文章摘要
三峡工程运行对洞庭湖湿地植被格局的影响及调控机制
Influence with its regulating mechanism of the Three Gorge Dam operation on plant distributing patterns in the Dongting Lake
投稿时间:2018-10-09  修订日期:2018-10-29
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2018.0085
中文关键词: 洞庭湖湿地  植被格局  三峡工程  调控机制  生态学效应
英文关键词: The Dongting Lake  plant distributing pattern  the Three Gorges Project  regulating mechanism  ecological effect
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31570431);中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-318)
作者单位E-mail
李峰 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 lifeng@isa.ac.cn 
谢永宏 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所  
陈心胜 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 xschen@isa.ac.cn 
邓正苗 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 dengzm@isa.ac.cn 
邹业爱 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所  
李旭 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所  
侯志勇 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所  
曾静 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所  
胡佳宇 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所  
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中文摘要:
      湿地植被格局是湿地生态学研究的主要内容之一。湿地植被格局的变化是湿地植物生物学特性与外部环境变化共同作用的结果。洞庭湖湿地作为我国长江中下游典型通江湖泊湿地,具有重要的生态服务功能。三峡工程运行后,洞庭湖湿地水文情势变化明显,进而影响湿地植被格局。本文通过文献梳理,系统总结了三峡工程运行后洞庭湖湿地植被格局的演变规律,同时对驱动湿地植被演变的水文成因及湿地植物生物学机制进行了归纳。研究发现三峡工程运行后,洞庭湖不同植被类型面积发生明显变化,具体表现为湖草群落面积呈下降趋势,芦苇(荻)和林地群落的总面积呈上升趋势。湿地植被格局的变化是水位、淹水时间、泥沙淤积等多种水文情势综合作用的结果,而湿地植物还可以通过繁殖对策、生态生理、种内种间关系变化等多个生物学策略来适应变化的外部环境,进而维持植被格局的稳定性。最后以杨树种植和冬候鸟多样性变化为案例,分析了洞庭湖湿地植被格局变化的生态学效应,以期为洞庭湖湿地的保护及退化湿地的恢复提供一定理论依据。
英文摘要:
      Wetland plant distributing pattern is one of the main studying contents in wetland ecology. The change of wetland plant distributing pattern is the result of the interaction of wetland plant biological characteristics and external environment changes. Dongting Lake wetland, as one of the typical river-connected wetland in the middle and lower basin of Yangtze River owns many important ecological functions. The hydrological conditions of Dongting Lake have been changed greatly after the operation of the Three Gorge Project, and which in turn significantly influences the succession of wetland plant distributing pattern. Based on the literature review, this paper systematically summarizes the succession of wetland plant distributing pattern in the Dongting Lake after the operation of the Three Gorges Project. We also summarize the mechanism that determining plant distributing patterns on the basis of water regimes changes and plant biological characteristics. Results confirmed that the area of different vegetation types changed greatly, which showed that the area of lake – grass decreased while the areas of Phragmites communis (Miscanthus sacchariflorus) and poplar community increased significantly after the operation of the Three Gorge Project. The changes of wetland plant distributing pattern are affected by several of hydrological regime such as water level, flooding time and sedimentation. Also, wetland plants can adapt to the changed external environments by multiple approaches such as adjustments of reproductive strategies, ecological and physiological characteristics, and intra- and inter-species relationships, and then which play important roles in determining the stability of vegetation community. Finally, we taking poplar planting and diversity changes of winter migratory birds as cases to clarify the effects of wetland plant distributing change in Dongting Lake. The aim of our study was to provide a theoretical basis for the protection of Dongting Lake wetlands and the restoration of degraded wetlands.
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