文章摘要
交易成本、生产行为与果农销售渠道模式选择
Transaction costs, production behaviors and marketing channel selections of fruit farmers
投稿时间:2019-05-13  最后修改时间:2019-08-03
DOI:10.13872/j.1000-0275.2019.0069
中文关键词: 销售渠道  交易成本  生产行为  风险偏好  果农  多元Logit
英文关键词: marketing channels  transaction costs  production behaviors  risk preference  fruit farmers  multinomial logit
基金项目:国家现代农业(桃)产业技术体系(CARS-30-6-01);国家桃产业技术体系专家项目(SKGW2016002)
作者单位E-mail
陈超 南京农业大学经济管理学院 cchen@njau.edu.cn 
翟乾乾 南京农业大学经济管理学院 zqianqian1130@163.com 
王莹 南京农业大学经济管理学院 wangying57@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      市场连接不畅是小农困境的主要表现,而生产行为和交易成本是影响农产品销售的主要内外在因素,关乎着分散果农与大市场有效衔接的实现程度。基于江苏省桃主产区果农调研数据,利用多元Logit模型,分析交易成本和生产行为对农户不同桃销售渠道模式选择的边际效应差异,探讨其影响机制。结果表明,桃农呈老龄化态势(平均57.26岁),现代流通渠道的进入并没有改变传统的果品销售模式,农户仍以零售渠道为主。交易成本对农户桃销售渠道选择影响显著,市场价格和消费偏好信息、品种选择信息分别对果农选择批发市场、组织代销渠道有显著负向和正向影响;谈判成本尤其是桃质量分级和损耗率显著影响了不同销售渠道选择;执行成本中的运输费用和时间、包装是农户销售时考虑的重要因素。生产行为中,规模化经营对果农销售渠道选择的影响较为明显,组织代销模式的选择一定程度上能够降低用药次数,并对品种搭配结构、采摘成熟度产生调节作用。不同资源禀赋果农的渠道选择方式也存在显著差异,风险偏好水平越高,种植年限越长,选择现代果品销售渠道的概率越低。因此,建议加强培育新型职业农民,建立稳定契约型的水果流通通道联盟;在果品主产区设立公共信息发布平台、加大农村果品主产区基础设施建设;引导新型经营主体与果农建立紧密的利益联结机制,并完善农产品风险预警机制。
英文摘要:
      Unlike a range of problems, poor market linkages is a leading factor in plight of small farmers. Production behaviors and transaction costs are the key factors that affect the sales of agricultural products and effecting the access and connectivity of small scale fruit farmers to the big markets. To this end, a survey of small scale peach farmers was conducted in Jiangsu Province to examine their preferences in choosing different marketing channels considering transactions costs and production behaviors as the key factors. Multinomial logit model was employed to test the marginal effects of transaction costs and productions behaviors on different marketing channels. Descriptive analysis showed that average age of peach growers was quite higher (57.26 years). On the other hand, most of the peach grower’s still using retail channels instead of adopting the advanced marketing channels to approach and sell in the big markets. Further, results of empirical model suggest that transaction costs have significant impacts on marketing channels. Among different transection costs, information costs viz; market price and consumer preferences have significant negative impacts on choosing wholesale markets, cultivar information show significant positive impacts on selecting organizational agencies. Similarly, negotiation costs (considering quality grade and attrition rate) show significant positive impacts on different marketing channels, whereas among the execution costs, farmers are more concerned with transportation cost, delivery time and packing costs. For production behaviors, the scale management showed a significant influence on marketing channels. Moreover, results revealed that at certain extent, the organizational agency channel could reduce the frequency of pesticide application and regulate the cultivar plantation combination and harvest maturity. From the results, significant differences exist in channel selection among different fruit growers with different resource endowments. Findings suggest that higher the level of risk preference and longer the growing years, lower the probability of choosing modern fruit marketing channels. In view of the findings, this study suggest some policy interventions to facilitate better uptake of advanced marketing channels among peach growers are: 1) provision of short trainings to seed entrepreneurial skills among peach growers, 2) stabilization of contract-type fruit value chain, 3) improvement in existing infrastructure and information platforms in key peach producing regions, 4) spur connectivity and linkages between market stakeholders and fruit farmers through contracts, and 5) advancement of risk assessment and warning mechanism for agricultural products.
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