文章摘要
国内耕地休耕试点主要做法、问题与对策研究
Main methods, problems and countermeasures of farmland fallow pilot programs in China
投稿时间:2017-09-04  修订日期:2017-11-02
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2017.0130
中文关键词: 休耕试点  参与主体  技术路径  休耕专项基金  补偿机制  耕地保护
英文关键词: fallow pilot programs  participating subjects  technical implementation path  special fund of fallow  compensation mechanism  farmland protection
基金项目:国家社会科学基金项目(16CJY044)
作者单位E-mail
杨文杰 北京林业大学人文社科学院 gs_ywj@163.com 
巩前文 北京林业大学绿色发展与中国农村土地问题研究中心 gongqianwen@bjfu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      党的十八届五中全会首次提出“探索实行耕地轮作休耕制度试点”,休耕是实施“藏粮于地,藏粮于技”的战略布局,对保障我国粮食安全和农业绿色转型具有深远意义。本文基于对地下水漏斗区(河北)、重金属污染区(湖南)、西南石漠化区(贵州、云南)、西北生态严重退化区(甘肃)等4大典型试点区域的调研,从休耕参与主体、实施技术路径、休耕补偿机制等方面比较归纳了具有区域特色的休耕治理方法。同时,研究发现各休耕试点区域实践中普遍存在经营主体参与不足、参与主体与补偿对象错位、补偿方式单一及缺乏有效监管等问题。为保障休耕试点的有序推进,进一步实现休耕试点的常态化制度化,建议提升农户休耕参与意识,鼓励新型农业经营主体发挥规模优势共同参与;拓宽以政府财政补贴、市场调节融资和社会资本注入的多渠道资金筹措方式,联合当地农村银行和第三方基金组织建立休耕专项基金;从补偿标准制定和比例分配出发制定差别化动态补偿机制;最后应加强各休耕利益相关者的监管,借助卫星遥感技术等监测手段,建立休耕审批、责任可追溯和效果评估的一体化监管体系。
英文摘要:
      “Exploring the implementation of farmland rotation and fallow pilot programs” proposed at the Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the strategic layout of “storing grain in the field and storing grain in technology” have profound significance on the grain security and green transformation of agriculture in China. Based on the survey information from the four typical pilot regions, including groundwater funnel zone (Hebei), heavy metal pollution zone (Hunan), southwest rocky desertification zone (Guizhou, Yunnan), and northwest ecological serious degradation zone (Gansu), this paper compared the methods of fallow practices among different regions from three different perspectives: agricultural management subject, technical implementation path, and compensation mechanisms. Results show that all the fallow pilot programs have the following problems: lack of participation of local farmers, mismatch between pilot participants and compensation recipients, limited compensation methods, and lack of supervision mechanism. To effectively promote the fallow practice, this paper suggests: to encourage the participation of New Agricultural Management Entities to take part in scale advantages, to broaden the way to raise funds for multi-channels of government financial subsidies, market adjustment financing and social capital injection, to establish the special fund of fallow by uniting local rural banks and third-party funds, to develop differential dynamic compensation mechanisms to start out with compensation standard and scale allocation, and to strengthen the supervision of all stakeholders to establish an integrated regulatory system for the review of fallow, liability traceability, and evaluation of fallow with monitoring means such as satellite remote sensing technology.
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