英国乡村野生动植物保护措施的演变及启示
作者:
作者单位:

1.南京农业大学人文与社会发展学院;2.南京农业大学科技与社会发展研究所

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基金项目:

农业部引进国际先进农业科学技术计划项目(2016-R1)


Evolution of rural wildlife conservation measures in UK and its implications
Author:
Affiliation:

1.College of Humanities and Social Development, Nanjing Agricultural University;2.Institute for Science, Technology and Social Development, Nanjing Agricultural University

Fund Project:

The Ministry of Agriculture Introduced the International Advanced Agricultural Science and Technology Program (2016-R1).

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    摘要:

    野生动植物是农业生态系统的重要组成部分。然而,随着以“效率”为目标的现代集约化农业技术的推广,乡村野生动植物的生存受到前所未有的威胁。本文通过历史研究法和文献研究法,对英国乡村野生动植物保护措施的演变历史及其发展规律进行深入分析,探讨了当前我国乡村野生动植物保护的现状及存在问题,最后结合英国经验,为我国解决发展现代集约化农业过程中面临的乡村野生动植物保护问题提出政策建议。研究发现,英国早期野生动植物保护措施主要针对濒危、珍稀和受到严重威胁的野生动植物物种及其栖息地。20世纪60—70年代以后,随着现代集约化农业的发展,普通乡村野生动植物保护问题成为关注的重点,并逐渐在以往物种和栖息地保护模式基础上,发展出整体性景观尺度保护模式。“活景观”理论出现后,英国乡村野生动植物保护开始与乡村经济和社会发展等问题相结合。当前,我国农业正经历着一场集约化变革,乡村野生动植物的生存受到严重威胁,但现有保护措施依然存在不足。对此,可以借鉴英国经验,在加强乡村野生动植物保护科学研究的同时完善相关法律和政策。

    Abstract:

    Wildlife is an important part of agricultural ecosystem. However, with the popularization of modern intensive agricultural technology aiming at “efficiency”, the survival of wildlife in countryside is threatened unprecedentedly. Applying the historical and literature research method, this paper analyzed the evolution history and the development law of the conservation measures for rural wildlife in UK. At the same time, this paper discussed the current situation, existing problems, and some policy suggestions for the rural wildlife conservation development in China. Results show that early stage of wildlife conservation in UK focused on the endangered, rare and seriously threatened wildlife species and their habitats. After 1960s-1970s, with the development of modern intensive agriculture, the issues of common wildlife conservation in rural areas had become a focus and the integrated landscape scale model was developed gradually on the basis of species and their habitat conservation model. With the advent of “living landscape” theory, wildlife conservation in UK began to be integrated with economic and social development in rural areas. Currently, China’s agriculture is undergoing a dramatic change of concentration, and the survival of wildlife in countryside is seriously threatened. However, there are still some deficiencies in the existing conservation measures. Therefore, China may learn from UK experiences to strengthen the scientific research of rural wildlife conservation and to improve related laws and policies.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-09-22
  • 最后修改日期:2021-01-11
  • 录用日期:2021-01-11
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