文章摘要
发达国家保障农产品质量安全的经验与启示
Experiences and implications of ensuring the quality and safety of agricultural products in developed countries
投稿时间:2018-08-22  修订日期:2018-08-29
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2018.0072
中文关键词: 发达国家  农产品质量  质量安全  保障体系  可追溯体系
英文关键词: developed countries  quality of agricultural products  quality and safety  security system  traceability system
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(71803094);农业农村部软科学项目(2018088)
作者单位E-mail
高鸣 农业农村部农村经济研究中心 gaoming313@126.com 
迟亮 中国农业大学 chiliangmath@163.com 
宋洪远 农业农村部农村经济研究中心 gam313@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      农产品质量关系到我国乡村产业振兴,提升我国农产品质量,有利于增加农民收入、保障消费者健康、提高农产品国际竞争力、促进现代农业发展。基于我国农产品质量安全的思考,以美国、日本和欧盟为例,从多个维度总结和分析了发达国家和地区保障农产品质量安全的经验和做法,探讨构建农产品质量安全管理体系应关注的主要内容。结果表明,美国凭借着科学的农产品质量标准与认证体系、完善的管理和可追溯体系,保障了其农产品质量安全;日本在农产品质量安全管理中,其监测与预警、分权管理等方面较为先进;欧盟则是采用补贴奖励与集中管理等手段保障其农产品质量安全。研究表明,高效的农产品管理体系是保障农产品质量安全的基础,健全的法律法规体系是保障农产品质量安全的基石,完善的农产品标准体系、良好的可追溯体系和农产品质量风险预警体系等是保障农产品质量安全的重要手段。据此,结合国际经验和我国的农产品质量安全形势,提出我国应进一步加强对农产品质量安全保障的立法,建立健全相关法律法规,完善农产品质量标准体系、认证体系、监管体系、检测体系和风险监管体系等,以进一步保障我国农产品质量安全。
英文摘要:
      The product quality is essential to the revitalization of agriculture, the improvement of the safety of agriculture, the growth of farmers’ income, the healthy consumption of consumers, and the enhancement of the international competitiveness of agricultural products. Based on the current status of the quality and safety of agricultural products in China, this paper examined the experiences and practices of the quality and safety management of agricultural products in some developed countries and regions, including the United States, Japan, and the European Union, and discussed their implications to China. Results show that the advantages of the United States are the scientific standards, the certification system, and the perfect traceability system; the advantages of Japan are the monitoring and early warning systems, and the decentralized management; and the advantages of the European Union are subsidies and incentives and centralized management. This paper also finds that efficient agricultural product management system is the basis for ensuring the quality and safety of agricultural products. A sound legal system is the cornerstone to ensure the quality and safety of agricultural products. Perfect agricultural product standard system, good traceability system and early warning system of quality risks are the key to improve the quality and safety of agricultural products. Accordingly, combining the current situation of the quality and safety management of agricultural products in China with these international experiences, and to further ensure the quality and safety management of agricultural products in China, this paper suggests: to further strengthen the legislation for ensuring the quality and safety of agricultural products, to establish and improve laws and regulations on the quality and safety management of agricultural products, and to improve the quality standards, certification system of agricultural products, supervision system, inspection and testing system, and risk management system.
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