文章摘要
稻田生态系统氧化亚氮(N2O)排放微生物调控机制研究进展及展望
A review on the microbial regulation mechanism of N2O production and emission of rice paddy ecosystems
投稿时间:2018-10-22  修订日期:2018-11-04
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2018.0092
中文关键词: 稻田:N2O排放  土壤微生物  硝化作用  反硝化作用
英文关键词: paddy soil  N2O emission  soil microbes  nitrification  denitrification
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41330856,41501277);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDB15020200)
作者单位E-mail
秦红灵 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚 huniu@isa.ac.cn 
陈安磊 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚 alchen@isa.ac.cn 
盛荣 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚 shengrong@isa.ac.cn 
张文钊 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚 wzhzh@isa.ac.cn 
邢肖毅 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚 357903295@qq.com 
魏文学 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚 wenxuewei@isa.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      氧化亚氮(N2O)是第三大温室气体,对全球气候变化具有显著影响。稻田是重要的N2O排放源,追踪稻田N2O产生及排放关键过程的微生物调控机制,可以为农田土壤氮素循环研究以及稻田N2O减排提供有价值的信息。微生物调控的硝化作用和反硝化作用是稻田N2O排放的主要来源。基于此,我们在过去十年的研究中,依托中国科学院桃源农业生态试验站,以水稻田淹水-落干和施肥为关键过程,从水稻根际、土层深度、反应底物浓度等方面探明了土壤硝化反硝化过程和N2O排放特征及其微生物调控机制;提出了开发稻田土壤微生物资源,提高土壤N2O消纳能力的可能策略;构建了可以有效降低稻田氮素损失和N2O排放的基于化肥一次性深施的减氮控磷施肥技术,并在实际农业生产中进行了示范推广。本文对上述研究取得的成果,以及国内外相关研究结果进行了全面综述。结合分子生物技术在土壤科学研究中的应用,今后的研究工作将会从以下几个方面开展:1)解析土壤微生物与土壤生产力和生态环境之间的关系;2)在基因组和转录组水平构建农田土壤碳氮循环功能微生物分析平台;3)解析土壤微生物分布与生态功能之间的关联机制;4)根系—土壤—微生物之间的协同机制以及植物—内生菌—土壤微生物之间相互影响的分子机制;5)加强对实用技术的研发,把基础研究成果转化为生产力,服务农业生产和生态文明建设。
英文摘要:
      Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the third-largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emissions driving global climate change. Paddy soil plays a major role in the N2O emissions. Understanding the microbial regulation mechanism of N2O production and emission of paddy soil can provide useful information for the study of microbial ecology of soil nitrogen cycle and relieving N2O emission. Nitrification and denitrification are the two key microbial processes to regulate N2O emission of rice paddy soil. Here, in our researches within the past ten years, we investigated the characteristics of N2O emission and microbial regulation mechanism in flooding-drying and fertilization processes based on rice rhizosphere, soil depth and substrate concentration. Meanwhile, the strategy for developing new microorganisms resources and enhancing the N2O consumption ability was put forward. The method of deep application and reducing fertilizer application in rice field based on decreasing area-source pollution of nitrogen and phosphorus in paddy soil was established, and demonstration and extension had been successfully proceeded. In this paper, the main findings of these researches and other related achievements from domestic and foreign studies are summarized. In combination with the molecular biotechnology, we would carry out the further research work with the following: 1) uncovering the relationship between soil microbes, soil productivity and ecological environment; 2) establishing the analysis platform for functional microbes on genome and transcriptomics level; 3) disclosing associating mechanism between microbial distribution and ecological function; 4) understanding the synthetic mechanism of root-soil-microbes and interaction among plant-endophyte-soil microbes; 5) strengthening practical technology research, transferring of fundamental findings into productive force, and ultimately serving for agricultural production and ecological civilization construction.
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