文章摘要
乡村旅游对农户生计脆弱性影响评价——基于社会一生态耦合分析视角
The impacts of rural tourism on the vulnerability of farmers’ livelihood: From the perspective of coupled social-ecological system
投稿时间:2018-02-17  修订日期:2018-05-14
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2018.0040
中文关键词: 乡村旅游  农户生计  社会—生态系统  生计脆弱性  生计资本  生计策略  可持续生计
英文关键词: rural tourism  farmers’ livelihood  social-ecological system  livelihood vulnerability  livelihood capital  livelihood strategies  sustainable livelihoods
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(71774136);教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目(17YJA630003);中央高校基本科研业务费专项基金(20720181089)
作者单位E-mail
蔡晶晶 厦门大学经济学院 crystalgly@126.com 
吴希 厦门大学经济学院 bighero0616@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      基于社会—生态耦合分析视角,将乡村旅游目的地视为局域性的社会—生态系统,“旅游活动”视为对系统的扰动,“参与旅游”视为农户生存理性下的适应性生计策略;借鉴可持续生计框架对福建省5个案例村乡村旅游发展历程进行了梳理,综合运用主客观权重法对农户生计资本和生计脆弱性进行评价与分类对比分析,探究农户生计资本和生计脆弱性的影响因素。结果表明:乡村旅游在改善农户生计资本的同时也对当地社会—生态系统形成全面扰动和冲击,农户生计脆弱度整体处于中高水平。不同案例村、不同生计策略类型的农户生计情况表现出较大差异。除了生计策略,农户生计资本还受到旅游公司合作、村干部能力、游客素质和农户互助交流的显著正向影响。社会子系统遭受的不利扰动是农户“降低脆弱性”的最大障碍,社会资本和认知资本本身的高度不稳定性是驱动生计脆弱度上升的关键因素。因此,乡村旅游可持续发展应确保农户土地增值收益,引导农户自组织建设,以制度供给保证农户对社区公共事务的主导权,改善自然资本和物质资本,建立更高覆盖面的社会保障体系,提高农户抵御生计风险的能力降低生计脆弱性。
英文摘要:
      From the perspective of coupled social-ecological system (SES), the rural tourism destination was considered as the local SES, the “tourism” as a disturbance to the system, and the “participation in tourism” as farmers’ adaptive livelihood strategy, and with the method of subjective and objective weighting, this paper examined the development history of rural tourism in the five selected villages of Fujian Province, evaluated the vulnerability of farmers’ livelihood, and analyzed the influencing factors. The results show that the farmers’ livelihood capital has been improved by the development of rural tourism but the local SES also suffered the disturbance and shocks from rural tourism. The farmers’ livelihood vulnerability is at middle-high level and it depends on different villages and different livelihood strategies. In addition, farmers’ livelihood capital is positively correlated with the cooperation among the sample villages and travel agencies, the capacity of village officials and the tourists’ civilization, and mutual exchange among different farmers. The adverse disturbance to the social system became the largest obstacle for farmers to reduce their livelihood vulnerability, and the high uncertainty of social capital and cognitive capital is the key driving force. In order to reduce farmers’ livelihood vulnerability and to achieve the sustainable development of rural tourism, the government should ensure the land increment income of farmers, guide farmers to organize themselves, guarantee farmers’ decision-making on the community public affairs through the supply of institutions, improve their natural and physical capital, establish higher coverage of social security system, and enhance farmers’ capability of resisting livelihood risks.
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