行动者网络视域下乡村旅游扶贫模式与机制研究——以赤峰市雷营子村为例
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内蒙古大学历史与旅游文化学院

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基金项目:

国家社会科学基金项目(18BGL148);内蒙古自治区高等学校科学研究项目(NJSY17019)


The mode and mechanism of poverty alleviation through rural tourism based on the Actor Network Theory: A case study of Leiyingzi village in Chifeng City
Author:
Affiliation:

School of History and Tourism Culture, Inner Mongolia University

Fund Project:

National Social Science Foundation of China (18BGL148); Scientific Research Projects in Higher Studies of Inner Mongolia Autonomus Region (NJSY17019).

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    摘要:

    乡村旅游作为产业扶贫的一种有效形式,在带动农村经济发展、推动农业转型升级和促进农民增收致富等方面具有重要作用。基于行动者网络理论,以赤峰市雷营子村乡村旅游助力脱贫致富为案例,运用实地调查和案例分析方法,探究雷营子村乡村旅游扶贫的行动者网络构成和转译过程,剖析乡村游扶贫的模式和机制。结果表明,雷营子村的乡村旅游扶贫是一个由政府、村委会、合作社、旅游公司、游客、自然环境和旅游资源等异质性行动者构成的行动者网络,其中村委会、合作社和旅游公司发挥了关键行动者的作用。在行动者网络的框架下,雷营子构建了“村委会主导、合作经营、集体收益、贫困户增收”的乡村旅游扶贫模式,形成了产业带贫、公司带贫、大户带贫和就业减贫、服务减贫“三带两减”的旅游扶贫机制,使贫困村民通过资产流转、创业、就业和分红等途径实现了脱贫致富。然而,在雷营子乡村旅游扶贫的过程中,也面临着村民话语权较弱、乡村旅游人才缺乏、对合作社和旅游公司的监督不足以及贫困村民参与度不高等诸多挑战。因此,应进一步发挥基层党组织的引领作用,引入新的行动者完善行动者网络,加强社区增权,以推动乡村旅游的可持续发展和旅游扶贫效率的提升。

    Abstract:

    As an effective form of industrial poverty alleviation, rural tourism plays an important role in driving rural economic development, promoting agricultural transformation, and upgrading and increasing farmers’ income and wealth. Taking Leiyingzi village in Chifeng City as an example and applying the Actor Network Theory, this paper analyzes the composition and translation process of the actor network of poverty alleviation of rural tourism, and discusses the mode and mechanism of poverty alleviation through rural tourism. Results show that: poverty alleviation through rural tourism in Leiyingzi village is an actor network composed of heterogeneous actors such as the government, village committee, local cooperatives, tourism companies, tourists, natural environment, and tourism resources. Among these actors, the village committee, cooperatives, and tourism companies play as the key role actors. Within the framework of the actor network, Leiyingzi village has built a model of poverty alleviation through rural tourism as “leading by the village committee, cooperative operation, collective income and increasing income for poor households”. Leiyingzi village has formed the mechanism of “three help and two alleviation”, namely industry, companies, and rich families helping alleviate poverty, additionally, poverty alleviation by employment and by service. The poor villagers have been lifted out of poverty through asset transfer, entrepreneurship, employment, and dividends. However, there are many challenges in the process of rural tourism poverty alleviation in Leiyingzi, including the villagers’ weak right of speech, the lack of rural tourism talents, the inadequate supervision of cooperatives and tourism companies, and the poor villagers’ low participation. Therefore, to promote the sustainable development of rural tourism and the improvement of tourism poverty alleviation efficiency, this paper suggests that the grassroots party organizations should further play the leading role, more new actors should be included, and farmers’ rights should be protected and strengthened.

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引用本文

王公为,赵忠伟. 行动者网络视域下乡村旅游扶贫模式与机制研究——以赤峰市雷营子村为例[J]. 农业现代化研究, 2021, 42(1): 57-66
WANG Gong-wei, ZHAO Zhong-wei. The mode and mechanism of poverty alleviation through rural tourism based on the Actor Network Theory: A case study of Leiyingzi village in Chifeng City[J]. Research of Agricultural Modernization, 2021, 42(1): 57-66

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  • 收稿日期:2020-08-17
  • 最后修改日期:2020-12-14
  • 录用日期:2020-12-15
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-29
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