from livestock and poultry breeding, aquaculture drainage, cropland drainage, and rural domestic sewage and village surface runoff. According to the characteristics of non-point source pollution in water bodies and the actual situation in rural areas, the strategy of “focusing on prevention and paying equal attention to prevention and control treatment” should be applied. The technique route of comprehensive prevention and control should be determined based on the generation, transport, and fate of pollutants. The technique route includes source reduction, process intercept, end consumption, and resource recycling utilization. Appropriate treatment plan could be determined, which could be summarized as the following: 1) insisting on the overall distribution for comprehensive prevention and control measures in a unit of small watershed or catchment; 2) insisting on applying no-power, low-cost, and ecological control technologies, and 3) insisting on the operation and maintenance mode of agricultural pollutant resource recycling utilization and strengthening follow-up management for treatment projects.

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  • 收稿日期:2021-01-22
  • 最后修改日期:2021-02-06
  • 录用日期:2021-02-06
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