文章摘要
小麦秸秆生物质炭添加对第四纪红壤CO2和N2O排放的影响
Effect of wheat straw-biochar amendment on CO2 and N2O emissions from a Quaternary red soil
投稿时间:2017-05-11  修订日期:2017-07-12
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2017.0111
中文关键词: 生物质炭  红壤  二氧化碳  氧化亚氮  温室气体排放
英文关键词: biochar  red soil  CO2  N2O  greenhouse gas emissions
基金项目:湖南省自然科学基金项目(13JJ4114);宿州学院博士科研启动基金(2015jb04);宿州学院教授科研启动基金(2015zb02)
作者单位E-mail
刘杰云 宿州学院环境与测绘工程学院 liujieyun66@163.com 
邱虎森 中科院亚热带农业生态研究所 qiuhusen2008@163.com 
王聪 中科院亚热带农业生态研究所 mud_000@163.com 
汤宏 中科院亚热带农业生态研究所 13077315255@126.com 
沈健林 中科院亚热带农业生态研究所 jlshen@isa.ac.cn 
付金沐 宿州学院环境与测绘工程学院 szszfjm@126.com 
吴金水 中科院亚热带农业生态研究所 jswu@isa.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      生物质炭具有含碳量高、吸附性强、不易分解等特点,农田施用生物质炭被认为是一种新型的土壤固碳和温室气体减排措施。本研究以第四纪红色粘土母质发育的红壤为对象,添加不同量的小麦秸秆生物质炭(0、0.5%、1%、2%和2.5% w/w),以不添加生物质炭处理为对照,在25 ℃恒温,保持田间持水量稳定的条件下,进行60 d的室内培养,通过测定培养期间土壤CO2和N2O排放与相关土壤性质,分析其动态变化,探讨生物质炭添加对红壤CO2和N2O排放的影响及其机制。结果表明,生物质炭添加极显著的影响CO2和N2O排放(P<0.01)。在培养期的前15 d,尤其是前2 d,与对照相比,生物质炭添加促进了CO2排放,且随着添加量的增加而增加,这与生物质炭本身含有的可溶性有机碳分解和无机碳释放有关。与CO2排放相反,在培养期的前10 d,生物质炭添加较对照降低了N2O排放。这是由于生物质炭吸附土壤中的NH4 -N,降低了硝化过程产生的N2O排放所致。在培养期的15~60 d,与对照相比,各生物质炭处理均显著降低了CO2的排放(P<0.05),降幅达8.2%~18.4%。培养10 d之后,与对照相比,生物质炭增加了土壤N2O排放。从整个培养期来看,与对照相比,生物质炭添加促进了CO2(0.5%生物质炭处理显著降低,P<0.05)和N2O排放,增幅分别为-6.3%~18.7%和16.9%~58.5%。研究表明,在室内培养条件下小麦秸秆生物质炭添加促进了第四纪红壤的CO2和N2O排放,该结果可以为田间条件下应用生物质炭作为减排措施提供参考。
英文摘要:
      Due to the special properties of biochar (e.g., high carbon content, strong absorption, and high pyrolysis), soil biochar amendment is increasingly regarded as a new measure to sequester soil carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To investigate the effect and mechanism of biochar amendment on CO2 and N2O emissions from red soils, an incubation experiment was carried out with an upland soil developed from Quaternary red clay. Five biochar (derived from wheat straw) treatments was arranged, with the application rates at 0, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 2.5% (w/w). No biochar treatment was the control treatment. The incubation lasted 60 d with a constant water content at field capacity in a culture room at 25 ℃. Significant correlations were observed between biochar application rates and CO2 and N2O emissions (P<0.01). During the 0-15 d incubation, especially in the first 2 d, CO2 emissions from the biochar amendment treatments were higher than the control treatment and increased with increasing biochar application rate, which might be caused by the decomposition of soluble organic and inorganic carbon within biochar. Contrary to CO2 emissions, biochar amendment reduced N2O emissions during first 10 d, in comparison with the control treatment. Due to its strong absorption capacity, biochar adsorbed and consequently reduced soil NH4 -N, and resultantly decreased N2O emissions via the nitrification process. Since Day 15, biochar amendments significantly reduced CO2 emissions by 8.2%-18.4% (P<0.05), compared to the control treatment. While, since Day 10, biochar amendments increased N2O emissions, compared to the control treatment. Over the entire incubation period of 60 days, biochar amendments increased CO2 (except for the biochar treatment with 0.5% rate reducing CO2 emission, P<0.05) and N2O emissions by -6.3%-18.7% and 16.9%-58.5% as compared to the control treatment, respectively. Our incubation experiment showed that the wheat straw-biochar amendments on a Quaternary red soil increased CO2 and N2O emissions, implying that biochar being a potential measure to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural lands is controversial.
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