文章摘要
界面物理化学特性在动物营养消化研究中的应用与展望
Research progress and prospects on the interface physical chemistry properties in nutrient digestion
投稿时间:2018-10-10  修订日期:2018-10-29
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2018.0093
中文关键词: 界面物理化学  动物营养  微生物  饲料  瘤胃液
英文关键词: interface physicochemical  animal nutrition  microorganism  feedstuff  rumen fluid
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0500500);湖南省科技重大专项项目(2017NK1020)
作者单位E-mail
汤少勋 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 sxtang@isa.ac.cn 
党坦 中南大学冶金与环境学院 dt121212@126.com 
谭支良 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 zltan@isa.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      界面物理化学是研究物质在多相体系中的表面特征和表面发生的物理与化学过程及其规律的科学。其研究方法目前广泛应用于材料学、环境学、土壤学、高分子化学、日用化工、精细化工、生命科学和药学等领域。针对反刍动物营养研究中饲料底物、消化道微生物,以及微生物生存媒介(如瘤胃液)间的相互关系,通过查阅和汇总饲料降解或消化过程中底物、微生物,以及媒介界面物理化学特性变化规律,及其对饲料消化与发酵的影响文献,总结和分析了饲料底物、微生物及瘤胃液环境的界面物理化学特性在动物营养研究中的应用现状。研究表明,饲料底物界面物理特性(比表面积和阳离子交换量)与饲料消化密切相关,优化媒介(瘤胃液或消化液)表面张力可提高饲料干物质降解率和微生物蛋白产量;微生物表面电荷、通透性及表面疏水性通过影响微生物对饲料底物的粘附过程及其生理学功能进而影响对饲料营养的消化。然而目前对饲料消化过程与界面物理化学特性间关系的研究还相当缺乏,今后应加强对界面物理化学特性评价指标的发掘、测定方法的优化,以及界面物理化学特性评价指标在营养消化与利用中作用的研究,进而建立营养消化利用过程中界面物理化学评价指标体系,丰富动物营养学研究理论。
英文摘要:
      Interface physical chemistry is a science to study the surface features and the physical and chemical phenomenons and regularities of matter in the heterogeneous system. Its’ research method is used in the field of materials science, environtology, edaphology, high polymer chemistry, daily-use chemical industry, fine chemical engineering, life sciences, pharmacy and so on. Based on the interrelation of feedstuff, intestinal microflora, and medium (such as rumen fluid) in ruminant nutrition research, the references involving the change rule of interface physical chemistry properties of substance, microorganism and medium during the fodder was digested or degraded were consulted and collected, and the application status of interface physical chemistry properties of feedstuff, microflora, and medium in animal nutrition research were summed up and analyzed. The results showed that the digestion of feed is closely related to the surface physical properties (such as special surface areas and cation exchange capacity) of feedstuff. Optimizing the surface tension of medium (rumen liquid or digestive juice) could improve the dry matter degradation and microprotein production. The surface charge and hydrophobicity, and membrane permeability of microorganism affect nutrient digestion by influencing the attachment of microbia to substance and the physiology function of microorganism. While the study on the relationship between feed digestion and interface physical and chemistry properties is lack. Digging evaluation index, optimizing measurement methods and defining the role of interface physical and chemistry properties in animal nutrition should be intensified in future study. And then an assessment indicator system of interface physical and chemistry properties in nutrient digestion and utilization could be built, and the research theory of animal nutrition will be further enriched.
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