文章摘要
农机作业服务的地块规模经济研究——以江苏省水稻收割为例
Economies of scale for machinery service on plot level: Based on rice harvest of Jiangsu
投稿时间:2020-05-28  修订日期:2020-07-06
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0069
中文关键词: 农机服务  供给  规模经济  地块  能源利用
英文关键词: agricultural machinery services  supply  economies of scale  plot  energy use
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(71773050);江苏省高校优势学科建设工程资助项目;江苏省高校现代粮食流通与安全协同创新中心资助项目
作者单位E-mail
杨宗耀 南京农业大学经济管理学院 1398950226@qq.com 
许永钦 南京农业大学经济管理学院 2461667162@qq.com 
纪月清 南京农业大学经济管理学院 jyq@njau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      实现农机作业服务的规模经济是我国促进农业机械化的政策取向。本文基于规模经济理论,以江苏省水稻收割为例,利用4县289块作业地块调查数据,采用双对数模型,分析农机户农机服务供给成本,探讨农机服务供给中地块的内在和外在规模经济特征。结果表明,地块规模越大,相应的单位机械作业成本越低,相比于不足0.07 hm2的地块,超过0.17 hm2的地块的机械收割成本平均减少了444.1元/hm2。并且连片作业比例高、地块易抵达、作物留茬短和未倒伏也会显著地降低机收作业成本。特别地,地块规模每扩大1倍,机械作业总成本增加81.9%,机械能源成本和机械与人工成本分别增加85.6%和70.3%,均小于1倍,即存在源于能源成本和机械与人工成本节约的单个地块的内在规模经济。而连片作业比例每扩大1%,机械作业总成本减少0.1%,机械与人工成本减少0.2%,即存在源于机械与人工成本节约的跨地块的外在规模经济。因此,提出鼓励通过整片流转、土地整理等促进地块规模经营,结合当地情况适当引导农户连片种植和组织农户间联合外包,完善农田基础设施建设等政策建议。
英文摘要:
      Achieving economies of scale for machinery use is China’s policy orientation of agricultural mechanization. Based on the theory of economies of scale and a sample survey data of 289 plots in the 4 counties of Jiangsu, this paper applied a double-logged model to analyze the supply cost of farmers’ machinery services, especially for inner and outer scale economy on plot level. Results show that: the larger the plot, the lower the machinery operation cost; and the joint plot size, easy access to plots, short crop stubble, and non-lodging also reduce the harvesting cost. Particularly, if the single plot size is doubled, the mechanical operation cost increases by 81.9%, less than doubled. And the energy cost and machinery and labor cost also increase by 85.6% and 70.3%, respectively. The 1% increase in the joint plot size results in the 0.1% decrease in the machinery operation cost. In addition, it also results in the 0.2% decrease in the machinery and labor cost. In summary, this paper suggests promoting massive circulation and land consolidation, guiding monoculture and farmers’ joint outsource, and improving the construction of farmland infrastructure.
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