我国养蜂业发展的战略定位与对策建议——基于产业内外部效应的视角
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中国农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所

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现代农业产业技术体系项目(CARS-44-KXJ18)


Strategic orientation and corresponding suggestions of the beekeeping industry in China: From the perspectives of industry function and externality
Author:
Affiliation:

Institute of Agricultural Economics and Development, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science

Fund Project:

China Agriculture Research System (CARS-44-KXJ18).

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    摘要:

    养蜂业作为现代农业的重要组成部分,具有投入少、见效快、不占用耕地、不污染环境的特点。蜜蜂授粉还可以较大幅度提高农作物的产量和品质,促进农业实现健康、绿色和高质量发展。基于外部性理论及兼顾产业内外部效益,利用国家蜂产业体系固定观察点调研资料、蜂蜜市场价格调查和UNComtrade数据,分析了我国蜂业发展概况、生产模式、布局和发展特征,研判养蜂业面临的挑战,探讨其战略定位。研究表明,定地养殖规模相对较小但投入低,大转地养年运输距离最大可达1.5万km且单群收益最高。专业化、机械化和组织化是促进近年蜂农饲养规模稳步提高的主要因素。当前养蜂业面临3个方面的挑战:出口利润直降,高品质蜂产品生产技术与市场双重考验,大田有偿授粉机制尚未建立。因此,从增加农业农村经济和全社会福利的视角,充分发挥养蜂业在农业绿色、生态和高质量发展中的关键作用,提出战略定位和相应的政策。应着眼于专业蜂农生产技术水平提升,积极探索蜂业与种植业的耦合发展的模式,强化养蜂业外部性功能,以标准分级推动优质优价体系,以提升产业内部效益。

    Abstract:

    As an important part of modern agriculture, beekeeping has advantages of less investment, rapid economic returns, no occupation of farmland, and no pollution. Bee pollination can greatly improve the yield and quality of crops and promote the healthy, green, and high-quality development of agriculture. Based on a fixed observation point data, a honey price survey of economic research team of National Bee Industry System of Ministry of Agriculture, the UN Comtrade trade data, and some case studies, this paper analyzed the production mode, layout, and characteristics of the beekeeping industry in China. Results show that the scale of beekeeping in fixed sites is smaller with low input costs, while migratory beekeeping transports up to 1.5×104 km per year and gets the highest income per hive. Specialization, mechanization and organization are the main factors to promote the scale of bee farmers to raise steadily in recent years. This paper also identified some challenges faced by the beekeeping industry in China, including sharp fall of exporting profits, combined risks of technical constrain and unpredictable market rice of high-quality bee products, and lack of the mechanism of paid pollination service for crops. Therefore, the orientation of the beekeeping industry is to give a full play to the key role of beekeeping in the green, ecological and high-quality development of agriculture to maximize agricultural and rural economy and social welfare. This paper also provides the following policy suggestions: to explore the coupling development mode of the beekeeping industry and the crop production to enhance its externality, to launch supporting policy to improve technology of professional beekeepers, and to push building up “high quality with high price system” by standard classification to improve its internal efficiency.

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  • 收稿日期:2020-09-17
  • 最后修改日期:2020-12-28
  • 录用日期:2020-12-28
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