文章摘要
洞庭湖区“社会—经济—自然复合生态系统”中的鼠类群落管理
The rodent community management by concept of “the social-economic-natural complex ecosystem” in Dongting Lake Region
投稿时间:2018-09-25  修订日期:2018-10-19
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2018.0079
中文关键词: 社会─经济─自然复合生态系统  鼠类  群落  种群数量管理  洞庭湖区
英文关键词: social-economical-natural complex ecosystem  rodent  community  population control  Dongting Lake region
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2012BAD19B02);中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所123项目
作者单位E-mail
张美文 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 zhangmw@isa.ac.cn 
王勇 中国科学院亚热带农业研究所 wangy@isa.ac.cn 
李波 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 libo@isa.ac.cn 
周训军 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所 zhouxj@isa.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      以“社会—经济—自然复合生态系统”思维处理当今社会遇到的各类问题是维持可持续发展的需要。鼠类是地球上种类与数量最多的哺乳动物,虽在生态系统中起着重要作用,但也有一些种类对社会经济和人类健康会产生危害,有效控制害鼠种群数量是很有必要的。基于“社会─经济─自然复合生态系统”的思维,分析影响洞庭湖区主要害鼠群落结构及其种群数量变化的主要因素,探讨有效的控制策略。结果表明,害鼠受本身生物学特性以及所处环境自然因素的影响,种群数量呈现出一定的季节动态和年度动态;同时,当地的洪涝灾害、人工灭鼠、农房结构变化、农业生产活动、重大社会生态工程等的影响在一定时期也发挥非常重要的作用,是导致鼠类群落演替发生较大变化关键因素。近期而言,退田还湖和三峡工程对洞庭湖洲滩的鼠类群落均有非常明显的影响,农田的一些种类大量侵入洲滩生境。因此害鼠的成灾原因上有社会的、经济的、自然的因素。据此,在鼠害大面积暴发的情况下提出的“全栖息地毒鼠技术”,以及源于洞庭湖区东方田鼠生态学特性和暴发成灾机理的“阻断迁移通路”防治方法,均是适合于洞庭湖区域当时社会、经济、自然条件的鼠害治理实用技术,比单纯化学灭鼠方法的经济效益和生态效益都有明显的提升和改善。
英文摘要:
      In order to maintain sustainable development, “social-economic-natural compound ecosystem” should be regarded as one of scientific bases for dealing with various social problems. According this concept, proper strategies for rodent control should consider factors of social, economic and nature ecosystem. Besides biological characteristics of each rodent species and nature environment factors, rodent community in Dongting Lake region could be influenced by local flooding, artificial deratizations, the farmhouse structure (improved dwellings), agricultural production activities, and the major social ecological engineering, and so on, which could play a very important role in a certain period. For now, reconverting farmland to seasonally flooded wetlands in the Dongting Lake region and Three-Gorge project in the upstream of Yangtze River had very significant effect on rodent community in Dongting Lake region. On this background, “Controlling pest rodents using bait in their habitats” was put forward in Dongting Lake region when the population in some habitats was high in the past. Based on ecology characteristic and the outbreak mechanism of Microtus fortis, “the rodent-proof wall” was the best way to prevent the vole becoming pest. These controlling measures had gotten better economic benefit and ecological benefit than simple chemical controlling method. It is suggested to pay close attention to the impacts of social-economic activities on rodent populations.
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