文章摘要
牧民收入不平等问题研究——以内蒙古为例
Study on the income inequality of herdsmen: A case study of Inner Mongolia
投稿时间:2019-06-13  最后修改时间:2019-09-11
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2019.0085
中文关键词: 牧民  收入不平等  非牧业收入  草原生态补助奖励政策  基尼系数  泰尔指数
英文关键词: herdsmen  income inequality  non-livestock income  grassland ecological compensation policy  the Gini coefficient  the Theil index
基金项目:内蒙古自治区自然科学基金面上项目(2018MS07001);内蒙古自治区自然科学基金博士基金(2018BS07001);内蒙古农业大学优秀青年科学基金(2014XYQ-14)
作者单位E-mail
周杰 内蒙古农业大学 zhoujie@imau.edu.cn 
高芬 内蒙古农业大学 fenfenzuibang@163.com 
乔光华 内蒙古农业大学;内蒙古畜牧业经济研究基地 guanghua.qiao@imau.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      随着市场化改革和国家对生态环境重视程度的不断加深,牧民收入结构及其不平等情况发生显著变化。为此,以内蒙古为例,利用定点追踪调查数据,运用基尼系数和泰尔指数,分析牧民收入分配状况,探讨市场化因素和政府生态环境政策对牧民收入不平等的影响。结果表明,牧民人均纯收入的基尼系数与国内居民的差距不大,整体在0.4~0.5之间波动,最高值为0.47,最低值为0.41。畜牧业收入仍是收入不平等的主要贡献因素,但影响程度在逐渐下降,非牧业收入与转移性收入对收入不平等的贡献在快速增加,其中畜牧业收入和非牧业收入起着拉大差距作用,转移性收入发挥着缩小差距作用。此外,工资性收入对非牧业收入不平等贡献最大,并呈增加的趋势;草原生态补奖收入对转移性收入不平等程度的贡献最大,有助于缩小差距。牧民收入的区域差异主要贡献来自于区域内差距,表明各盟市内部的收入不平等更为明显。因此,未来应进一步扩大牧民非牧业就业途径,在增加收入的过程中降低收入不平等;与此同时,草原生态补奖政策的持续实施和结构调整也需不断加强。
英文摘要:
      With the deepening of market-oriented reform and the state’s emphasis on ecological environment, the income structure and inequality of herdsmen have changed significantly. Based on a fixed-point tracking survey data of Inner Mongolia, this paper analyzes the income distribution of herdsmen by calculating the Gini coefficient and the Theil index and emphatically discusses the impacts of market factors and government ecological and environmental policies on the income inequality of herdsmen. Results show that the Gini coefficient was not much different from that of domestic residents and fluctuated with the highest value of 0.47 and the lowest value of 0.41. Animal husbandry income was still the main contributing factor to the income inequality, but the degree of influence was gradually decreasing. The contribution of non-animal husbandry income and transfer income to inequality was increasing rapidly, among which animal husbandry income and non-animal husbandry income played big roles in widening the gap, while transfer income played a role in narrowing the gap. In addition, the largest contribution to the non-pastoral income inequality was wage income, which tended to increase; grassland ecological compensation income contributed the most to the degree of transfer income inequality, which also helped to narrow the gap. The main contribution of regional differences in pastoral income came from intra-regional disparities, indicating that the income inequality within the various cities was more pronounced. In the future, the non-pastoral employment channels of herders should be furtherly expanded, and the income inequality should be reduced in the process of increasing income; at the same time, the continuous implementation and structural adjustment of the grassland ecological compensation policy must be continuously strengthened.
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