文章摘要
养殖户生产规模变化、安全生产行为和绩效研究——基于生鲜乳质量安全视角
Production scale change, safe production behavior, and performance evaluation from the raw milk quality and production safety perspectives
投稿时间:2019-02-13  最后修改时间:2019-04-17
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2019.0032
中文关键词: 生鲜乳  养殖户  SCP  生产结构  安全生产行为  奶业绩效
英文关键词: raw milk  dairy farms  SCP model  production structure  safe production behavior  dairy performance
基金项目:国家自然科学基金国际(地区)合作与交流项目(71361140369)
作者单位E-mail
杨欣然 中国农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所 ranrankuaile2009@126.com 
陈志钢 浙江大学中国农村发展研究院浙江 杭州;国际食物政策研究所,美国 华盛顿特区; K.Chen@cgiar.org 
孔祥智 中国人民大学农业与农村发展学院 kongxz@ruc.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      2008年“三聚氰胺”事件之后,政府积极推行规模化养殖政策,试图通过转变小规模散养的生产方式来实现生鲜乳质量安全的有效提升。根据结构(Structure)-行为(Conduct)-绩效(Performance)分析范式,本研究结合实地调研数据,对生鲜乳生产结构、养殖户安全生产行为和生产绩效进行分析。结果表明:从生产结构来看,约55%的养殖户从家庭散养转变为养殖小区;2007—2016年之间,约50%的奶农扩大了奶牛养殖总规模;同时约80%的奶农在2013—2016年缩小了成年母牛养殖规模。大规模养殖户和家庭牧场采纳了更多的质量安全标准措施,生鲜乳质量安全水平更高。从生产绩效来看,奶农的净收益随着养殖规模的不断扩大而增加;家庭牧场比养殖小区和散养户的净收益高。基于此,本研究为政策推进奶牛规模化养殖和转变生产方式提供了实证支撑。
英文摘要:
      The Government has been actively promoting large-scale dairy production practice to improve raw milk quality and production safety by transforming the pattern of scattered dairy production practice, especially after the 2008 scandal of melamine contamination of raw milk in China. Based on the first-hand survey data, this paper employs the SCP analysis paradigm to study the status and the changing trend of the raw milk production structure, farmers’ safe production behaviors, and dairy performances. Results show that about 55% of the dairy farms changed their production patterns, mainly from scattered production to concentrated dairy-complex production. Between 2007 and 2016, about 50% of the dairy farms expanded their production scales. While about 80% of dairy farms have reduced the adult cow number from 2013 to 2016. Large-scale dairy farms and family farms adopted more measures to improve raw milk quality production safety. From the perspective of dairy farm performance, the net yield increased along with the expanded production scale. Family-style dairy farms had a higher net profit margin than that of those farms in the dairy-complex. These findings support the recent policy initiative to promote the large-scale dairy production practice to increase milk quality and production safety.
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