文章摘要
河南省农村生活污水治理现状及政策建议
Current situation and policy suggestions of rural domestic sewage treatment in Henan Province
投稿时间:2019-03-28  最后修改时间:2019-05-05
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2019.0038
中文关键词: 农村生活污水  乡村振兴  现状  治理  政策建议  河南省
英文关键词: rural sewage  rural revitalization  current situation  policy suggestions  Henan Province
基金项目:九三学社中央2018年度参政议政重点调研项目;河南省重大科技专项 (161100310600)
作者单位E-mail
周凯 河南科技学院园艺园林学院//新乡市景观生态工程技术研究中心 kzhou89@126.com 
郭林 河南省地质调查院 451931989@qq.com 
郜国玉 河南省生态环境保护厅 312047863@qq.com 
王新海 河南大学化学化工学院 xinhaiwang@126.com 
王智芳 河南科技学院 zhwang88@tom.com 
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中文摘要:
      农村生活污水治理是我国未来几十年乡村振兴战略要解决的重大问题。基于乡村振兴及改善农村人居环境的战略需求,以河南省为研究对象,针对农村生活污水治理开展实地调研,分析农村生活污水治理的现状和存在的关键问题,探讨农村生活污水治理方案与对策。结果表明,2017年全省生活污水排放量达10亿t左右,氨氮排放量5.94万t。全省农村建设污水处理设施的村庄不足5%,日处理能力普遍在100 t以下。河南省农村生活污水处理工艺繁多。建成运行较为正常的主要是日处理规模50~200 t的一体化设备。尽管农村生活污水治理取得了阶段性成绩,但仍存在一些突出性问题:1)缺乏顶层设计;2)过分依赖财政投入,缺乏多元化投入和市场化运营机制;3)责任主体不明确;4)标准缺位,技术选择偏离实际需求。因此,提出:1)加强顶层设计、构建长效的财政投入和管理机制;2)引入市场机制,实施市场化运作,重视运行维护和管理;3)强化地方政府主体责任,设定责任边界和绩效考核体系;4)重视规划设计,因地制宜选择处理工艺等政策建议。
英文摘要:
      Rural domestic sewage treatment is an important issue to be solved in the rural revitalization strategy in the coming decades in China. Based on the strategic goals for rural revitalizing and improving rural human settlement environment and on-site surveys about rural domestic sewage treatments in Henan Province, this paper examined and analyzed the treatment scheme and countermeasures of rural domestic sewage. Results showed that domestic sewage discharge in Henan Province reached about 1 billion tons in 2017, of which ammonia nitrogen emission was 59.4 million tons. Villages with sewage treatment facilities in the province were less than 5%, and the daily treatment capacity was generally less than 100 tons. There are many different types of domestic sewage treatment technique in rural areas of Henan Province. Main operations are those integrated equipment facilities with daily treatment scale of 50~200 tons. With some great achievements in the treatment of rural domestic sewage in Henan Province, some big challenges exit, including lack of top-level design, overdependence on state financial support, lack of diversified investment and market operation mechanism, ambiguity of the main body’s responsibilities, and absence of uniformed standard. Therefore, this paper suggests: 1) strengthening the top-level design to construct a long-term financial investment and management mechanism; 2) introducing market mechanism to emphasize operation maintenance and management; 3) strengthening the subject responsibility of local government to set responsibility boundary and performance appraisal system; and 4) paying attention to policy planning and design to choose processing technologies according to local conditions.
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