文章摘要
中美农作物收入保险产品:比较与启示
Comparison and implications of crop revenue insurance products between China and the United States
投稿时间:2019-12-14  最后修改时间:2020-03-26
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0035
中文关键词: 农业保险  农作物收入保险产品  中国  美国  比较  启示
英文关键词: agricultural insurance  crop revenue insurance products  China  the United States  comparison  implications
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(71473252);国家统计局第三次全国农业普查研究项目(N42)
作者单位E-mail
魏加威 中国农业大学经济管理学院 cemweijw@163.com 
杨汭华 中国农业大学经济管理学院 cemyrh@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      农作物收入保险能够对因产量降低、价格下跌或产量与价格共同变化所引致的收入损失提供补偿,因而成为国际农业保险产品发展的方向。美国农作物收入保险运作已经相当成熟,对中国发展收入保险具有重要借鉴意义。采用比较研究法,分别介绍中美两国农业保险的组织架构,阐释两国农作物收入保险产品的具体设计和运作,并将两国农业保险产品置于巨灾保险(CAT)、买入保障水平(BUY-UP)和补充保障选项(SCO)的产品分类框架下进行比较分析。结果表明,中国农作物收入保险以准收入保险产品为主,尚存在产量和价格数据设置不合理、保障水平和保费补贴政策单一等不足。相比之下,美国农作物收入保险种类丰富,以累积多年的农作物产量数据和期货价格数据为基础,提供多档次可供选择的保障水平,保险单元按照个体和农场进行了区分,并设置了差异化的保费补贴政策。因此,从政策性农业保险要追随农业政策发展目标、提高农业保险组织效率和加强农业保险数据建设方面,对我国发展农作物收入保险给出重要启示。
英文摘要:
      Crop revenue insurance can compensate the revenue loss resulted from the fluctuations of yield, price or both. It is becoming the common trend of the development of agricultural insurance products in the world. The crop revenue insurance has stepped into mature stage in the United States, whose experience is an important reference for China to develop crop revenue insurance. Employing the comparative study method, this paper introduces the organization framework of agricultural insurance in China and the United States separately, and explains the basic design and operation of each crop revenue insurance product, and makes a comparative analysis on crop revenue insurance products between the two countries under the product classification framework of CAT, BUY-UP and SCO. Results show that the crop revenue insurance in China is still mainly based on quasi-revenue insurance products, and there are still some shortcomings such as some unreasonable settings of output and price data, single insurance coverage level and insurance premium subsidy policy. In contrast, there are many kinds of crop revenue insurance in the United States, based on years of data on crop yields and futures prices, it provides many alternative levels of protection, insurance units are divided between individuals and farms, and differentiated premium subsidy policies are set. Therefore, important implications for developing agricultural revenue insurance include: to follow the development goal of agricultural policy when designing policy-based agricultural insurance, to improve the efficiency of agricultural insurance organization, and to strengthen the construction of agricultural insurance data.
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