文章摘要
我国粮食主产区粮食生产现状、存在问题及政策建议
The status and problems of grain production in the main grain production areas of China and policy suggestions
投稿时间:2017-09-27  修订日期:2017-12-06
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2017.0127
中文关键词: 粮食主产区  粮食生产  利益分配  粮食功能区  资源约束
英文关键词: main grain producing areas  grain production  grain functional areas  benefit distribution  resource constraints
基金项目:国家社会科学基金重大项目(14ZDA041);中国农业科学院科技创新工程项目(ASTIP-IAED-2017-02)
作者单位E-mail
王一杰 中国农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所 wangyj0116@126.com 
邸菲 中国农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所 difei0728@foxmail.com 
辛岭 中国农业科学院农业经济与发展研究所 xinling@caas.cn 
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中文摘要:
      粮食主产区贡献了全国约75%的粮食产量和80%左右的商品粮,其粮食生产状况直接影响着我国的粮食整体产能,在国家粮食安全中起到至关重要的作用。基于2006—2016年11年的中国统计年鉴数据,采用对比分析研究的方法,从粮食作物播种面积、粮食产量和单产、主产区省际差异等多个角度对主产区粮食生产的现状分析,并对其粮食生产中存在的问题进行了深入挖掘。结果表明,粮食主产区中“粮食大省、经济弱省、财政穷省”的现状并未得到根本性改善,粮食生产中仍存在产销区利益分配失衡,土地规模化经营程度低,科技贡献不足,农业劳动力老龄化,粮食主产区北移加剧了资源约束和灾害风险,化肥和农药过度使用造成主产区生态环境压力不断加大以及粮食主产区省际间粮食生产水平差异大等问题。因此,提出加速向粮食功能区转变,加大农业科技投入,加快土地流转和推动适度规模经营,落实农业发展新理念,加大利益补偿力度增强主产区种粮的积极性等政策建议。
英文摘要:
      The main grain production areas play vital roles in national grain security. They have contributed about 75% of all grains and 80% of commodity grains for China and directly affected the capacity of national grain production. Based on the statistical yearbook data of in the main production areas and other areas during 2006 to 2016 in China, and applying the comparative analysis method, this paper evaluated the current situation of grain production in China and compared the inter-provincial indicators in the main grain production areas. Results show that the situation of “grain provinces, economical weak provinces, and financially poor provinces” still exists. This paper also identified some problems of grain production in the main production areas, including unbalanced distribution of benefits, small production scales, low contribution rate of agricultural technology, aging of agricultural labors, constraints of resources, high risks of natural disasters due to the northward movement of the main production areas, increasing pressure on the ecological environment from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides, and large gaps in the levels of grain production among provinces in the main grain-producing areas. To solve these problems, this paper suggests to accelerate the transformation from the main grain production areas to the grain functional areas, to increase investment in agricultural technology, to speed up the land circulation, and to adopt new concepts of agricultural production.
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