文章摘要
雇工劳动对农户粮食生产技术效率的影响研究——基于三省水稻种植户的调查
The effects of contract-labors on technical efficiency of grain production: Based on a survey data of rice farms in three provinces
投稿时间:2017-09-02  修订日期:2017-12-21
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2017.0132
中文关键词: 农业雇工  粮食生产  规模经营  技术效率  随机前沿生产函数
英文关键词: agriculture contract-labors  grain production  scale management  technical efficiency  trans-log stochastic frontier production function
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(71573133, 71773116);浙江省科技厅软科学项目(2017C35054)
作者单位E-mail
黄晨鸣 浙江农林大学 703848418@qq.com 
朱臻 浙江农林大学 zhuzhen8149278@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      随着我国现代农业与规模农业的不断推进,农业经营主体对雇工劳动力的需求日益增大。针对雇工中存在的道德风险问题,从雇工劳动视角分析其对粮食生产效率的影响对于进一步梳理粮食规模化经营中存在的瓶颈制约问题具有重要的现实意义。基于黑龙江、浙江、四川3省的调研数据,采用不同前沿面的超越对数随机前沿生产函数,分析农户粮食生产技术效率及其损失的影响因素,重点考察雇工劳动对农户粮食生产技术效率的影响。结果表明:雇工生产在粮食生产中成为一种普遍现象,44.7%的样本农户进行雇工生产,规模经营户的雇工需求尤为突出。农户粮食生产的平均技术效率为85.11%,存在显著的技术效率损失,但技术效率的省际差异并不明显;农业雇工投入比例与粮食生产技术效率呈现“倒U型”效应趋势,雇工投入比例在25%~50%区间内,农户的粮食生产技术效率最高。控制变量方面,户主受教育年限、人均纯收入和地块面积对生产技术效率均有显著的正向影响,种地规模、地块距离家的距离、地块受灾和土壤质量均对粮食生产技术效率有显著的负向影响。基于此,提出普及农业机械化生产与开拓新型经营方式、建立有效劳动监督激励机制与“农业CEO”管理机制、重视农业劳动力的人力资本积累等建议。
英文摘要:
      With the promotion of modern agriculture and scale agriculture in China, the demand for contract-labors is increasing. However, the problem of moral hazard during the hiring process became a problem for the industry. It has great practical significance to further analyze the bottleneck in grain scale operation from the perspective of contract-labors. Based on a household survey data in three provinces: Heilongjiang, Zhejiang and Sichuan, and applying the Trans-log Stochastic Frontier Production Function, this paper analyzed the technical efficiency of grain production and its influencing factors on technical efficiency loss and discussed how contract-labors affected the technical efficiency of grain production. Results show that the act of hiring labors becomes a common phenomenon in grain production. There are 44.7% of the sample farmers hiring contract-labors, and the scale managements are particularly prominent in the demand for contract-labors. The average technical efficiency of grain production was 85.11% with a significant loss, and there was no obvious difference among three provinces. The proportion of agricultural contract-labors and the technical efficiency curve of grain production illustrate the trend of "inverted U-shape effect": the highest proportion of productivity range of contract-labors is from 25% to 50%. This research also found that the education level, the net per capita income, and the land area have significant positive effects on the technical efficiency. While the distance between home to the plots, natural disasters, and soil quality of plots have significant negative effects on the technical efficiency. Based on the above results, this paper suggests to popularize agricultural mechanization, to build labor supervision mechanism and CEO management system, and to focus on the accumulation of human capital in grain production.
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