文章摘要
长期施肥对黄泥田土壤微生物群落结构和多样性的影响
Effects of long-term fertilizations on microbial community structure and diversity in yellow clayey paddy soil
投稿时间:2018-03-23  修订日期:2018-05-12
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2018.0035
中文关键词: 长期施肥  微生物  群落结构  多样性  高通量测序
英文关键词: long-term fertilization  microorganisms  community structure  diversity  high-throughput sequencing
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(4170010194);中国博士后科学基金面上资助项目(2017M622044)
作者单位E-mail
聂三安 福建农林大学生命科学学院 sanie@fafu.edu.cn 
赵丽霞 福建农林大学资源与环境学院 lixiazhao0310@163.com 
王祎 福建农林大学资源与环境学院 875967075@qq.com 
雷秀美 福建农林大学资源与环境学院 776376472@qq.com 
王飞 福建省农科院土壤肥料研究所 fjwangfei@163.com 
邢世和 福建农林大学资源与环境学院 fafuxsh@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      为揭示微生物群落结构特征和多样性对不同施肥的响应机制及与土壤环境因子的关系,以黄泥田水稻土为研究对象,设置不施肥(CK)、单施化肥(NPK)、化肥配施秸秆(NPKS)3个处理,采用Illumina Miseq高通量测序平台对土壤细菌16S rRNA基因和真菌ITS基因进行测序,分析不同施肥对细菌、真菌群落结构和多样性的影响。结果表明,黄泥田土壤细菌的主要类群为Acidobacteria、Proteobacteria、Chloroflexi、Actinobacteria和Firmicutes,而真菌主要由Ascomycota、Basidiomycota和Zygomycota构成。长期施肥导致土壤细菌和真菌群落结构及相对丰度产生显著差异。与CK相比,NPK和NPKS处理黄泥田土壤的Proteobacteria、Actinobacteria和Zygomycota相对丰度分别增加26.58%和45.84%、30.36%和55.45%、86.17%和68.08%。细菌的α多样性方面,不同处理的Shannon和Simpson指数无显著性差异,但NPK处理的Chao1和ACE指数均显著低于CK和NPKS处理。真菌α多样性指数均表现为NPK处理显著低于CK和NPKS处理。RDA分析结果表明,细菌群落结构主要受盐度、孔隙度、总氮、微生物生物量氮、有机质、微生物生物量碳和含水量的影响,而真菌群落结构的关键影响因素是含水量、孔隙度和盐度,其次为总氮、微生物生物量氮、有机质和微生物生物量碳。土壤pH对细菌和真菌的群落结构影响较小。因此,不同施肥影响细菌和真菌的群落结构组成和多样性。有机无机肥配施提高细菌和真菌的多样性,改变细菌和真菌的群落结构组成,为改良土壤质量和维持农田生态系统功能提供理论依据。
英文摘要:
      This study was conducted to clarify the response mechanisms of microbial community structure and diversity under different fertilization as well as their relationships with soil environmental factors. Based on yellow clayey paddy soil, three treatments i.e. CK (control), NPK (chemical fertilization), and NPKS (chemical fertilization plus rice straw) were carried out. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS gene were analyzed to study effects of microbial community structure and diversity in different fertilization treatments using Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing platform. Results showed Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant identified bacteria, whereas fungi was mainly composed of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Zygomycota at Pylum level. It was implied that long-term fertilization significantly affected the community structure and relative abundance of soil bacteria and fungi. Compared to CK, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Zygomycota under NPK and NPKS treatments in yellow clayey paddy soil increased 26.58% and 45.84%, 30.36% and 55.45% as well as 86.17% and 68.08%, respectively. As for α-diversity of bacterial community, the Shannon index and Simpson index in different treatments showed no significant difference, whereas Chao1 index and ACE index in NPK treatment was significant lower than those of CK and NPKS treatments. Significant lower indexes among α-diversity of fungal community were found compared with CK and NPKS treatments. RDA analysis showed that bacterial community structure was mainly affected by salinity, porosity, total nitrogen, microbial biomass nitrogen, organic matter, microbial biomass carbon and moisture, while fungal community structure was more strongly affected by moisture, porosity and salinity. Soil pH showed very low effect on bacterial and fungal community structures. This study indicated different fertilization affected the community structure and diversity of bacteria and fungi. Application chemical fertilization combined with inorganic fertilization may potentially improve the diversity of bacteria and fungi, change the composition of community structure. The research can provide a theoretical basis for improving soil quality and maintaining function of farmland ecosystems.
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