文章摘要
我国农田土壤重金属污染修复技术、问题及对策诌议
Current remediation technologies of heavy metal polluted farmland soil in China: Progress, challenge and countermeasure
投稿时间:2018-06-08  修订日期:2018-06-15
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2018.0048
中文关键词: 农田土壤  重金属污染  修复技术  农产品安全  植物吸取修复  稳定修复
英文关键词: farmland soil  heavy metal pollution  remediation technologies  agricultural products safety  phytoextraction, stabilization
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0801104);国家自然科学基金项目(41325003);江苏省重点研发计划项目(BE2017778)
作者单位E-mail
胡鹏杰 中国科学院南京土壤研究所 pjhu@issas.ac.cn 
李柱 中国科学院南京土壤研究所 lizhu@issas.ac.cn 
吴龙华 中国科学院南京土壤研究所 lhwu@issas.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      我国农田土壤重金属污染和农产品重金属超标问题突出,引起了全社会的广泛关注,随着《土壤污染防治行动计划》等各项政策措施的出台,重金属污染农田的修复治理和安全利用迫在眉睫,全国各地启动了多个修复试点工程。基于我国农田土壤重金属污染修复技术,分析了存在的主要问题,探讨今后重点研究方向和对策建议。目前农田重金属污染修复技术有工程修复、物化稳定—低吸收作物联合阻控、农艺(水分等)调控、植物吸取修复、化学淋洗修复、替代种植与安全利用等。存在的主要问题有,鲜有考虑土壤自净能力,修复目标极少考虑土壤的自然与肥力属性,修复前调查评估难以细致、修复方案可行性不强,修复实施过程监理、第三方检测需规范,以及影响修复成败的非技术因素。因此,针对我国农田土壤重金属污染修复,提出应当加强修复技术基础创新,加快修复技术集成与模式创新,加强污染调查和修复过程管理与评估。
英文摘要:
      The heavy metal pollution of farmland soil and agricultural products in China has aroused widespread concern. The promulgation of the “Soil Pollution Prevention Action Plan” and other policies in China make the great demand for remediation and safe utilization of heavy metal polluted farmland. Numerous remediation pilot projects had been started all over the country. Current remediation technologies and challenges on heavy metal polluted farmland soils are analyzed, and the main research aspects and countermeasures in the future are proposed. These remediation technologies include engineering remediation, chemical stabilization and metal low accumulation crop control technologies, agronomic measurements (such as water management), phytoextraction, chemical leaching, substitution and safe utilization, and so on. The existing problems of current soil remediation are discussed. For example, little has been concerned about the soil self-purification capacity, rarely taken into account on the soil fertility properties in the remediation targets, pre-investigation usually do not have enough detailed information for roadmap making of remediation, the implementation scheme sometimes is not practical for real field remediation, the third party supervision and detection during and after remediation need be specified. And, other non-technical factors that might affect the remediation efficiency also need be concerned. The future key points for the remediation of heavy metal polluted farmland in China are also put forward, which include strengthening the renovation of fundamental technologies, speeding up the integration of technologies and the renovation of remediation mode, and strengthening the management and assessment during pollution investigation and remediation process.
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