文章摘要
重金属污染耕地农业安全利用研究进展与展望
Advances and prospects of safety agro-utilization of heavy metal contaminated farmland soil
投稿时间:2018-10-18  修订日期:2018-10-23
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2018.0080
中文关键词: 重金属污染  耕地  农艺调控  原位钝化  替代种植  农业安全利用
英文关键词: heavy metals pollution  farmland soil  agronomic measures  in-situ immobilization  alternative planting  safety agro-utilization
基金项目:“十二五”国家科技支撑计划课题(2015BAD05B02);国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-16-E09);湖南省重点研发计划项目(2016NK2207)
作者单位E-mail
黄道友 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 dyhuang@isa.ac.cn 
朱奇宏 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 qhzhu@isa.ac.cn 
朱捍华 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 hhzhu@isa.ac.cn 
许超 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 xuchao1388@isa.ac.cn 
刘守龙 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 along@isa.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      日益加剧的土壤重金属污染问题是目前严重制约我国农业可持续稳健发展的重要因子。如何实现区域性大面积的重金属污染耕地农业安全利用,已成为全球农业环境科学研究领域的难题与热点。中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所自2006年起,将其在该研究领域的重点聚焦在以镉为代表的重金属污染耕地农业安全利用方面,按照“摸清家底、因地制宜、分区治理、科学施策”的总体思路和“边生产、边治理、边修复”的技术路径,系统地开展了重金属污染动态长期定位监测与典型重金属污染地区详查、重金属低积累型与强耐性的农作物主栽品种筛选及应用,和削减农作物重金属积累的农艺调控、阻控农作物重金属吸收的原位钝化,以及替代种植作物的耐受性及其修复潜力等研究,初步探明了湖南耕地环境和其主要农产品重金属污染的现状、成因与发展趋势,筛选出了一批适于不同污染程度耕地种植的农作物主栽品种供应急性应用,明确了肥水管理、叶面阻控、秸秆离田等农艺调控措施削减农作物重金属积累,和施用炉渣、生石灰、海泡石、农作废弃物生物质炭、腐植酸矿粉等单一物料及其复配制剂钝化土壤重金属的效果,阐明了以苎麻为代表的麻类作物对镉等重金属的耐受性及其修复潜力与机理,确立了南方稻田土壤有效态镉及镉污染稻田钝化效果评价的提取方法,构建了一套较完善的以“轻度污染农艺调控-中度污染钝化降活-重度污染断链改制”为核心的重金属污染耕地农业安全利用综合技术与多种实用模式,并在典型污染地区建成了“重金属污染耕地农业安全利用技术研究开放平台”和多处新技术新产品的中试基地,产生了巨大的社会反响。
英文摘要:
      Heavy metal pollution is becoming a crucial factor influencing the sustainable development of agriculture in China. While, safety agro-utilization of heavy metal contaminated farmland soil in large regional area has attracted increasing attention worldwide. The researchers in Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (ISA) have paid attention to the safety agro-utilization of heavy metal, especially cadmium, polluted farmland soils since 2006. We conducted systematic research on positioning monitoring of heavy metal pollution, typical contaminated regions survey, selection of heavy metal low-accumulation and high-tolerance crops varieties, agronomic measures, in-situ immobilization, heavy metal tolerance and remediation potential of alternative plants. Therefore, the status, trends, and probable causes for heavy metal contamination of soil, irrigation water and agricultural products in Hunan province have been clarified. A batch of crop varieties were screened out for the planting in heavy metal polluted farmland soil. The effects of agronomic measures, such as management of fertilizers and water, foliar application of micronutrients, removal of crop straws, on reducing the accumulation of heavy metal in agricultural products were confirmed. The immobilization effects and mechanism of slag, quick lime, sepiolite, biochar derived from agricultural wastes, humic acid applied alone or in combination on heavy metal in soil were also studies. The single extraction methods for evaluating the available Cd in soil collected form large regional area and the immobilization effect of amendments on Cd in contaminated paddy soil were described. A comprehensive technology as ‘agronomic measures for slightly contaminated soil, in-situ immobilization for moderately contaminated soil and alternative plants for heavily contaminated soil’, and several practical modes for the safety agro-utilization of heavy metal polluted farmland soil were constructed. Moreover, a technology research and development open platform and several pilot-application bases for heavy metal contaminated farmland soil were constructed. Further, the prospects and future research hotspots of safety utilization of heavy metal contaminated farmland soil for the ISA were discussed.
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