文章摘要
稻鱼种养型农场的特征与效应分析
Characteristics and the effects of the rice-fish integration based farms in China
投稿时间:2018-07-06  修订日期:2018-07-17
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2018.0060
中文关键词: 稻鱼系统  农场  水稻产量  氮肥投入  农药使用  经济总产出
英文关键词: rice-fish integrated system  farm  Rice yield  fertilizer input  pesticide input  economic output
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300905);浙江省三农六方“水稻 ”生态高效模式关键技术研究与集成示范项目(CTZB-F170623LWZ-SNY1-1)
作者单位E-mail
王晨 浙江大学生命科学学院 浙江 杭州 21507087@zju.edu.cn 
胡亮亮 浙江大学生命科学学院 浙江 杭州 zjuhll@126.com 
唐建军 浙江大学生命科学学院 浙江 杭州 chandt@zju.edu.cn 
郭梁 浙江大学生命科学学院 浙江 杭州 190966769@qq.com 
任伟征 浙江大学生命科学学院 浙江 杭州 renweizheng2012@126.com 
丁丽莲 浙江大学生命科学学院 浙江 杭州 lian710@qq.com 
怀燕 浙江省种植业管理局 浙江杭州 592778787@qq.com 
王岳钧 浙江省种植业管理局 浙江杭州 wangyj5678@qq.com 
陈欣 浙江大学生命科学学院 浙江 杭州 chen-tang@zju.edu.cn 
摘要点击次数: 535
全文下载次数: 322
中文摘要:
      稻鱼系统是将水稻栽培与水产养殖结合起来,以获得更多量和更多样化的食物、更友好的环境的一种种养结合模式。稻鱼系统在我国历史悠久,2000年以来发展迅速发展,形成了规模化、产业化、品牌化和多样化的稻鱼系统经营模式。本文以各类新型农业经营主体发展起来的多类型稻鱼型农场为研究对象,采用成对比较法,从农场基本情况、水稻产量与水产产量、氮肥与农药使用、经济总产出等方面进行了特征分析,探讨了稻鱼种养的综合效应。结果表明:调查的153个稻鱼种养型农场主要为稻鲤、稻鳖、稻虾、稻蟹和稻鳅共5种类型,90%的农场的土地规模主要分布在1~50 hm2之间,46.6%的农场以专业合作社形式经营,而家庭农场经营形式占29.4%,农业公司占24%;农场经营者平均年龄为44 岁,受教育程度高中及以上学历占97.2%。与常规水稻单作农场相比,稻鱼种养型农场的水稻产量表现为增产或稳产效应,同时产出一定数量水产品,平均水产品产量为(1.19 ± 0.08) t/hm2。稻鱼种养型农场氮肥平均投入为(128.40 ± 8.03) kg N/hm2,比水稻单作模式平均减少33.63%;农药平均投入(6.21 ± 0.62) kg a.i./hm2,比水稻单作模式平均减少59.73%。稻鱼种养型农场总经济产出平均为(6.98 ± 4.12)万元/hm2,不同模式间差异较大;与水稻单作经济产出((2.60 ± 0.34) 万元/hm2)相比,稻鲤、稻鳖、稻虾、稻蟹和稻鳅总经济产出分别增加效益205%、78%、156%、710%和480%。稻鱼种养型农场总投入产出比为0.47 ± 0.16,显著低于水稻单作模式总投入产出比0.66 ± 0.17。研究表明,以农场为载体的规模化和产业化发展起来的稻鱼系统,采用标准化技术和产业化经营能使稻鱼系统的效应大大提高,也有利于稻渔共生产业的健康发展。
英文摘要:
      Rice-fish system (“fish” refers to a wide range of aquatic animals including fish, prawn, shrimp, crabs, soft shell turtles, etc. in this study), one of the integrated agro-aquaculture system (IAAS), integrates rice production with aquaculture to obtain more and diversified food and a better environment. In the last decades, diversified rice-fish systems have been developed in China. In this study, we conduct a farmer survey on the rice-fish integration based farms (RF-farm) and their corresponding rice monoculture farms (RM-farm) by means of pair sampling method. Five types of the RF-farms that included rice-carp, rice-loach, rice-crayfish, rice-crab and rice-turtle, totally 153 pair of samples, were selected. We compared the farm management, farming activities, yields of rice and fish, nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide application rate, economic output and input/output ratio of sampled farms. Our survey showed that the land scale of 90% of RF-farms was 1 to 50 hm2. Forty-seven percent of the RF-farms were run in “Specialized Farmers Cooperatives” while 29.4% and 24% of the RF-farms were run in family farm and agricultural company, respectively. The average age of RF-farms’ owners was 44 years old, and 97.2% of them graduated from high school or better educated. Compared to their corresponding rice monoculture, rice grain yield of the five types of RF-farms did not decreased. For farms of rice-carp, rice-crab and rice-crayfish, rice yield was almost the same as RM- farms. For the farms of rice-loach and rice-turtle, rice yields were 3.77% and 6.93% higher than RM- farms respectively. RF-farms also produced a substantial aquatic production. The yields of fish in the five types of RF-farms were (1.19 ± 0.08) t/hm2. The average use of pesticides in the five types of RF-farms was (6.21 ± 0.62) kg a.i./hm2, which was 59.73% lower than that in RM-farms. The average use of nitrogen fertilizer in the five types of RF-farms was (128.40 ± 8.03) kg N/hm2, which was 33.63% lower than in RM-farms. The average total economic output in the five types of RF-farms was (69 800 ± 41 200) yuan/hm2. Compared to their corresponding RM-farms, which average output is (26 000 ± 3 400) yuan/hm2, the total economic output of rice-carp, rice-crab, rice-crayfish, rice-turtle and rice-loach increased by 205%, 78%, 156%, 710%, and 480%, respectively. For the ratio of input to output, the RF-farms had a significantly lower ratio (0.47 ± 0.16) than the RM-farms (0.66 ± 0.17). These results suggested that the construction and promotion of rice-fish farms can ensure a sustainable development of rice-fish systems.
查看全文   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
关闭