文章摘要
中国海洋渔业社会—生态系统脆弱性评价及影响因素分析
The vulnerability evaluation and influencing factors of the socio-ecological system of China’s marine fisheries
投稿时间:2018-01-08  修订日期:2018-03-19
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2018.0024
中文关键词: 海洋渔业社会—生态系统  脆弱性评价  障碍度模型  暴露性  敏感性  适应性
英文关键词: the socio-ecological system of marine fisheries  vulnerability assessment  obstacle model  exposure  sensitivity  adaptation
基金项目:国家社会科学基金重大项目(16ZDA050);宁波大学校科研基金项目(XYW18001)
作者单位E-mail
陈 琦 宁波大学 商学院 chenqi2@nbu.edu.cn 
胡求光 宁波大学 huqiuguang@nbu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      从社会—生态的复杂系统视角探究海洋渔业在多重扰动下的脆弱性问题,对于破解当前海洋渔业可持续发展困境具有重要的理论指导意义。基于“暴露性—敏感性—适应性”3个维度,构建脆弱性评价指标体系和函数模型,同时引入障碍度模型,探究2001—2015年期间中国海洋渔业社会—生态系统脆弱性的变化趋势及其影响因素。结果表明:暴露性指数介于0.3~0.7之间,整体表现出先上涨后下降再上涨的波动趋势;敏感性指数和适应性指数则均从0.1增长至0.7左右,呈现出持续波动上涨的态势;脆弱性指数在0.3~0.8之间,总体表现为从水平波动到大幅下降再到缓慢增长的阶段性趋势。研究表明,暴露性的变化主要受海洋气候变化、陆源入海污染和风暴潮灾害的影响,敏感性的提高主要与社会就业依赖度、渔业资源开发强度和海水养殖开发强度的增加有关,而适应性近年来受渔民家庭收入水平、渔民生活压力状况和政府效率因素的影响较大。在此基础上,提出加强海洋气候变化基础科学研究、严格控制近海渔业资源开发强度、制定动态的适应性渔业管理制度、完善渔民社会保障体系等针对性建议。
英文摘要:
      Analyzing the vulnerability of marine fisheries under multiple disturbances from the perspective of the socio-ecological system is very helpful to solve the problem of sustainable development of marine fisheries in China. Based on the three dimensions of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptation, this paper constructed an evaluation index system and a functional model and applied an obstacle model at the same time to analyze the vulnerability and the influencing factors of the socio–ecological system of China’s marine fisheries. Results show that from 2001 to 2015, the exposure index ranged from 0.3 to 0.7, showing a fluctuation trend of slow growth-declining-slow growth. Both sensitivity index and adaptability index increased from 0.1 to about 0.7, showing a constant increasing trend. The vulnerability index ranged from 0.3 to 0.8, showing a trend of horizontal fluctuation-deep declining-slow growth. The changes in the exposure were mainly affected by the climate change, land-based pollution and marine storm surge disasters. The sensitivity was mainly affected by employment dependence, fishery resource development strength and aquaculture development intensity. And the adaptability was mainly affected by the income level of fisherman families, the pressure of fisherman’s life and the efficiency of the government. Based on the above analysis results, this paper provides the following suggestions: strengthening the basic research on marine climate change, controlling the development intensity of offshore fishery resources, formulating the adaptive fishery management system, and improving the social security system of fishermen.
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