1.College of Economics and Management, Northeast Agricultural University;2.Heilongjiang Green Food Science Research Institute
National Natural Science Foundation of China (71673042, 71640017); Philosophy and Social Science Research Program of Heilongjiang Province (18JYC257).
With the continuous expansion of the scale of livestock and poultry industry, the fecal pollution produced by livestock and poultry industry has gradually become an important part of it, and the ecological environment pressure has become increasingly apparent. Based on the institutional change theory, the externality theory, and the sustainable development theory, this paper systematically analyzed the evolution process of China’s livestock and poultry manure governance policies, studied the evolution stages of relevant policies, and discussed the influencing factors and challenges of livestock and poultry manure governance policies. This paper also provided some countermeasures and suggestions to promote the treatment of livestock and poultry manure. Results show that livestock and poultry manure treatment policies can be divided into five stages since the beginning of the reform and open policies 40 years ago, including blank stage, preparation stage, formation stage, reform and innovation stage, and new normal stage. Main policy evolution has gradually changed from the government to the public and from mandatory institutional change to induced institutional change. In addition, the efficient livestock and poultry manure governance policies have gradually replaced the inefficient policies. However, China’s livestock and poultry manure governance policies still need further reforms, including improving the institutional environment, balancing the relationship among different governing agencies, enhancing policy implementation measures, and perfecting the livestock and poultry manure treatment market system. In conclusion, from the perspectives of system supply and system demand, this paper provides the following suggestions: improving the institutional environment, clarifying the relationship among different interest groups, strengthening policy implementation measures, and promoting the formation of market system of livestock and poultry manure governance.