文章摘要
传统农业回顾与稻渔产业发展思考
Review on the traditional agriculture for the development of intensive rice-fish system
投稿时间:2020-05-26  修订日期:2020-06-29
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0056
中文关键词: 优秀传统农业  可持续发展  青田稻鱼共生系统  稻渔共生产业  产业提升
英文关键词: outstanding traditional agriculture  sustainability  Qingtian rice-fish coculture system  rice-fish coculture integrative industry  industrial improvement
基金项目:国家“十三五”重点研发项目(2016YFD0300900);国家自然科学基金委员会国际合作项目(31661143001)
作者单位E-mail
唐建军 浙江大学生命科学学院学院生态学系 chandt@zju.edu.cn 
胡亮亮 浙江大学生命科学学院学院生态学系 zjuhull@126.com 
陈欣 浙江大学生命科学学院学院生态学系 chen-tang@zju.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      对传统农业的深入理解无疑有助于对农业现代化的推进。稻渔共生产业作为优秀传统农业的典范,对于推进中国农业现代化进程与可持续发展和世界稻渔共生产业的健康发展具有重要的启迪作用。本文从人类文明发展历程,尤其是中国传统农业文明发展历程的回顾切入,简要介绍了重要农业文化遗产的概念、内涵、实施及意义,并以传统稻鱼共生系统为例,深刻分析其传衍数千年的科学机制,讨论了稻渔共生产业发展面临的技术挑战及未来发展战略。研究指出,农耕文明的核心理念在华夏文明发展过程中具有重大的现实意义,而于20世纪60年年代初期兴起并不断强化的石油农业则可能存在包括农业生物多样性简化、农用化学品依赖、生产成本增高、资源竞争激烈、环境压力增大以及这些工业化的现代农业对发展中国家传统农业产生的不对等的利益竞争和负面影响显而易见。在政府政策激励以及来自科技工作者、技术人员和从农者的共同努力下,从中国优秀传统农业的典范传统稻鱼共生系统逐渐衍生、演变形成的稻渔共生生态种养产业在提高水土资源利用效率、丰富稻田产出、提高农民收入、减少面源污染等方面独具优势。研究表明,相关从业人员需要高度关注现阶段稻渔共生产业发展过程中所遇到的诸如模式选用、景观与农业生物多样性布设、种养协调、肥力调控、产品营销等技术细节问题并加以用心对待、科学掌握。因此提出,未来稻渔共生产业的发展还需要解决农艺机械化、投施精准化、农事省力化等新挑战,并呼吁学界、业界和政策制定部门等聚焦合力解决。
英文摘要:
      A better understanding to Chinese traditional agriculture is undoubtedly great helpful to the modernization of agriculture in China. Rice-fish coculture as a model of outstanding traditional agriculture of China, plays an important enlightening role in the modernization and sustainable development of Chinese agriculture, and in the healthy development of rice-fish coculture in the world. Starting from the review of the development of human civilization, especially the Chinese traditional agricultural documents, this paper briefly introduce the concept, connotation, implement and significance of important agriculture heritage, deeply analyze the scientific mechanism of over-thousands-years inheritance of rice-fish coculture, and discuss the technical challenges and development strategy in the rice-fish coculture production. It is stated that the nature idea of agriculture civilization play an important and practical role in Chinese civilization progress, while the so-called modern agriculture which began in 1960s showed out lots of straits such as simplified agrobiodiversity, overly depend on agrochemicals, increasing cost, intensive demand to resource and energy, more serious environmental impacts, and inequivalent profit injury to traditional agriculture in various developing countries. The rice-fish coculture production system, which well developed now from the outstanding traditional agriculture in southern China by joint efforts from government policy, scientific research, technical extension, agricultural enterprise and local farmers, presented with the obvious advantages in the enhancement of resource utilization efficiency, diversified paddy products, higher income and less nonpoint pollution from agricultural production. The paper also appeals more attentions from to model choose, landscape and biodiversity design, crop-animal coordination, soil fertility management, product marketing in the producing system of rice-fish coculture. Finally, the paper call for joint efforts from scholars, participator, and policy maker for practical farm machines, instruments for precision feeding and labor-saving techniques for the future production of rice-fish coculture production.
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