文章摘要
农业机械化对我国粮食生产的影响:产出效应、结构效应和外溢效应
The effect of agricultural mechanization on grain production in China: Output effect, structure effect and spillover effect
投稿时间:2018-03-06  修订日期:2018-05-13
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2018.0038
中文关键词: 农业机械化  粮食生产  劳动节约型技术  产出效应  结构效应  外溢效应
英文关键词: agricultural mechanization  grain production  labor-saving technology  output effect  structure effect  spillover effect
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(71473052);贵州省教育厅人文社科研究基地项目(2016JD013,2016JD007);贵州大学文科重大科研项目(GDZT201710)
作者单位E-mail
刘 超 贵州师范学院经济与政治学院贵州大学中国喀斯特地区乡村振兴研究院 liuchaogeu@126.com 
朱满德 贵州大学经济学院 mdzhu@gzu.edu.cn 
陈其兰 贵州大学经济学院 925798518@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      改革开放以来,我国农业机械化发展迅速,农机总动力显著增长,农机结构不断优化,机械化作业水平快速提高。作为一种高效的劳动节约型技术,农业机械化提高了粮食生产的劳动生产率和土地产出率。同时推动了要素投入结构优化和种植结构调整,使部分区域种植结构呈“趋同化”“趋粮化”发展;促进了种粮主体、农机投资和农机作业服务主体、兼业和转移就业人员等多方式增收。通过农业机械化投资,以投资锁定效应、沉淀成本促进了新型农业经营主体形成和粮食规模经营;并以劳动节约、效率提升实现了节本增效,提升了粮食基础竞争力,推动了农业技术进步和发展方式转变。农业机械化的产出效应、结构效应和外溢效应已经深刻影响我国农业发展格局。因此,加大对农业机械化技术研发、应用和推广的支持,对农机具购置和农机生产作业服务予以补贴,不失为提高农业发展质量和效益、推动农业发展方式转变和农业现代化的一种可选路径。
英文摘要:
      With the fast development of China’s agricultural mechanization since 1978, China’s agricultural machinery power has been enhanced remarkably, agricultural machinery structure has been improved significantly, and the machinery operation rate has been increasing continuously. As a high-efficient and labor-saving technology, agricultural mechanization enhances the grain productivity and promotes the optimization of the adjustment of input structure and crop structure, leading to the grain production concentration and expansion. At the same time, agricultural mechanization can also increase the revenue for multiple sectors involved in grain production, including both part-time and full-time grain producers, machinery investors, and service providers. Through machinery investment, new grain production entities can be cultivated and scale production can be realized due to the lock-in and sunk cost effects. Agricultural mechanization can also reduce grain production cost and improve the input efficiency to enhance the competitiveness of grain production and promote agricultural technology progress in China. The output effect, structural effect and spillover effect of agricultural mechanization have profoundly affected agricultural production and development patterns in China, meaning that supporting and subsidizing the purchase of agricultural mechanization technology and farm machinery services is an optimal path to promote agricultural transformation and agricultural modernization.
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