文章摘要
农机社会化服务对小规模农户劳动力转移的影响研究
The impacts of socialized service of agricultural machinery on labor transfer from small-scale farms
投稿时间:2019-12-10  最后修改时间:2020-04-01
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0036
中文关键词: 农机社会化服务  农户劳动力转移  小规模农户  环节异质性  倾向得分匹配法(PSM)
英文关键词: socialized service of agricultural machinery  farm labor transfer  small-scale farms  link heterogeneity  the propensity score matching (PSM) method
基金项目:农业农村部农业法制建设与政策调研项目
作者单位E-mail
杨思雨 中国农业大学经济管理学院 13693028123@126.com 
蔡海龙 中国农业大学经济管理学院 caihlmail@cau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      农机社会化服务有效破解“谁来种地、怎样种地”的困境,是发展现代农业的重要抓手。基于专业化分工理论,利用11省的农户调查数据,采用倾向得分匹配法(PSM),分析农机社会化服务对农户劳动力转移的影响,探讨影响效应在不同规模、地区下的组群差异。结果表明,农机社会化服务的总体使用比例不高,有48.1%的农户在粮食生产过程中至少有一个环节采用农机社会化服务,采用农机社会化服务的农户劳动力转移比例主要集中在30%~50%,农机社会化服务能够有效促进农户劳动力转移,但农机社会化服务的作用效果具有环节异质性。耕整地阶段和收获阶段农机社会化服务对农户劳动力转移的影响净效应分别为2.9%和3.1%,而播种阶段农机社会化服务对农户劳动力转移没有表现出显著的影响。相较于其他规模与地区的农户,农机社会化服务对小规模、北方省份的农户劳动力转移的影响效应更为显著。因此,应重点支持粮食生产的重点环节和薄弱环节参与农机社会化服务,抓住高标准农田建设的机遇,积极引导中国北方省份小规模农户采用农机社会化服务,重点提高小规模农户对农机社会化服务的认知,让更多小规模农户能放心地采用农机社会化服务,从而促进小规模农户融入现代农业发展轨道。
英文摘要:
      Socialized service of agricultural machinery effectively breaks down the dilemma of “who and how to grow food”, which is an important starting point for the development of modern agriculture. Based on a rural household survey in 11 provinces of China, and applying the propensity score matching method (PSM), this study analyzed the impacts and heterogeneity of socialized service of agricultural machinery on farm labor transfer. Results show that the overall utilization rate of socialized service of agricultural machinery is not high, 48.1% of farmers use socialized service of agricultural machinery in at least one link in the grain production process, and the proportion of farmer labor transfers using socialized service of agricultural machinery is mainly concentrated in 30%~50%, socialized service of agricultural machinery can effectively promote the transfer of rural labor force, but the effect of socialized service of agricultural machinery has link heterogeneity. The net effects of socialized service of agricultural machinery on farm labor transfer during land preparation period and crop harvest period are 2.9% and 3.1%, respectively. There is no significant effect during planting period. Compared with farmers of other sizes and regions, socialized service of agricultural machinery has a more significant effect on the labor transfer of small-scale farms and northern provinces. Therefore, this paper suggests to: 1) supporting the key links and weak links of grain production to participate in the socialized service of agricultural machinery; 2) seizing the opportunity of high-standard farmland construction, and actively guide small-scale farmers in northern China to adopt socialized service of agricultural machinery; and 3) improving small-scale farmers’ awareness of socialized service of agricultural machinery, to allow socialized service of agricultural machinery to play the leading role in the transfer of small-scale farm labors, and to guide small-scale farms to be integrated into the development track of modern agriculture.
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