文章摘要
洞庭湖流域湿地生态修复技术与模式
Wetland ecological restoration techniques and models in Dongting Lake basin
投稿时间:2018-10-11  修订日期:2018-11-01
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2018.0089
中文关键词: 湿地  生态修复  修复模式  湿地管理  洞庭湖流域
英文关键词: wetlands  ecological restoration  restoration models  wetland management  Dongting Lake basin
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41401290,31770471);中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所青年创新团队(2017QNCXTD_LF)
作者单位E-mail
邓正苗 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室 dengzm@isa.ac.cn 
谢永宏 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室 xyh@isa.ac.cn 
陈心胜 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室 xschen@isa.ac.cn 
李峰 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室 Lifeng@isa.ac.cn 
邹业爱 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室 zouyeai@isa.ac.cn 
侯志勇 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室 hzy2005@isa.ac.cn 
李旭 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室 libr05008@139.com 
曾静 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室 zengjing1127@139.com 
李波 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室 libo@isa.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      洞庭湖流域包含众多河流、沼泽、湖泊以及人工湿地生态系统,在涵养水源、调蓄洪水、生物多样性保育等方面具有巨大的生态服务价值。然而,由于长期以来的人为干扰,洞庭湖流域湿地退化严重,针对洞庭湖流域不同类型湿地开展生态修复已成为当前国家生态文明建设和长江经济带建设的重大需求。本文从洞庭湖流域的湿地概况、退化现状和原因出发,总结了洞庭湖流域湿地生态修复的关键技术,包括水环境修复技术、水文修复技术、生境修复技术、生物修复技术和土壤修复技术;提出了洞庭湖流域湿地生态修复的一般修复模式,即环境评价——目标制定——规划编制——修复实施——管理维护——反馈调节,最终形成持续稳定、健康的湿地生态系统。最后,通过洞庭湖流域四种典型湿地类型(湖泊湿地、河流湿地、沼泽湿地和人工湿地)的生态修复案例分析,提出了对应的生态修复模式。未来应从不同类型湿地的退化过程及机理、流域尺度下的湿地生态修复、小微湿地建设、生态修复后的生态监测与适应性管理等方面加强研究。
英文摘要:
      Dongting Lake Basin consists of numerous of rivers, marshland, freshwater lake and constructed wetlands. It has great ecological service value including water conservation, flood water regulation and biodiversity conservation. However, due to long-term human interference, the wetland ecosystem degradation is significantly, and ecological restoration in different wetland types in the Dongting Lake Basin is urgently needed for the construction of the national ecological civilization and the construction of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. In this paper, we elucidated wetland distribution and analyzed degradation causes in different wetland types firstly, and then summarized the key techniques in wetland restoration, including restoration techniques for water environment, hydrology, habitat, biological structure and soils. We proposed a general ecological restoration models for wetland restoration, i.e., wetland environment evaluation – objective setting – planning formulation – restoration implement – management – feedback, and eventually, a sustainable, stable and healthy wetland ecosystem will be formed. At last, through case analysis for ecological restoration in for freshwater lake wetland, riverain wetland and marshland, we summarized ecological restoration model for the three natural wetlands, respectively. In future, researches should be strengthened on degradation process and mechanisms in different wetland types, wetland restoration in basin scale, micro-wetlands construction, and ecological monitoring combined with adaptive management after wetland restoration.
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